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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Lifestyle and dietary risk factors for diverticulitis also have been associated with chronic inflammation. We performed a prospective study of associations among the inflammatory potential of diets, circulating markers of inflammation, and the incidence of diverticulitis. METHODS: We followed up 46,418 men, initially free of diverticulitis, from 1986 through 2014 in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. We collected data on empiric dietary inflammatory pattern scores, which indicate the inflammatory potential of diets, and determined their association with the risk of incident diverticulitis using Cox proportional hazards regression. We used blood samples provided by 18,225 participants from 1993 through 1995 to conduct a nested case-control study; we used conditional logistic regression to evaluate prediagnostic plasma levels of markers of inflammation, including C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL6), and tumor necrosis factor-receptor superfamily member 1B, in 310 diverticulitis cases and 310 matched diverticulitis-free individuals (controls). RESULTS: We documented 1110 cases of incident diverticulitis over 992,589 person-years of follow-up evaluation. Compared with participants in the lowest quintile of empiric dietary inflammatory pattern scores, men in the highest quintile had a multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for diverticulitis of 1.31 (95% CI, 1.07-1.60; Ptrend = .01). The association did not differ significantly by strata of body mass index or vigorous activity (P for interaction > .05 for each). In the nested case-control study, plasma levels of CRP and IL6 were associated with risk of diverticulitis. When we compared extreme quintiles, the multivariable-adjusted relative risk for diverticulitis was 1.85 for CRP (95% CI, 1.04-3.30) and 2.04 for IL6 (95% CI, 1.09-3.84). CONCLUSIONS: In a large prospective cohort of men, we found that the inflammatory potential of diet and prediagnostic plasma levels of markers of inflammation were associated with incident diverticulitis.

2.
Gastroenterology ; 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622622

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease that develops via stepwise accumulation of well-characterized genetic and epigenetic alterations. We review the genetic changes associated with the development of pre-cancerous colorectal adenomas and their progression to tumors, as well as the effects of defective DNA repair, chromosome instability, microsatellite instability, and alterations in the serrated pathway and DNA methylation. We provide insights into the different molecular subgroups of colorectal tumors that develop via each of these different mechanisms and their associations with patient outcomes.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(42): 38808-38818, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560192

RESUMO

We here present the synthesis of a new material, Na3(VO)Fe(PO4)2F2, by the sol-gel method. Its atomic and electronic structural descriptions are determined by a combination of several diffraction and spectroscopy techniques such as synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy at V and Fe K edges, 57Fe Mössbauer, and 31P solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The crystal structure of this newly obtained phase is similar to that of Na3(VO)2(PO4)2F, with a random distribution of Fe3+ ions over vanadium sites. Even though Fe3+ and V4+ ions situate on the same crystallographic position, their local environment can be studied separately using 57Fe Mössbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopy at Fe and V K edges, respectively. The Fe3+ ion resides in a symmetric octahedral environment, while the octahedral site of V4+ is greatly distorted due to the presence of the vanadyl bond. No electrochemical activity of the Fe4+/Fe3+ redox couple is detected, at least up to 5 V, whereas the reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ has been observed at ∼1.5 V versus Na+/Na through the insertion of 0.5 Na+ into Na3(VO)Fe(PO4)2F2. Comparing to Na3(VO)2(PO4)2F, the electrochemical profile of Na3(VO)Fe(PO4)2F2 in the same cycling condition shows a smaller polarization which could be due to a slight improvement in Na+ diffusion process thanks to the presence of Fe3+ in the framework. Furthermore, the desodiation mechanism occurring upon charging is investigated by operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction and operando synchrotron X-ray absorption at V K edge.

4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(78): 11719-11722, 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509116

RESUMO

Among the positive electrode materials for Na-ion batteries, Na3V2(PO4)2F3 is considered as one of the most promising and generates high interest. Here, we study the influence of the sol-gel synthesis parameters on the structure and on the electrochemical signature of the partially substituted Na3V2-zAlz(PO4)2(F,O)3 materials. We demonstrate that the acidity of the starting solution influences the vanadium oxidation state of the final product. For the first time we report on the possibility of controlling the double Al/V and O/F substitution that leads to the preparation of the Na3V2-zAlz(PO4)2F1+zO2-z solid solution.

