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1.
Zootaxa ; 4590(2): zootaxa.4590.2.3, 2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716093

RESUMO

Three new species of the xenodermatid genus Achalinus are described from northern Vietnam based on morphological and molecular evidence: Achalinus juliani sp. nov. is characterized by a combination of the following characters: 1) maxillary teeth 28; 2) suture between the internasals distinctly longer than that between the prefrontals; 3) internasal not fused to prefrontal; 4) loreal not fused with prefrontal; 5) infralabials 6; 6) mental separated from anterior chin shields; 7) two elongated anterior temporals, in contact with the eye, and two posterior temporals; 8) dorsal scales in 25-23-23 rows, keeled; 9) ventrals 173-179; 10) subcaudals 77-91, unpaired; 11) a total length of at least 413 mm (with a maximum tail length of 109 mm, and a tail/total length ratio of 0.22-0.37); 12) dorsum in preservative reddish to greyish brown above, with the lower and posterior head sides being paler; venter greyish cream, with the underside of the tail being somewhat darker. Achalinus timi sp. nov. is characterized by a combination of the following characters: 1) maxillary teeth 27; 2) suture between the internasals distinctly longer than that between the prefrontals; 3) loreal fused with the prefrontal on each side, with the prefrontal extending towards the supralabials; 4) dorsal scales in 25-25-23 rows, keeled; 5) ventrals 170+1; 6) subcaudals 72, unpaired; 7) a total length of at least 177.9 mm in males (with a tail length of 37.9 mm, and a tail/total length ratio of 0.21); 8) dorsum in preservative reddish to greyish brown above, with wide portion of the vertebral region being distinctly darker; the lower head sides somewhat paler; infralabial and chin shields light greyish brown; venter greyish cream, with the underside of the tail being somewhat darker and the chin region somewhat paler. Achalinus emilyae sp. nov. is characterized by a combination of the following characters: 1) maxillary teeth 27 or 28; 2) suture between internasals distinctly longer than that between the prefrontals; 3) internasal not fused to prefrontal; 4) loreal not fused with prefrontal; 5) infralabials 5; 6) mental separated from anterior chin shields; 7) two anterior temporals, only the upper one in contact with eye, and two posterior temporals; 8) dorsal scales in 23-23-23 rows, keeled; 9) ventrals in females 157-161; 10) subcaudals in females 63, unpaired; 11) a total length of at least 519.5 mm (with a maximum tail length of 95.1 mm, and a tail/total length ratio of 0.18 in females); 12) dorsum iridescent pale yellowish brown with a dark longitudinal mid-dorsal stripe. In terms of pairwise genetic distance (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1, COI), the three new species differ by at least 12.7% from other members of the genus, including themselves. The total number of Achalinus known is increased to twelve and the number of Achalinus species known from Vietnam is increased from three to six. Currently ten species of xenodermatids are known to exist in Vietnam: Achalinus ater, A. emilyae, A. juliani, A. rufescens, A. spinalis, A. timi, Fimbrios klossi, F. smithi, Parafimbrios lao, and P. vietnamensis.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Serpentes , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Ecossistema , Feminino , Cabeça , Masculino , Filogenia , Vietnã
2.
Zootaxa ; 4657(1): zootaxa.4657.1.13, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716807

RESUMO

To date, 26 species of Theloderma have been described and all are distributed throughout Southeast Asia from Assam in northeastern India to Myanmar, Indochina, the Malay Peninsula, and the islands of the Greater Sundas: Sumatra and Borneo (Frost 2019). The tadpoles of only 12 species have been described and published: T. asperum (Boulenger); T. auratum Poyarkov, Kropachev, Gogoleva Orlov; T. bicolor (Bourret); T. corticale (Boulenger); T. gordoni Taylor; T. horridum (Boulenger); T. leave (Smith); T. moloch (Annandale); T. nebulosum Rowley, Le, Hoang, Dau Cao; T. palliatum Rowley, Le, Hoang, Dau Cao; T. stellatum Taylor; T. vietnamense Poyarkov, Orlov, Moiseeva, Pawangkhanant, Ruangsuwan, Vassilieva, Galoyan, Nguyen Gogoleva (Boulenger 1903; Annandale 1912; Wassersug et al. 1981; Inger et al. 1999; Leong Lim 2003; Inthara et al. 2005; Rowley et al. 2011; Gawor et al. 2012; Orlov et al. 2012; Poyarkov et al. 2015; Kropachev et al. 2018).


