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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10327, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316120

RESUMO

Facio-Scapulo Humeral dystrophy (FSHD) is the third most common myopathy, affecting 1 amongst 10,000 individuals (FSHD1, OMIM #158900). This autosomal dominant pathology is associated in 95% of cases with genetic and epigenetic alterations in the subtelomeric region at the extremity of the long arm of chromosome 4 (q arm). A large proportion of the remaining 5% of cases carry a mutation in the SMCHD1 gene (FSHD2, OMIM #158901). Here, we explored the 3D organization of the 4q35 locus by three-dimensions DNA in situ fluorescent hybridization (3D-FISH) in primary fibroblasts isolated from patients and healthy donors. We found that D4Z4 contractions and/or SMCHD1 mutations impact the spatial organization of the 4q35 region and trigger changes in the expression of different genes. Changes in gene expression were corroborated in muscle biopsies suggesting that the modified chromatin landscape impelled a modulation in the level of expression of a number of genes across the 4q35 locus in FSHD. Using induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSC), we further examined whether chromatin organization is inherited after reprogramming or acquired during differentiation and showed that folding of the 4q35 region is modified upon differentiation. These results together with previous findings highlight the role of the D4Z4 macrosatellite repeat in the topological organization of chromatin and further indicate that the D4Z4-dependent 3D structure induces transcriptional changes of 4q35 genes expression.

3.
Hum Mutat ; 40(10): 1713-1730, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050087

RESUMO

Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a recessive disorder caused by biallelic pathogenic variants of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM). This disease is characterized by progressive ataxia, telangiectasia, immune deficiency, predisposition to malignancies, and radiosensitivity. However, hypomorphic variants may be discovered associated with very atypical phenotypes, raising the importance of evaluating their pathogenic effects. In this study, multiple functional analyses were performed on lymphoblastoid cell lines from 36 patients, comprising 49 ATM variants, 24 being of uncertain significance. Thirteen patients with atypical phenotype and presumably hypomorphic variants were of particular interest to test strength of functional analyses and to highlight discrepancies with typical patients. Western-blot combined with transcript analyses allowed the identification of one missing variant, confirmed suspected splice defects and revealed unsuspected minor transcripts. Subcellular localization analyses confirmed the low level and abnormal cytoplasmic localization of ATM for most A-T cell lines. Interestingly, atypical patients had lower kinase defect and less altered cell-cycle distribution after genotoxic stress than typical patients. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the pathogenic effects of the 49 variants, highlighted the strength of KAP1 phosphorylation test for pathogenicity assessment and allowed the establishment of the Ataxia-TeLangiectasia Atypical Score to predict atypical phenotype. Altogether, we propose strategies for ATM variant detection and classification.

4.
J Med Genet ; 56(9): 590-601, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subtelomeres are variable regions between telomeres and chromosomal-specific regions. One of the most studied pathologies linked to subtelomeric imbalance is facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD). In most cases, this disease involves shortening of an array of D4Z4 macrosatellite elements at the 4q35 locus. The disease also segregates with a specific A-type haplotype containing a degenerated polyadenylation signal distal to the last repeat followed by a repetitive array of ß-satellite elements. This classification applies to most patients with FSHD. A subset of patients called FSHD2 escapes this definition and carries a mutation in the SMCHD1 gene. We also recently described patients carrying a complex rearrangement consisting of a cis-duplication of the distal 4q35 locus identified by molecular combing. METHODS: Using this high-resolution technology, we further investigated the organisation of the 4q35 region linked to the disease and the 10q26 locus presenting with 98% of homology in controls and patients. RESULTS: Our analyses reveal a broad variability in size of the different elements composing these loci highlighting the complexity of these subtelomeres and the difficulty for genomic assembly. Out of the 1029 DNA samples analysed in our centre in the last 7 years, we also identified 54 cases clinically diagnosed with FSHD carrying complex genotypes. This includes mosaic patients, patients with deletions of the proximal 4q region and 23 cases with an atypical chromosome 10 pattern, infrequently found in the control population and never reported before. CONCLUSION: Overall, this work underlines the complexity of these loci challenging the diagnosis and genetic counselling for this disease.