5.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 114(9): 1531-1538, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397679

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although low fiber intake has been considered a risk factor for diverticulitis, prospective evidence is limited in women despite having a disproportionate burden of disease, with little known about variation in the protective effects according to food sources. We assessed the associations of intakes of fiber and major food sources of fiber including fruits and vegetables with risk of diverticulitis in a large cohort of women. METHODS: We followed 50,019 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1990-2014) who were aged 43-70 years and free of diverticulitis, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease at baseline. Incident diverticulitis was identified through self-report with validity confirmed by review of medical records. RESULTS: We documented 4,343 incident cases of diverticulitis, encompassing 1,106,402 person-years of follow-up. Compared with participants in the lowest quintile, the multivariable hazard ratio of diverticulitis in the highest quintile of total fiber intake was 0.86 (95% confidence interval: 0.78-0.95; P-trend = 0.002). Fiber from fruits and cereals, but not vegetables, was associated with a decreased risk of diverticulitis. Furthermore, intake of total whole fruit intake and specific fruits such as apples/pears and prunes were associated with reduced risk of diverticulitis with a multivariable hazard ratio for diverticulitis of 0.95 (0.92-0.98; P-trend < 0.001) for every serving increase of total whole fruit intake per day. DISCUSSION: Higher intake of dietary fiber and fiber from different food sources, except for vegetable fiber, are associated with a lower risk of diverticulitis in women. A greater intake of whole fruit is also associated with reduced risk.

6.
Rev Iberoam Micol ; 36(3): 147-150, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Histoplasmosis is a systemic infection caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum, naturally found in nitrogen-rich soil, whose main transmission route is the inhalation of conidia. Up to 95% of histoplasmosis cases are asymptomatic or transient, and the remaining 5% of cases have pathological manifestations in the lungs, bone marrow, liver, spleen, intestine, mucous membranes, and rarely on the skin. This mycosis has been reported from many endemic areas, mainly in immunosuppressed patients, such as HIV-positive patients, and its disseminated form is rarely reported. CASE REPORT: Histoplama capsulatum was isolated and identified by means of microscopy, culture characteristics and nested PCR from the cutaneous lesions of a non-HIV patient from Vietnam. The patient improved significantly with systemic itraconazole treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Disseminated histoplasmosis with cutaneous involvement in non-HIV patients is an extremely unusual presentation.

