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J Vis ; 19(14): 14, 2019 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845974


The response latency of steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs) is a sensitive measurement for investigating visual functioning of the human brain, specifically in visual development and for clinical evaluation. This latency can be measured from the slope of phase versus frequency of responses by using multiple frequencies of stimuli. In an attempt to provide an alternative measurement of this latency, this study utilized an envelope response of SSVEPs elicited by amplitude-modulated visual stimulation and then compared with the envelope of the generating signal, which was recorded simultaneously with the electroencephalography recordings. The advantage of this measurement is that it successfully estimates the response latency based on the physiological envelope in the entire waveform. Results showed the response latency at the occipital lobe (Oz channel) was approximately 104.55 ms for binocular stimulation, 97.14 ms for the dominant eye, and 104.75 ms for the nondominant eye with no significant difference between these stimulations. Importantly, the response latency at frontal channels (125.84 ms) was significantly longer than that at occipital channels (104.11 ms) during binocular stimulation. Together with strong activation of the source envelope at occipital cortex, these findings support the idea of a feedforward process, with the visual stimuli propagating originally from occipital cortex to anterior cortex. In sum, these findings offer a novel method for future studies in measuring visual response latencies and also potentially shed a new light on understanding of how long collective neural activities take to travel in the human brain.

Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16919, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729410


Natural sensory signals have nonlinear structures dynamically composed of the carrier frequencies and the variation of the amplitude (i.e., envelope). How the human brain processes the envelope information is still poorly understood, largely due to the conventional analysis failing to quantify it directly. Here, we used a recently developed method, Holo-Hilbert spectral analysis, and steady-state visually evoked potential collected using electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to investigate how the human visual system processes the envelope of amplitude-modulated signals, in this case with a 14 Hz carrier and a 2 Hz envelope. The EEG results demonstrated that in addition to the fundamental stimulus frequencies, 4 Hz amplitude modulation residing in 14 Hz carrier and a broad range of carrier frequencies covering from 8 to 32 Hz modulated by 2 Hz amplitude modulation are also found in the two-dimensional frequency spectrum, which have not yet been recognized before. The envelope of the stimulus is also found to dominantly modulate the response to the incoming signal. The findings thus reveal that the electrophysiological response to amplitude-modulated stimuli is more complex than could be revealed by, for example, Fourier analysis. This highlights the dynamics of neural processes in the visual system.