5.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(6): 2822-2839, 2019 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698748

RESUMO

The DNA methylation epigenetic signature is a key determinant during development. Rules governing its establishment and maintenance remain elusive especially at repetitive sequences, which account for the majority of methylated CGs. DNA methylation is altered in a number of diseases including those linked to mutations in factors that modify chromatin. Among them, SMCHD1 (Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes Hinge Domain Containing 1) has been of major interest following identification of germline mutations in Facio-Scapulo-Humeral Dystrophy (FSHD) and in an unrelated developmental disorder, Bosma Arhinia Microphthalmia Syndrome (BAMS). By investigating why germline SMCHD1 mutations lead to these two different diseases, we uncovered a role for this factor in de novo methylation at the pluripotent stage. SMCHD1 is required for the dynamic methylation of the D4Z4 macrosatellite upon reprogramming but seems dispensable for methylation maintenance. We find that FSHD and BAMS patient's cells carrying SMCHD1 mutations are both permissive for DUX4 expression, a transcription factor whose regulation has been proposed as the main trigger for FSHD. These findings open new questions as to what is the true aetiology for FSHD, the epigenetic events associated with the disease thus calling the current model into question and opening new perspectives for understanding repetitive DNA sequences regulation.

6.
Eur Respir J ; 53(3)2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heritable forms of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and pulmonary veno-occlusive disease/pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis (PVOD/PCH) diverge by lung histopathological lesions, clinical and para-clinical presentation, their responsible genes, and mode of transmission. Since the identification of the BMPR2 gene in families affected by PAH, mutations in several other genes have been discovered for both forms. The mutation landscape in these new genes is not yet well known. METHODS: We set up a next-generation sequencing-based targeted sequencing gene panel allowing known genes for PAH and PVOD/PCH to be analysed simultaneously. Genetic analysis was prospectively performed on 263 PAH and PVOD/PCH patients (adult and paediatric cases). RESULTS: Pathogenic mutations were identified in 19.5% of sporadic PAH patients (n=180), 54.5% of familial PAH patients and 13.3% of PVOD/PCH patients. BMPR2 was the most frequently mutated gene, followed by TBX4 in both paediatric and adult PAH. BMP9 mutations were identified in 1.2% of adult PAH cases. EIF2AK4 biallelic mutations were restricted to PVOD/PCH. A truncating mutation and a predicted loss-of-function variant were also identified in BMP10 in two severely affected sporadic PAH female patients. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm that mutations are found in genes beyond BMPR2 in heritable PAH, emphasise the role of TBX4 and BMP9, and designate BMP10 as a new PAH gene.

7.
Clin Genet ; 2018 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30471092

RESUMO

Left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) is a cardiomyopathy that may be of genetic origin, however few data are available about the yield of mutation, the spectrum of genes and allelic variations. The aim of this study was to better characterize the genetic spectrum of isolated LVNC in a prospective cohort of 95 unrelated adult patients through the molecular investigation of 107 genes involved in cardiomyopathies and arrhythmias. Fifty-two pathogenic or probably pathogenic variants were identified in 40 patients (42%) including 31 patients (32.5%) with single variant and 9 patients with complex genotypes (9.5%). Mutated patients tended to have younger age at diagnosis than patients with no identified mutation. The most prevalent genes were TTN, then HCN4, MYH7, and RYR2. The distribution includes 13 genes previously reported in LVNC and 10 additional candidate genes. Our results show that LVNC is basically a genetic disease and support genetic counseling and cardiac screening in relatives. There is a large genetic heterogeneity, with predominant TTN null mutations and frequent complex genotypes. The gene spectrum is close to the one observed in dilated cardiomyopathy but with specific genes such as HCN4. We also identified new candidate genes that could be involved in this sub-phenotype of cardiomyopathy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