7.
Ann Intern Med ; 171(5): 318-327, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426090

RESUMO

Background: Whether statin type influences hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) incidence or mortality in chronic hepatitis B or C virus infection is unknown. Objective: To assess the relationship between lipophilic or hydrophilic statin use and HCC incidence and mortality in a nationwide population with viral hepatitis. Design: Prospective propensity score (PS)-matched cohort. Setting: Swedish registers, 2005 to 2013. Participants: A PS-matched cohort of 16 668 adults (8334 who initiated statin use [6554 lipophilic and 1780 hydrophilic] and 8334 nonusers) among 63 279 eligible adults. Measurements: Time to incident HCC, ascertained from validated registers. Statin use was defined from filled prescriptions as 30 or more cumulative defined daily doses (cDDDs). Results: Compared with matched nonusers, 10-year HCC risk was significantly lower among lipophilic statin users (8.1% vs. 3.3%; absolute risk difference [RD], -4.8 percentage points [95% CI, -6.2 to -3.3 percentage points]; adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio [aHR], 0.56 [CI, 0.41 to 0.79]) but not hydrophilic statin users (8.0% vs. 6.8%; RD, -1.2 percentage points [CI, -2.6 to 0.4 percentage points]; aHR, 0.95 [CI, 0.86 to 1.08]). The inverse association between lipophilic statins and HCC risk seemed to be dose-dependent. Compared with nonusers, 10-year HCC risk was lowest with 600 or more lipophilic statin cDDDs (8.4% vs. 2.5%; RD, -5.9 percentage points [CI, -7.6 to -4.2 percentage points]; aHR, 0.41 [CI, 0.32 to 0.61]), and 10-year mortality was significantly lower among both lipophilic (15.2% vs. 7.3%; RD, -7.9 percentage points [CI, -9.6 to -6.2 percentage points]) and hydrophilic (16.0% vs. 11.5%; RD, -4.5 percentage points [CI, -6.0 to -3.0 percentage points]) statin users. Limitation: Lack of lipid, fibrosis, or HCC surveillance data. Conclusion: In a nationwide viral hepatitis cohort, lipophilic statins were associated with significantly reduced HCC incidence and mortality. An association between hydrophilic statins and reduced risk for HCC was not found. Further research is needed to determine whether lipophilic statin therapy is feasible for prevention of HCC. Primary Funding Source: None.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is the most common psychiatric disorder with high prevalence and disease burden. Biological treatments of MDD over the last several decades include a wide range of antidepressants and neurostimulation therapies. While recent meta-analyses have explored the efficacy and tolerability of antidepressants, the changing trends of biological treatments have not been evaluated. Our study measured the indices of change, expectations, and popularity of biological treatments of MDD between 1988 and 2017. METHODS: We performed a scientometric analysis to identify all relevant publications related to biological treatments of MDD from 1988 to 2017. We searched the Web of Science websites for publications from 1 January 1988 to 31 December 2017. We included publications of fluoxetine, paroxetine, citalopram, sertraline, amitriptyline, fluvoxamine, escitalopram, venlafaxine, duloxetine, milnacipran, desvenlafaxine, levomilnacipran, clomipramine, nortriptyline, bupropion, trazodone, nefazodone, mirtazapine, agomelatine, vortioxetine, vilazodone, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We excluded grey literature, conference proceedings, books/book chapters, and publications with low quality as well as publications not related to medicine or human health. The primary outcomes assessed were indices of change, expectations, and popularity. RESULTS: Of 489,496 publications identified, we included 355,116 publications in this scientometric analysis. For the index of change, fluoxetine, sertraline and ECT demonstrated a positive index of change in 6 consecutive periods. Other neurostimulation therapies including rTMS, VNS, DBS and tDCS had shown a positive index of change since 1998. We calculated the index of change of popularity index (PI), which indicates that from 2013 to 2017, the number of publications on tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) were reduced by 85.0% and 81.3% respectively, as compared with the period 2008-2012. For the index of expectation, fluoxetine and ECT showed the highest index of expectations in six consecutive periods and remained the highest in 2013-2017. For popularity, the three antidepressants with highest PI were fluoxetine (4.01), paroxetine (2.09), and sertraline (1.66); the three antidepressants with lowest PI were desvenlafaxine (0.08), vilazodone (0.04) and levomilnacipran (0.03). Among neurostimulation therapies, ECT has the highest PI (2.55), and tDCS the lowest PI (0.14). The PI of SSRI remained the highest among all biological treatments of MDD in 2013-2017. In contrast, the PI of ECT was reduced by approximately 50% during the period 2008 to2012 than that in the period 2013 to 2017. CONCLUSIONS: This scientometric analysis represents comprehensive evidence on the popularity and change in prospects of biological treatments for MDD from 1988 to 2017. The popularity of SSRI peaked between 1998 and 2002, when their efficacy, tolerability and safety profile allowed them to replace the TCAs and MAOIs. While the newer neurostimulation therapies are gaining momentum, the popularity of ECT has sustained.

9.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0215221, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120888

RESUMO

Poor reporting quality may contribute to irreproducibility of results and failed 'bench-to-bedside' translation. Consequently, guidelines have been developed to improve the complete and transparent reporting of in vivo preclinical studies. To examine the impact of such guidelines on core methodological and analytical reporting items in the preclinical anesthesiology literature, we sampled a cohort of studies. Preclinical in vivo studies published in Anesthesiology, Anesthesia & Analgesia, Anaesthesia, and the British Journal of Anaesthesia (2008-2009, 2014-2016) were identified. Data was extracted independently and in duplicate. Reporting completeness was assessed using the National Institutes of Health Principles and Guidelines for Reporting Preclinical Research. Risk ratios were used for comparative analyses. Of 7615 screened articles, 604 met our inclusion criteria and included experiments reporting on 52 490 animals. The most common topic of investigation was pain and analgesia (30%), rodents were most frequently used (77%), and studies were most commonly conducted in the United States (36%). Use of preclinical reporting guidelines was listed in 10% of applicable articles. A minority of studies fully reported on replicates (0.3%), randomization (10%), blinding (12%), sample-size estimation (3%), and inclusion/exclusion criteria (5%). Statistics were well reported (81%). Comparative analysis demonstrated few differences in reporting rigor between journals, including those that endorsed reporting guidelines. Principal items of study design were infrequently reported, with few differences between journals. Methods to improve implementation and adherence to community-based reporting guidelines may be necessary to increase transparent and consistent reporting in the preclinical anesthesiology literature.