Assuntos
Anuros , Fibras Musgosas Hipocampais , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Bornéu , Índia , Indochina , Indonésia , Larva , Malásia , Mianmar , Filogenia , Vietnã
3.
Ecol Evol ; 8(20): 10219-10232, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397460

RESUMO

A large body of evidence indicates that evolutionary innovations of novel organs have facilitated the subsequent diversification of species. Investigation of the evolutionary history of such organs should provide important clues for understanding the basis for species diversification. An Asian natricine snake, Rhabdophis tigrinus, possesses a series of unusual organs, called nuchal glands, which contain cardiotonic steroid toxins known as bufadienolides. Rhabdophis tigrinus sequesters bufadienolides from its toad prey and stores them in the nuchal glands as a defensive mechanism. Among more than 3,500 species of snakes, only 17 Asian natricine species are known to possess nuchal glands or their homologues. These 17 species belong to three nominal genera, Balanophis, Macropisthodon, and Rhabdophis. In Macropisthodon and Rhabdophis, however, species without nuchal glands also exist. To infer the evolutionary history of the nuchal glands, we investigated the molecular phylogenetic relationships among Asian natricine species with and without nuchal glands, based on variations in partial sequences of Mt-CYB, Cmos, and RAG1 (total 2,767 bp). Results show that all species with nuchal glands belong to a single clade (NGC). Therefore, we infer that the common ancestor of this clade possessed nuchal glands with no independent origins of the glands within the members. Our results also imply that some species have secondarily lost the glands. Given the estimated divergence time of related species, the ancestor of the nuchal gland clade emerged 19.18 mya. Our study shows that nuchal glands are fruitful subjects for exploring the evolution of novel organs. In addition, our analysis indicates that reevaluation of the taxonomic status of the genera Balanophis and Macropisthodon is required. We propose to assign all species belonging to the NGC to the genus Rhabdophis, pending further study.

4.
Zootaxa ; 4508(3): 301-333, 2018 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30485981

RESUMO

Megophrys are a group of morphologically conserved, primarily forest-dependent frogs known to harbour cryptic species diversity. In this study, we examined populations of small-sized Megophrys from mid- and high elevation locations in the Hoang Lien Range, northern Vietnam. On the basis of morphological, molecular and bioacoustic data, individuals of these populations differed from all species of Megophrys known from mainland Southeast Asia north of the Isthmus of Kra and from neighbouring provinces in China. Further, the newly collected specimens formed two distinct species-level groups. We herein describe two new species, Megophrys fansipanensis sp. nov. and Megophrys hoanglienensis sp. nov. Both new species are range restricted and likely to be highly threatened by habitat degradation. These discoveries highlight the importance of the Hoang Lien Range for Vietnam's amphibian diversity.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Ranidae , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , China , Indochina , Vietnã
5.
Zootaxa ; 4486(1): 31-56, 2018 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30313764

RESUMO

The Asian monotypic genus Pararhabdophis Bourret, 1934 has long been known from a single holotype of the type species Pararhabdophis chapaensis Bourret, 1934 only. The limited available information hampered the identification of the natricine species. On the basis of eight newly collected specimens of P. chapaensis from the type locality in Sa Pa, Lao Cai Province, Vietnam and from Pingbian, Yunnan Province in southwestern China, the taxonomic position of the genus Pararhabdophis was re-evaluated using both morphological and molecular datasets for the first time. Pararhabdophis chapaensis is nested within the genus Hebius Thompson, 1913 with strong support, and morphologically indistinguishable from the latter genus. As a consequence, we herein synonymize the genus Pararhabdophis with Hebius and discuss about the existing paraphyly of some Hebius species. In addition we report Hebius chapaensis for the first time from China and provide redescription and natural history data of this poorly known species. To facilitate future taxonomic work, an identification key to all known natricine genera from China and Vietnam is also provided.


Assuntos
Colubridae , Filogenia , Animais , China , Lagartos , Vietnã
6.
Zootaxa ; 4344(3): 465-492, 2017 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29245621

RESUMO

The Asian frog genus Megophrys is a diverse group of morphologically conserved, forest-dwelling frogs. The genus harbours highly localised species diversification and new species continue to be described on a regular basis. We examined the taxonomic status of a population of Megophrys frogs from the Hoang Lien Range in northern Vietnam and southern China previously identified as M. kuatunensis (subgenus Panophrys). Preliminary phylogenetic analyses using a fragment of 16S rDNA places the species in question within the Megophrys (subgenus Panophrys) species group, a primarily Chinese radiation within the genus. On the basis of morphological, molecular and bioacoustic data, we conclude that this population does not represent M. kuatunensis, or any known species in the genus. We herein describe this species of Megophrys as new. Known only from Sa Pa District, Lao Cai Province in Vietnam and Jinping County, Yunnan Province in China, the new species is likely to be threatened by ongoing deforestation in the region. We provide an updated species description of M. kuatunensis based on type specimens, and suggest that M. kuatunensis is likely to be restricted to eastern China.