8.
Neurology ; 90(23): e2059-e2067, 2018 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29752303

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To delineate the natural history, diagnosis, and treatment response of Parkinson disease (PD) in individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), and to determine if these patients differ from those with idiopathic PD. METHODS: In this international observational study, we characterized the clinical and neuroimaging features of 45 individuals with 22q11.2DS and PD (mean follow-up 7.5 ± 4.1 years). RESULTS: 22q11.2DS PD had a typical male excess (32 male, 71.1%), presentation and progression of hallmark motor symptoms, reduced striatal dopamine transporter binding with molecular imaging, and initial positive response to levodopa (93.3%). Mean age at motor symptom onset was relatively young (39.5 ± 8.5 years); 71.4% of cases had early-onset PD (<45 years). Despite having a similar age at onset, the diagnosis of PD was delayed in patients with a history of antipsychotic treatment compared with antipsychotic-naive patients (median 5 vs 1 year, p = 0.001). Preexisting psychotic disorders (24.5%) and mood or anxiety disorders (31.1%) were common, as were early dystonia (19.4%) and a history of seizures (33.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Major clinical characteristics and response to standard treatments appear comparable in 22q11.2DS-associated PD to those in idiopathic PD, although the average age at onset is earlier. Importantly, treatment of preexisting psychotic illness may delay diagnosis of PD in 22q11.DS patients. An index of suspicion and vigilance for complex comorbidity may assist in identifying patients to prioritize for genetic testing.

9.
Hum Mutat ; 38(10): 1432-1441, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28744936

RESUMO

Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD), one of the most common hereditary neuromuscular disorders, is associated with a complex combination of genetic variations at the subtelomeric 4q35 locus. As molecular diagnosis relying on Southern blot (SB) might be challenging in some cases, molecular combing (MC) was recently developed as an additional technique for FSHD diagnosis and exploration of the genomic organization of the 4q35 and 10q26 regions. In complement to the usual SB, we applied MC in a large cohort of 586 individuals with clinical FSHD. In 332 subjects, the two 4q alleles were normal in size, allowing exclusion of FSHD1 while we confirmed FSHD1 in 230 patients. In 14 patients from 10 families, we identified a recurrent complex heterozygous rearrangement at 4q35 consisting of a duplication of the D4Z4 array and a 4qA haplotype, irresolvable by the SB technique. In five families, we further identified variations in the SMCHD1 gene. Impact of the different mutations was tested using a minigene assay and we analyzed DNA methylation after sodium bisulfite modification and NGS sequencing. We discuss the involvement of this rearrangement in FSHD since all mutations in SMCHD1 are not associated with D4Z4 hypomethylation and do not always segregate with the disease.


Assuntos
Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Distrofia Muscular Facioescapuloumeral/diagnóstico , Distrofia Muscular Facioescapuloumeral/genética , Patologia Molecular , Alelos , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Cromossomos Humanos Par 10/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 4/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética , Haplótipos/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Distrofia Muscular Facioescapuloumeral/fisiopatologia , Mutação/genética
10.
Acta Neuropathol ; 134(6): 889-904, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28685322

RESUMO

X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM), a severe congenital myopathy, is caused by mutations in the MTM1 gene located on the X chromosome. A majority of affected males die in the early postnatal period, whereas female carriers are believed to be usually asymptomatic. Nevertheless, several affected females have been reported. To assess the phenotypic and pathological spectra of carrier females and to delineate diagnostic clues, we characterized 17 new unrelated affected females and performed a detailed comparison with previously reported cases at the clinical, muscle imaging, histological, ultrastructural and molecular levels. Taken together, the analysis of this large cohort of 43 cases highlights a wide spectrum of clinical severity ranging from severe neonatal and generalized weakness, similar to XLMTM male, to milder adult forms. Several females show a decline in respiratory function. Asymmetric weakness is a noteworthy frequent specific feature potentially correlated to an increased prevalence of highly skewed X inactivation. Asymmetry of growth was also noted. Other diagnostic clues include facial weakness, ptosis and ophthalmoplegia, skeletal and joint abnormalities, and histopathological signs that are hallmarks of centronuclear myopathy such as centralized nuclei and necklace fibers. The histopathological findings also demonstrate a general disorganization of muscle structure in addition to these specific hallmarks. Thus, MTM1 mutations in carrier females define a specific myopathy, which may be independent of the presence of an XLMTM male in the family. As several of the reported affected females carry large heterozygous MTM1 deletions not detectable by Sanger sequencing, and as milder phenotypes present as adult-onset limb-girdle myopathy, the prevalence of this myopathy is likely to be greatly underestimated. This report should aid diagnosis and thus the clinical management and genetic counseling of MTM1 carrier females. Furthermore, the clinical and pathological history of this cohort may be useful for therapeutic projects in males with XLMTM, as it illustrates the spectrum of possible evolution of the disease in patients surviving long term.