11.
JAMA ; 321(16): 1587-1597, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012934

RESUMO

Importance: Prolonged sitting, particularly watching television or videos, has been associated with increased risk of multiple diseases and mortality. However, changes in sedentary behaviors over time have not been well described in the United States. Objective: To evaluate patterns and temporal trends in sedentary behaviors and sociodemographic and lifestyle correlates in the US population. Design, Setting, and Participants: A serial, cross-sectional analysis of the US nationally representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) among children aged 5 through 11 years (2001-2016); adolescents, 12 through 19 years (2003-2016); and adults, 20 years or older (2003-2016). Exposures: Survey cycle. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalence of sitting watching television or videos for 2 h/d or more, computer use outside work or school for 1 h/d or more, and total sitting time (h/d in those aged ≥12 years). Results: Data on 51 896 individuals (mean, 37.2 years [SE, 0.19]; 25 968 [50%] female) were analyzed from 2001-2016 NHANES data, including 10 359 children, 9639 adolescents, and 31 898 adults. The estimated prevalence of sitting watching television or videos for 2 h/d or more was high among all ages (children, 62% [95% CI, 57% to 67%]; adolescents, 59% [95% CI, 54% to 65%]; adults, 65% [95% CI, 61% to 69%]; adults aged 20-64 years, 62% [95% CI, 58% to 66%]; and ≥65 years, 84% [95% CI, 81% to 88%] in the 2015-2016 cycle). From 2001 through 2016, the trends decreased among children over time (difference, -3.4% [95% CI, -11% to 4.5%]; P for trend =.004), driven by non-Hispanic white children; were stable among adolescents (-4.8% [95% CI, -12% to 2.3%]; P for trend =.60) and among adults aged 20 through 64 years (-0.7% [95% CI, -5.6% to 4.1%]; P for trend =.82); but increased among adults aged 65 years or older (difference, 3.5% [95% CI, -1.2% to 8.1%]; P for trend =.03). The estimated prevalence of computer use outside school or work for 1 h/d or more increased in all ages (children, 43% [95% CI, 40% to 46%] to 56% [95% CI, 49% to 63%] from 2001 to 2016; difference, 13% [95% CI, 5.6% to 21%]; P for trend <.001; adolescents, 53% [95% CI, 47% to 58%] to 57% [95% CI, 53% to 62%] from 2003 to 2016, difference, 4.8% [95% CI, -1.8% to 11%]; P for trend =.002; adults, 29% [27% to 32%] to 50% [48% to 53%] from 2003 to 2016, difference, 21% [95% CI, 18% to 25%]; P for trend <.001). From 2007 to 2016, total hours per day of sitting time increased among adolescents (7.0 [95% CI, 6.7 to 7.4] to 8.2 [95% CI, 7.9 to 8.4], difference, 1.1 [95% CI, 0.7 to 1.5]) and adults (5.5 [95% CI, 5.2 to 5.7] to 6.4 [95% CI, 6.2 to 6.6]; difference, 1.0 [95% CI, 0.7 to 1.3]; P for trend <.001 for both). Conclusions and Relevance: In this nationally representative survey of the US population from 2001 through 2016, the estimated prevalence of sitting watching television or videos for at least 2 hours per day generally remained high and stable. The estimated prevalence of computer use during leisure-time increased among all age groups, and the estimated total sitting time increased among adolescents and adults.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sedentário , Televisão , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Peso Corporal , Criança , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Análise de Regressão , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027333