Assuntos
Anuros , Filogenia , Animais , China , Vietnã
7.
Zootaxa ; 4269(4): 545-558, 2017 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28610317

RESUMO

A new species of Limnonectes is described from northeastern Vietnam based on morphological and molecular differences. Morphologically, the new species is distinguishable from its congeners on the basis of a combination of the following diagnostic characters: Large size (SVL 50.1-68.9 in males, 45.5-63.0 mm in females); males with moderately enlarged head (HL/SVL 0.48), head longer than wide; vomerine teeth present; external vocal sacs absent; rostral length short (RL/SVL 0.16 in males, 0.15 in females); tympanum distinct (TD/ED 0.63 in males, 0.60 in females); dorsal surface of head, body and flanks with flattened tubercles; dorsal surface of tibia possessing small tubercles; supratympanic fold present; dorsolateral fold absent; webbing formula I0-0II0-1/3III0-1/3IV1/2-0V; in life, dorsum yellowish brown with a dark brown marking; throat and chest white with dark brown marking; ventral surface of fore and hind limbs as well as belly white. In phylogenetic analyses, the new species is placed as the sister taxon to Limnonectes fujianensis with strong statistical support in all analyses.


Assuntos
Anuros , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Tórax , Vietnã
8.
Sci Rep ; 7: 44443, 2017 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28287614

RESUMO

The amphibian chytrid fungi, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and B. salamandrivorans (Bsal), pose a major threat to amphibian biodiversity. Recent evidence suggests Southeast Asia as a potential cradle for both fungi, which likely resulted in widespread host-pathogen co-existence. We sampled 583 salamanders from 8 species across Vietnam in 55 locations for Bsal and Bd, determined scaled mass index as a proxy for fitness and collected environmental data. Bsal was found within 14 of the 55 habitats (2 of which it was detected in 2013), in 5 salamandrid species, with a prevalence of 2.92%. The globalized pandemic lineage of Bd was found within one pond on one species with a prevalence of 0.69%. Combined with a complete lack of correlation between infection and individual body condition and absence of indication of associated disease, this suggests low level pathogen endemism and Bsal and Bd co-existence with Vietnamese salamandrid populations. Bsal was more widespread than Bd, and occurs at temperatures higher than tolerated by the type strain, suggesting a wider thermal niche than currently known. Therefore, this study provides support for the hypothesis that these chytrid fungi may be endemic to Asia and that species within this region may act as a disease reservoir.


Assuntos
Quitridiomicetos/genética , DNA Fúngico/genética , Micoses/veterinária , Urodelos/microbiologia , Animais , Biodiversidade , Quitridiomicetos/classificação , Quitridiomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/microbiologia , Micoses/transmissão , Tanques , Rios , Temperatura Ambiente , Vietnã/epidemiologia
9.
Zootaxa ; 4168(1): 171-186, 2016 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27701355

RESUMO

We describe a new species of Theloderma from northwestern Vietnam based on morphological differences and molecular divergence. Theloderma annae sp. nov. is distinguishable from its congeners on the basis of a combination of the following characters:  Size small, SVL 27.1-28.5 mm in males, 30.3-32.6 mm in females; head longer than wide;  vomerine teeth absent; snout long (SL/SVL 0.16-0.19); spines on upper eyelid absent;  tibiotarsal projection absent; dorsal skin smooth; dermal fringes on forearm and tarsus absent; dorsal surface grayish green; and throat and ventral surface of arms and thighs brown with white spots.


Assuntos
Anuros/anatomia & histologia , Anuros/classificação , Animais , Anuros/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Vietnã
10.
Zootaxa ; 4136(3): 553-66, 2016 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27395733

RESUMO

Based on near-topotypic specimens of Dixonius vietnamensis from Khanh Hoa Province in southern Vietnam genetic analyses showed that the recently described D. taoi is sister to D. vietnamensis and several separate forms exist which previously have been misidentified as D. vietnamensis and D. siamensis. The Dixonius population from Vinh Cuu Nature Reserve, Dong Nai Province, Vietnam, represents an undescribed species. Dixonius minhlei sp. nov. can be distinguished from its congeners based on the following diagnostic characters: small size (up to 47.5 mm SVL); 7-9 supralabials; 14-15 rows of keeled tubercles on dorsum; 20-23 ventral scale rows; 7 or 8 precloacal pores in males; a canthal stripe running from rostrum through the eye and terminating at back of head; lateral second pair of postmentals maximum one quarter the size of first pair; dorsum olive gray with more or less discernible brownish olive blotches. This is the sixth species of Dixonius known to occur in Vietnam.