Assuntos
Heterozigoto , Mutação , Miopatias Congênitas Estruturais/diagnóstico , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases não Receptoras/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miopatias Congênitas Estruturais/genética , Miopatias Congênitas Estruturais/patologia , Miopatias Congênitas Estruturais/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases não Receptoras/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
11.
BMC Med Genet ; 17(1): 66, 2016 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27634379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The main form of Facio-Scapulo-Humeral muscular Dystrophy is linked to copy number reduction of the 4q D4Z4 macrosatellite (FSHD1). In 5 % of cases, FSHD phenotype appears in the absence of D4Z4 reduction (FSHD2). In 70-80 % of these patients, variants of the SMCHD1 gene segregate with 4qA haplotypes and D4Z4 hypomethylation. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a family presenting with neuromuscular symptoms reminiscent of FSHD but without D4Z4 copy reduction. We characterized the 4q35 region using molecular combing, searched for mutation in the SMCHD1 gene and determined D4Z4 methylation level by sodium bisulfite sequencing. We further investigated the impact of the SMCHD1 mutation at the protein level and on the NMD-dependent degradation of transcript. In muscle, we observe moderate but significant reduction in D4Z4 methylation, not correlated with DUX4-fl expression. Exome sequencing revealed a heterozygous insertion of 7 bp in exon 37 of the SMCHD1 gene producing a loss of frame with premature stop codon 4 amino acids after the insertion (c.4614-4615insTATAATA). Both wild-type and mutated transcripts are detected. CONCLUSION: The truncated protein is absent and the full-length protein level is similar in patients and controls indicating that in this family, FSHD is not associated with SMCHD1 haploinsufficiency.


Assuntos
Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Metilação de DNA , Repetições de Microssatélites , Distrofia Muscular Facioescapuloumeral/genética , Mutação , Segregação de Cromossomos , Cromossomos Humanos Par 4/genética , Humanos , Linhagem
12.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(7): 992-1000, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26626311

RESUMO

Heterozygous COL2A1 variants cause a wide spectrum of skeletal dysplasia termed type II collagenopathies. We assessed the impact of this gene in our French series. A decision tree was applied to select 136 probands (71 Stickler cases, 21 Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita cases, 11 Kniest dysplasia cases, and 34 other dysplasia cases) before molecular diagnosis by Sanger sequencing. We identified 66 different variants among the 71 positive patients. Among those patients, 18 belonged to multiplex families and 53 were sporadic. Most variants (38/44, 86%) were located in the triple helical domain of the collagen chain and glycine substitutions were mainly observed in severe phenotypes, whereas arginine to cysteine changes were more often encountered in moderate phenotypes. This series of skeletal dysplasia is one of the largest reported so far, adding 44 novel variants (15%) to published data. We have confirmed that about half of our Stickler patients (46%) carried a COL2A1 variant, and that the molecular spectrum was different across the phenotypes. To further address the question of genotype-phenotype correlation, we plan to screen our patients for other candidate genes using a targeted next-generation sequencing approach.