RESUMO

The burnout syndrome is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal achievement. Uncertainty exists about the prevalence of burnout among medical and surgical residents. Associations between burnout and gender, age, specialty, and geographical location of training are unclear. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to quantitatively summarize the global prevalence rates of burnout among residents, by specialty and its contributing factors. We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and Web of Science to identify studies that examined the prevalence of burnout among residents from various specialties and countries. The primary outcome assessed was the aggregate prevalence of burnout among all residents. The random effects model was used to calculate the aggregate prevalence, and heterogeneity was assessed by I2 statistic and Cochran's Q statistic. We also performed meta-regression and subgroup analysis. The aggregate prevalence of burnout was 51.0% (95% CI: 45.0-57.0%, I2 = 97%) in 22,778 residents. Meta-regression found that the mean age (ß = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.28-0.40, p < 0.001) and the proportion of males (ß = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.10-0.69, p = 0.009) were significant moderators. Subgroup analysis by specialty showed that radiology (77.16%, 95% CI: 5.99-99.45), neurology (71.93%, 95% CI: 65.78-77.39), and general surgery (58.39%, 95% CI: 45.72-70.04) were the top three specialties with the highest prevalence of burnout. In contrast, psychiatry (42.05%, 95% CI: 33.09-51.58), oncology (38.36%, 95% CI: 32.69-44.37), and family medicine (35.97%, 95% CI: 13.89-66.18) had the lowest prevalence of burnout. Subgroup analysis also found that the prevalence of burnout in several Asian countries was 57.18% (95% CI: 45.8-67.85); in several European countries it was 27.72% (95% CI: 17.4-41.11) and in North America it was 51.64% (46.96-56.28). Our findings suggest a high prevalence of burnout among medical and surgical residents. Older and male residents suffered more than their respective counterparts.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Internato e Residência , Humanos , Medicina , Prevalência
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022891

RESUMO

This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association between epilepsy and suicide. We systematically searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase and Web of Science for studies that reported the prevalence of suicidality in the form of suicide ideation, attempts and deaths among people with epilepsy (PWE). Studies were included if they reported the numbers of patients who died by suicide and concurrently suffered from epilepsy, assessed suicide ideation, or studied suicide attempts in PWE by validated instruments or diagnostic interviews. We used the random effects model to calculate the pooled odds ratios (OR) and standard mean differences (SMDs). We performed subgroup analyses. Seven case-control studies were included in the comparison of rates of suicide attempts between PWE and controls, with a total of 821,594 participants. Our analyses demonstrated a positive association between epilepsy and suicide attempts (pooled OR = 3.25, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.69-3.92, p < 0.001), indicating that PWE have an elevated risk of suicide. The pooled prevalence for suicide ideation (24 studies) and suicide attempts (18 studies) were 23.2% (95% CI: 0.176-0.301) and 7.4% (95% CI: 0.031-0.169) respectively. The pooled rate of death due to suicide (10 studies) was 0.5% (95% CI: 0.002-0.016). Meta-regression showed that mean age and proportion of male gender were significant moderators for prevalence of suicide attempts and death due to suicide in PWE. Young PWE could be triggered by relationship problems and male PWE might use more lethal methods to attempt suicide. This meta-analysis provides the most up-to-date information on the prevalence of suicide among people with epilepsy and guidance on strategies to improve current psychiatric services provided for this population.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Prevalência
14.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 114(2): 315-321, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730324

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diverticulitis is a significant cause of morbidity among older women, and little attention has been paid to understanding its etiology. We have shown that menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) is associated with the risk of inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, we prospectively examined the association between MHT and the risk of incident diverticulitis. METHODS: We studied 65,367 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study who provided detailed information on hormone use and other medical and lifestyle factors biennially, and on diet every 4 years. Between 2008 and 2014, participants reported any episodes of diverticulitis that required antibiotics and the date of occurrence. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Over 24 years encompassing 1,297,165 person-years of follow-up, we documented 5,425 incident cases of diverticulitis. We observed an increased risk of diverticulitis among both current (HR 1.28; 95% CI 1.18-1.39) and past (HR 1.35; 95% CI 1.25-1.45) MHT users compared to never users. The increased risk was observed among participants using estrogen only (HR 1.30; 95% CI 1.20-1.41) and those using combined estrogen and progesterone (HR 1.31; 95% CI 1.21-1.42) compared to nonusers. The risk did not increase with longer duration of use (P-trend = 0.76). The association between MHT and diverticulitis was not modified by age, body mass index, past oral contraceptive use, or fiber intake (all P-interaction >0.11). CONCLUSIONS: Menopausal hormone therapy was associated with an increased risk of diverticulitis. Further studies are needed to understand the potential mechanisms that may underlie this association.