Assuntos
Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Lagartos/classificação , Lagartos/genética , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Ecossistema , Feminino , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Lagartos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Filogenia , Vietnã
11.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 85: 59-67, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25683047

RESUMO

We assessed phylogenetic and systematic relationships among 17 out of 23 species of Theloderma and all three species of Nyctixalus from 2412bp sequences of the mitochondrial DNA genes of 12S rRNA, tRNA(val), and 16S rRNA using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. With the exception of T. moloch, Theloderma and Nyctixalus are confirmed to form a clade, in which each genus also forms a clade. Theloderma moloch is phylogenetically outside these clades and closer to samples from Chiromantis, Feihyla, Gracixalus, Kurixalus, Philautus, Polypedates, Raorchestes, and Rhacophorus. Within Theloderma, T. horridum and T. stellatum form the sister taxon to a clade comprising the remaining species. The basal split within the latter clade groups T. asperum, T. licin, T. petilum, and T. ryabovi as the sister to a clade comprising T. bicolor, T. chuyangsinense, T. corticale, T. gordoni, T. laeve, T. lateriticum, T. nebulosum, T. rhododiscus, and T. truongsonense. Our phylogenetic results indicate homoplastic evolution of four morphological characters: small vs. large body size, presence of vomerine teeth, presence of a vocal opening in males, and interdigital webbing on hands. The common ancestor of Theloderma and Nyctixalus is inferred to have arisen in the area including the current Sunda region.


Assuntos
Anuros/classificação , Evolução Biológica , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Filogenia , Animais , Anuros/anatomia & histologia , Ásia Sudeste , Teorema de Bayes , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , RNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA de Transferência de Valina/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
12.
Zootaxa ; 3737: 399-414, 2013 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25112761

RESUMO

The number of described species of bent-toed geckos of the Cyrtodactylus irregularis species complex in Vietnam has increased from one to eight in the last six years. We combined morphological and molecular analyses to explore phylogenetic relationships among all described species in the group. The phylogeny required the description of two new species, Cyrtodactylus phuocbinhensis sp. nov. and Cyrtodactylus taynguyenensis sp. nov. Further, the tree resolved two additional undescribed clades that may also be new species. The species C. bugiamapensis and C. ziegleri were found to require redefinition. Cyrtodactylus phuocbinhensis sp. nov. is characterized by a series of enlarged femoral scales separated from preanal scales while Cyrtodactylus taynguyenensis sp. nov. does not possess enlarged femoral scales. Both new species are distinguished from other congeners by a combination of the following characters: small subcaudal scales, not transversely enlarged; presence (C. phuocbinhensis sp. nov.) or absence (C. taynguyenensis sp. nov.) of enlarged femoral scales; number of preanal pores; and dorsal pattern. Genetic distances between described species and new species were 16.5% and 2.0% in COI and RPL35, respectively, for C. phuocbinhensis sp. nov., and these distances were 18.8% and 2.2% for C. taynguyenensis sp. nov., respectively.


Assuntos
Lagartos/genética , Animais , Lagartos/classificação , Filogenia , Vietnã
13.
Zootaxa ; 3737: 415-28, 2013 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25112762

RESUMO

We describe a new species of Leptolalax from northern Vietnam. Leptolalax botsfordi sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of (1) supra-axillary and ventrolateral glands present; (2) dark brownish red ventral surface with white speckling; (3) medium body size for the genus (29.1-32.6 mm in 7 adult males, 30.0-31.8 mm in 2 females); (4) black markings on the flanks absent; (5) toes with rudimentary webbing and weak lateral fringing; (6) large pectoral glands (1.1-1.9 mm; 4-6% SVL) and femoral glands (2.4-4.3 mm; 7-14% SVL); and (7) an advertisement call with a dominant frequency of 2.6-3.2 kHz (at 14.0º C). At present, the new species is known only from upper montane forest between 2,795-2,815 m elevation on Mount Fansipan, Hoang Lien National Park. To our knowledge, Leptolalax botsfordi sp. nov. occurs at higher elevations than any other species in the genus. If L. botsfordi sp. nov. is truly restricted to a narrow, high-elevation band, it is likely to be particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. The new species also faces the immediate threat of habitat degradation and pollution due to tourist activity.


Assuntos
Anuros/classificação , Altitude , Animais , Anuros/anatomia & histologia , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Feminino , Masculino , Vietnã
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