Assuntos
Substituição de Aminoácidos , Artrite/genética , Doenças do Colágeno/genética , Colágeno Tipo II/genética , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Fenótipo , Descolamento Retiniano/genética , Artrite/patologia , Doenças do Colágeno/patologia , Colágeno Tipo II/química , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/patologia , Feminino , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Osteocondrodisplasias/patologia , Linhagem , Domínios Proteicos , Descolamento Retiniano/patologia
13.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 10: 2, 2015 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25603992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 1(FSHD1) is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with the contraction of D4Z4 less than 11 repeat units (RUs) on chromosome 4q35. Penetrance in the range of the largest alleles is poorly known. Our objective was to study the penetrance of FSHD1 in patients carrying alleles ranging between 6 to10 RUs and to evaluate the influence of sex, age, and several environmental factors on clinical expression of the disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional multicenter study was conducted in six French and one Swiss neuromuscular centers. 65 FSHD1 affected patients carrying a 4qA allele of 6-10 RUs were identified as index cases (IC) and their 119 at-risk relatives were included. The age of onset was recorded for IC only. Medical history, neurological examination and manual muscle testing were performed for each subject. Genetic testing determined the allele size (number of RUs) and the 4qA/4qB allelic variant. The clinical status of relatives was established blindly to their genetic testing results. The main outcome was the penetrance defined as the ratio between the number of clinically affected carriers and the total number of carriers. RESULTS: Among the relatives, 59 carried the D4Z4 contraction. At the clinical level, 34 relatives carriers were clinically affected and 25 unaffected. Therefore, the calculated penetrance was 57% in the range of 6-10 RUs. Penetrance was estimated at 62% in the range of 6-8 RUs, and at 47% in the range of 9-10 RUs. Moreover, penetrance was lower in women than men. There was no effect of drugs, anesthesia, surgery or traumatisms on the penetrance. CONCLUSIONS: Penetrance of FSHD1 is low for largest alleles in the range of 9-10 RUs, and lower in women than men. This is of crucial importance for genetic counseling and clinical management of patients and families.


Assuntos
Distrofia Muscular Facioescapuloumeral/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Penetrância , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Estudos Transversais , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Adulto Jovem
14.
Neurology ; 83(8): 733-42, 2014 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25031281

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the link between DNA hypomethylation and clinical penetrance in facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) because hypomethylation is moderate and heterogeneous in patients and could not thus far be correlated with disease presence or severity. METHODS: To investigate the link between clinical signs of FSHD and DNA methylation, we explored 95 cases (37 FSHD1, 29 asymptomatic individuals carrying a shortened D4Z4 array, 9 patients with FSHD2, and 20 controls) by implementing 2 approaches: methylated DNA immunoprecipitation and sodium bisulfite sequencing. RESULTS: Both methods revealed statistically significant differences between asymptomatic carriers or controls and individuals with clinical FSHD, especially in the proximal region of the repeat. Absence of clinical expression in asymptomatic carriers is associated with a level of methylation similar to controls. CONCLUSIONS: We provide a proof of concept that the targeted approaches that we describe could be applied systematically to patient samples in routine diagnosis and suggest that local hypomethylation within D4Z4 might serve as a modifier for clinical expression of FSHD phenotype. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class III evidence that assays for hypomethylation within the D4Z4 region accurately distinguish patients with FSHD from individuals with D4Z4 contraction without FSHD.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 4 , Metilação de DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Distrofia Muscular Facioescapuloumeral/genética , Adulto , Epigênese Genética/genética , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Distrofia Muscular Facioescapuloumeral/diagnóstico , Linhagem , Penetrância , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Hum Mol Genet ; 22(20): 4206-14, 2013 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23777630

RESUMO

Facio-scapulo-humeral dystrophy (FSHD) results from deletions in the subtelomeric macrosatellite D4Z4 array on the 4q35 region. Upregulation of the DUX4 retrogene from the last D4Z4 repeated unit is thought to underlie FSHD pathophysiology. However, no one knows what triggers muscle defect and when alteration arises. To gain further insights into the molecular mechanisms of the disease, we evaluated at the molecular level, the perturbation linked to the FSHD genotype with no a priori on disease onset, severity or penetrance and prior to any infiltration by fibrotic or adipose tissue in biopsies from fetuses carrying a short pathogenic D4Z4 array (n = 6) compared with fetuses with a non-pathogenic D4Z4 array (n = 21). By measuring expression of several muscle-specific markers and 4q35 genes including the DUX4 retrogene by an RT-PCR and western blotting, we observed a global dysregulation of genes involved in myogenesis including MYOD1 in samples with <11 D4Z4. The DUX4-fl pathogenic transcript was detected in FSHD biopsies but also in controls. Importantly, in FSHD fetuses, we mainly detected the non-spliced DUX4-fl isoform. In addition, several other genes clustered at the 4q35 locus are upregulated in FSHD fetuses. Our study is the first to examine fetuses carrying an FSHD-linked genotype and reveals an extensive dysregulation of several muscle-specific and 4q35 genes at early development stage at a distance from any muscle defect. Overall, our work suggests that even if FSHD is an adult-onset muscular dystrophy, the disease might also involve early molecular defects arising during myogenesis or early differentiation.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 4/genética , Feto/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Desenvolvimento Muscular/genética , Distrofia Muscular Facioescapuloumeral/genética , Distrofia Muscular Facioescapuloumeral/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Feto/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Distrofia Muscular Facioescapuloumeral/embriologia , Proteína MyoD/genética , Especificidade de Órgãos , Penetrância , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico
16.
Hum Mutat ; 33(3): E2317-31, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22213072