15.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 144(1): 21-26, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30353543

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationship between maternal serum uric acid levels and fetal/neonatal complications in women with pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, and to establish a predictive threshold value. METHODS: A diagnostic test and historical cohort study conducted by prospective cross-sectional data collection on pregnant women with pre-eclampsia/eclampsia at Hue University Hospital, Vietnam, between March 2015 and July 2017. Pre-eclampsia was diagnosed based on ACOG criteria. Serum uric acid levels were measured by enzymatic colorimetric testing using a Cobas c 501 analyzer (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany). Fetal complications included intrauterine growth restriction, preterm delivery, fetal death, and neonatal death. RESULTS: There were 205 women enrolled. Serum uric acid at a cutoff of 393 µmol/L is a good predictor of fetal/neonatal complications (AUC 0.752), with 64.4% sensitivity and 79.5% specificity. High uric acid level (≥393 µmol/L) resulted in increased risk of preterm birth (OR 6.367, 95% CI 3.009-13.084), low Apgar scores (OR 5.514, 95% CI 1.877-16.198), intrauterine growth restriction (OR 7.188, 95% CI 3.592-14.382), and neonatal death (OR 7.818, 95% CI 1.614-37.867). There was no relationship between uric acid level and fetal death (OR 1.803, 95% CI 0.355-9.168). CONCLUSIONS: Maternal serum uric acid concentration is a good predictor of fetal/neonatal outcomes in women with pre-eclampsia/eclampsia.


Assuntos
Eclampsia/sangue , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/sangue , Pré-Eclâmpsia/sangue , Nascimento Prematuro/sangue , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Adulto , Índice de Apgar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/etiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Vietnã
16.
JAMA Oncol ; 5(1): 37-44, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30326010

RESUMO

Importance: Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality among individuals younger than 50 years (early-onset CRC) are increasing. The reasons for such increases are largely unknown, although the increasing prevalence of obesity may be partially responsible. Objective: To investigate prospectively the association between obesity and weight gain since early adulthood with the risk of early-onset CRC. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Nurses' Health Study II is a prospective, ongoing cohort study of US female nurses aged 25 to 42 years at study enrollment (1989). A total of 85 256 women free of cancer and inflammatory bowel disease at enrollment were included in this analysis, with follow-up through December 31, 2011. Validated anthropomorphic measures and lifestyle information were self-reported biennially. Statistical analysis was performed from June 12, 2017, to June 28, 2018. Exposures: Current body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), BMI at 18 years of age, and weight gain since 18 years of age. Main Outcomes and Measures: Relative risk (RR) for incident early-onset CRC. Results: Among the 85 256 women studied, 114 cases of early-onset CRC were documented (median age at diagnosis, 45 years; interquartile range, 41-47 years) during 1 196 452 person-years of follow-up. Compared with women with a BMI of 18.5 to 22.9, the multivariable RR was 1.37 (95% CI, 0.81-2.30) for overweight women (BMI, 25.0-29.9) and 1.93 (95% CI, 1.15-3.25) for obese women (BMI, ≥30.0). The RR for each 5-unit increment in BMI was 1.20 (95% CI, 1.05-1.38; P = .01 for trend). Similar associations were observed among women without a family history of CRC and without lower endoscopy within the past 10 years. Both BMI at 18 years of age and weight gain since 18 years of age contributed to this observation. Compared with women with a BMI of 18.5 to 20.9 at 18 years of age, the RR of early-onset CRC was 1.32 (95% CI, 0.80-2.16) for women with a BMI of 21.0 to 22.9 and 1.63 (95% CI, 1.01-2.61) for women with a BMI of 23.0 or greater at 18 years of age (P = .66 for trend). Compared with women who had gained less than 5.0 kg or had lost weight, the RR of early-onset CRC was 1.65 (95% CI, 0.96-2.81) for women gaining 20.0 to 39.9 kg and 2.15 (95% CI, 1.01-4.55) for women gaining 40.0 kg or more (P = .007 for trend). Conclusions and Relevance: Obesity was associated with an increased risk of early-onset CRC among women. Further investigations among men and to elucidate the underlying biological mechanisms are warranted.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30213071