RESUMO

Mutations in the dysferlin gene (DYSF) lead to a complete or partial absence of the dysferlin protein in skeletal muscles and are at the origin of dysferlinopathies, a heterogeneous group of rare autosomal recessive inherited neuromuscular disorders. As a step towards a better understanding of the DYSF mutational spectrum, and towards possible inclusion of patients in future therapeutic clinical trials, we set up the Universal Mutation Database for Dysferlin (UMD-DYSF), a Locus-Specific Database developed with the UMD® software. The main objective of UMD-DYSF is to provide an updated compilation of mutational data and relevant interactive tools for the analysis of DYSF sequence variants, for diagnostic and research purposes. In particular, specific algorithms can facilitate the interpretation of newly identified intronic, missense- or isosemantic-exonic sequence variants, a problem encountered recurrently during genetic diagnosis in dysferlinopathies. UMD-DYSF v1.0 is freely accessible at www.umd.be/DYSF/. It contains a total of 742 mutational entries corresponding to 266 different disease-causing mutations identified in 558 patients worldwide diagnosed with dysferlinopathy. This article presents for the first time a comprehensive analysis of the dysferlin mutational spectrum based on all compiled DYSF disease-causing mutations reported in the literature to date, and using the main bioinformatics tools offered in UMD-DYSF.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Biologia Computacional , Disferlina , Humanos , Mutação , Software
17.
Ann Neurol ; 70(4): 627-33, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22028222

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The genetic variation underlying facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), 1 of the most common hereditary neuromuscular disorders, is complex, and associated with the contraction of a repeat array (D4Z4) at the subtelomeric end of chromosome 4q. Nonpathogenic variants of 4q and the presence of a homologous array on chromosome 10q make FSHD diagnosis extremely challenging, at least in individuals with nonstandard D4Z4 arrays. We aimed to improve FSHD molecular analysis by proposing an alternative technique to the Southern blot. METHODS: We applied molecular combing (MC) to directly visualize allelic combinations associated with FSHD. RESULTS: MC enabled the accurate diagnosis of 32 FSHD patients. Unreported haplotypes and rearrangements, as well as somatic mosaicism, which is common in the 10 to 30% of cases that are sporadic, were detectable by MC. INTERPRETATION: MC enables the detailed exploration of the FSHD locus and accurate diagnosis of FSHD, the first Mendelian disease to benefit from this technique. MC is also likely to be applicable to other copy number-variant or repeat expansion-associated human diseases.