RESUMO

As the number of migrants worldwide increases, it is worthwhile to examine the extent to which depression has affected this group of often vulnerable individuals. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to examine the aggregate prevalence of depression among international migrants and to explore the variations in prevalence with demographic and educational factors. A search was conducted on the online databases PubMed and ScienceDirect whole using the terms "depression", "depressive disorder", "immigration", "immigrant", "migration", and "migrant". A total of 25 studies met our inclusion criteria. A random-effects model meta-analysis calculated an aggregate prevalence of 15.6% among migrants. Heterogeneity was identified by meta-regression and subgroup analyses, and the level of educational attainment, employment status, and length of residency spent in country of migration were found to be significant moderators contributing to depression prevalence. In conclusion, newly arrived migrants appear to be susceptible to developing depression and it is imperative that more in the form of preventive strategies and increased assistance be incorporated to ensure their psychological wellbeing and improve their mental health outcomes. Further research should be conducted to better understand the risk of psychiatric disorders among members of this subpopulation.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Migrantes/psicologia , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Gastroenterology ; 155(3): 933, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30098927
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29973546

RESUMO

Misophonia, also known as selective sound sensitivity syndrome, is a condition characterized by strong dislike of specific sounds with accompanying distressing reactions. To date, misophonia is still poorly understood. This study aimed to identify factors associated with severity of misophonic symptoms in Singaporean psychiatric patients. Ninety-two psychiatric patients were recruited from a large teaching hospital in Singapore in a cross-sectional study. Socio-demographics, severity of depression, anxiety and stress, and severity of misophonic symptoms were analyzed. Correlation analysis showed that anxiety, depression, and stress scores—as measured by the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21)—were significantly positively correlated with the Amsterdam Misophonia Scale (A-MISO-S) scores. After adjustment for confounding factors, multivariate regression analysis showed that anxiety (β = 0.385, p = 0.029) remained significantly associated with A-MISO-S. Age, gender, depression, and stress were not significantly associated with the severity of misophonia. The findings showed that the severity of anxiety was associated with severity of misophonia in Singaporean psychiatric patients. Further research is needed to explore the nature of misophonia and its relationship with other psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/etiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Som/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Singapura/epidemiologia
20.
Gastroenterology ; 155(1): 58-66.e4, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29614301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is little evidence that adiposity associates with diverticulitis, especially among women. We conducted a comprehensive evaluation of obesity, weight change, and incidence of diverticulitis in a large cohort of women. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 46,079 women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study who were 61-89 years old and free of diverticulitis, diverticular bleeding, cancers, or inflammatory bowel disease at baseline (in 2008). We used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the associations among risk of incident diverticulitis and body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, and weight change from age 18 years to the present. The primary end point was first incident diverticulitis requiring antibiotic therapy or hospitalization. RESULTS: We documented 1084 incident cases of diverticulitis over 6 years of follow-up, encompassing 248,001 person-years. After adjustment for other risk factors, women with a BMI ≥35.0 kg/m2 had a hazard ratio for diverticulitis of 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.85) compared to women with a BMI <22.5 kg/m2. Compared to women in the lowest quintile, the multivariable hazard ratios among women in the highest quintile were 1.35 (95% CI, 1.02-1.78) for waist circumference and 1.40 (95% CI, 1.07-1.84) for waist to hip ratio; these associations were attenuated with further adjustment for BMI. Compared to women maintaining weight from age 18 years to the present, those who gained ≥20 kg had a 73% increased risk of diverticulitis (95% CI, 27%-136%). CONCLUSIONS: During a 6-year follow-up period, we observed an association between obesity and risk of diverticulitis among women. Weight gain during adulthood was also associated with increased risk.


Assuntos
Diverticulite/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Diverticulite/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril , Ganho de Peso
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