Assuntos
Alelos , Cromossomos Humanos Par 4/genética , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Distrofia Muscular Facioescapuloumeral/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Mosaicismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
18.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 128(2): 382-9.e1, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21665257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a rare genetic disease caused by germline biallelic mutations in the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene (ATM) that result in partial or complete loss of ATM expression or activity. The course of the disease is characterized by neurologic manifestations, infections, and cancers. OBJECTIVE: We studied A-T progression and investigated whether manifestations were associated with the ATM genotype. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study in France of 240 patients with A-T born from 1954 to 2005 and analyzed ATM mutations in 184 patients, along with neurologic manifestations, infections, and cancers. RESULTS: Among patients with A-T, the Kaplan-Meier 20-year survival rate was 53.4%; the prognosis for these patients has not changed since 1954. Life expectancy was lower among patients with mutations in ATM that caused total loss of expression or function of the gene product (null mutations) compared with that seen in patients with hypomorphic mutations because of earlier onset of cancer (mainly hematologic malignancies). Cancer (hazard ratio, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.6-4.5) and respiratory tract infections (hazard ratio, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.4-3.8) were independently associated with mortality. Cancer (hazard ratio, 5.8; 95% CI, 2.9-11.6) was a major risk factor for mortality among patients with null mutations, whereas respiratory tract infections (hazard ratio, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.8-9.1) were the leading cause of death among patients with hypomorphic mutations. CONCLUSION: Morbidity and mortality among patients with A-T are associated with ATM genotype. This information could improve our prognostic ability and lead to adapted therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Ataxia Telangiectasia/mortalidade , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Ataxia Telangiectasia/epidemiologia , Ataxia Telangiectasia/fisiopatologia , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leucemia/genética , Linfoma/genética , Masculino , Morbidade , Mutação , Infecções Respiratórias/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
19.
Sci Transl Med ; 2(50): 50ra69, 2010 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20861509

RESUMO

Dysferlinopathies are autosomal recessive, progressive muscle dystrophies caused by mutations in DYSF, leading to a loss or a severe reduction of dysferlin, a key protein in sarcolemmal repair. Currently, no etiological treatment is available for patients affected with dysferlinopathy. As for other muscular dystrophies, gene therapy approaches based on recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors are promising options. However, because dysferlin messenger RNA is far above the natural packaging size of rAAV, full-length dysferlin gene transfer would be problematic. In a patient presenting with a late-onset moderate dysferlinopathy, we identified a large homozygous deletion, leading to the production of a natural "minidysferlin" protein. Using rAAV-mediated gene transfer into muscle, we demonstrated targeting of the minidysferlin to the muscle membrane and efficient repair of sarcolemmal lesions in a mouse model of dysferlinopathy. Thus, as previously demonstrated in the case of dystrophin, a deletion mutant of the dysferlin gene is also functional, suggesting that dysferlin's structure is modular. This minidysferlin protein could be used as part of a therapeutic strategy for patients affected with dysferlinopathies.


Assuntos
Terapia Genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Animais , Dependovirus/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disferlina , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/terapia
20.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 18(5): 533-8, 2010 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19935833

RESUMO

Molecular pathophysiology of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) involves the heterozygous contraction of the number of tandemly repeated D4Z4 units at chromosome 4q35.2. FSHD is associated with a range of 1-10 D4Z4 units instead of 11-150 in normal controls. Several factors complicate FSHD molecular diagnosis, especially the cis-segregation of D4Z4 contraction with a 4qA allele, whereas D4Z4 shortening is silent both on alleles 4qB and 10q. Discrimination of pathogenic 4q-D4Z4 alleles from highly homologous 10q-D4Z4 arrays requires the use of the conventional Southern blot, which is not suitable at the single-cell level. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is a frequent request from FSHD families with several affected relatives. We aimed to develop a rapid and sensitive PCR-based multiplex approach on single cells to perform an indirect familial segregation study of pathogenic alleles. Among several available polymorphic markers at 4q35.2, the four most proximal (D4S2390, D4S1652, D4S2930 and D4S1523, <1.23 Mb) showing the highest heterozygote frequencies (67-91%) were selected. Five recombination events in the D4S2390-D4S1523 interval were observed among 144 meioses. In the D4S2390-D4Z4 interval, no recombination event occurred among 28 FSHD meioses. Instead, a particular haplotype segregated with both clinical and molecular status, allowing the characterization of an at-risk allele in each tested FSHD family (maximal LOD score 2.98 for theta=0.0). This indirect protocol can easily complement conventional techniques in prenatal diagnosis. Although our multiplex PCR-based approach technically fulfils guidelines for single-cell analysis, the relatively high recombination risk hampers its application to PGD.


Assuntos
Distrofia Muscular Facioescapuloumeral/diagnóstico , Distrofia Muscular Facioescapuloumeral/patologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação/métodos , Recombinação Genética/genética , Alelos , Segregação de Cromossomos/genética , DNA/genética , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meiose/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Distrofia Muscular Facioescapuloumeral/genética , Linhagem , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
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