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2.
Methods ; 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607266

RESUMO

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have become widely used for disease modelling, particularly with regard to predisposing genetic risk factors and causal gene variants. Alongside this, technologies such as the CRISPR/Cas system have been adapted to enable programmable gene editing in human cells. When combined, CRISPR/Cas gene editing of donor-specific iPSC to generate isogenic cell lines that differ only at specific gene variants provides a powerful model with which to investigate genetic variants associated with diseases affecting many organs, including the brain and eye. Here we describe our optimized protocol for using CRISPR/Cas ribonucleoproteins to edit disease causing gene variants in human iPSCs. We discuss design of crRNAs and homology-directed repair templates, assembly of CRISPR/Cas ribonucleoproteins, optimization of delivery via nucleofection, and strategies for single cell cloning, efficient clone cryopreservation and genotyping for identifying iPSC clones for further characterization.

3.
Chem Biodivers ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538053

RESUMO

This study investigated a set of new potential antidiabetes agents. Derivatives of usnic acid were designed and synthesized. These analogues, and nineteen benzylidene analogues from a previous study, were evaluated for enzyme inhibition of α-glucosidase. Analogues synthesized using the Dakin oxidative method displayed stronger activity than the pristine usnic acid (IC 50 > 200 µM). (R,E) -2-(7-Acetyl-4,6-dihydroxy-3-(methoxycarbonyl)-3,5-dimethylbenzofuran-2(3 H )-ylidene)acetic acid ( 6b ) and 1,1'-(2,4,6-trihydroxy-5-methyl-1,3-phenylene)bis(ethan-1-one) ( 6e ) were more potent than an acarbose positive control (IC 50 93.6±0.49 µM), with IC 50 values of 42.6 ± 1.30 and 90.8 ± 0.32 µM, respectively. Most of the compounds synthesized from the benzylidene series displayed promising activity. (2 E ,2' E )-1,1'-(( R )-3,7,9-Trihydroxy-8,9b-dimethyl-1-oxo-1,9b-dihydrodibenzo[b,d] furan-2,6-diyl)bis(3-(2-chlorophenyl)prop-2-en-1-one) ( 1c ), (2 E ,2' E )-1,1'-(( R )-3,7,9-trihydroxy-8,9b-dimethyl-1-oxo-1,9b-dihydrodibenzo[b,d]furan-2,6-diyl)bis(3-phenylprop-2-en-1-one) ( 1g ), ( R , E )-2-acetyl-6-(3-(2-chlorophenyl)acryloyl)-3,7,9-trihydroxy-8,9b-dimethyldibenzo [b,d]furan-1(9bH)-one ( 2d ), ( R , E )-2-acetyl-6-(3-(3-chlorophenyl)acryloyl)-3,7,9-trihydroxy-8,9b-dimethyldibenzo [b,d]furan-1(9bH)-one ( 2e ), ( R )-8-acetyl-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-6,9-dihydroxy-5,6b-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzofuro[2,3-f]chromene-1,7(6bH)-dione ( 3e ), ( 6 bR) -8-acetyl-6,9-dihydroxy-5,6b-dimethyl-3-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzofuro[2,3-f]chromene-1,7(6bH)-dione ( 3h ), ( R , E )-3-(2-chlorophenyl)-8-(3-(2-chlorophenyl)acryloyl)-6,9-dihydroxy-5,6bdimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzofuro[2,3-f]chromene-1,7(6bH)-dione ( 4b ), and (R) -6-acetyl-2-cinnamoyl-3,7,9-trihydroxy-8,9b-dimethyldibenzo[b,d]furan-1(9bH)-one ( 5c ) were the most potent α-glucosidase enzyme inhibitors, with IC 50 values of 7.0 ± 0.24, 15.5 ± 0.49, 7.5 ± 0.92, 10.9 ± 0.56, 1.5 ± 0.62, 15.3 ± 0.54, 19.0 ± 1.00, and 12.3 ± 0.53 µM, respectively.

4.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 22(1): 11-18, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507673

RESUMO

ackground: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) plays an important role in the development and progression of breast cancer. To understand the precise association, this meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the association between HER2Ile655Val single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and susceptibility to early-onset breast cancer. METHODS: A comprehensive database retrieval from PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Google Scholar was pooled to investigate links between the HER2Ile655Val SNP and risk of breast cancer. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to appraise the association under the additive model (Ile vs. Val), dominant model (Val/Val + Ile/Val vs. Ile/Ile), and recessive model (Val/Val vs. Ile/Val + Ile/Ile). RESULTS: Seventeen relevant studies with 11,749 cases and 8,105 controls were finally included. We found that HER2Ile655Val SNP is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in an additive and dominant model. In the subgroup analysis with age stratification, a significant association between the HER2 codon 655 SNP and the risk of breast cancer was found in young women in an additive, dominant, and recessive model; conversely, no significant associations were indicated in older women. In the breast cancer subgroup, HER2Ile655Val SNP was significantly associated with younger age women with breast cancer in the dominant model. In contrast, no association between the HER2 codon 655 SNP and age was found in control populations. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the Val allele in HER2 codon 655 SNP is strongly associated with breast cancer susceptibility in the young female population and is also significantly associated with younger age in women with breast cancer. HER2Ile655Val SNP might be a susceptibility factor that favours early-onset breast cancer.
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5.
Arch Virol ; 166(3): 779-788, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433693

RESUMO

Ungulate protoparvovirus 1, also known as porcine parvovirus 1 (PPV1), is considered to be one of the major causes of reproductive failure in pig breeding herds. Other parvoviruses have also been identified in pigs, including ungulate tetraparvovirus 3, or PPV2, ungulate tetraparvovirus 2, or PPV3, and ungulate copiparvovirus 2, or PPV4, but their significance for pigs is unknown. In the present study, the prevalence of PPV1-4 was investigated using a total of 231 lung and serum samples collected from slaughterhouses in 13 provinces throughout Vietnam. The overall prevalence was 54.5% (126/231) for PPV1, 28.0% (65/231) for PPV2, 17.7% (41/231) for PPV3, and 7.8% (18/231) for PPV4. While PPV1 and PPV2 were found in 11 provinces, PPV4 was detected in only three provinces. Co-circulation of PPV1, PPV2 and PPV3 was frequently observed, with PPV1/PPV2 coinfection predominating, with 20.8% (48/231). All four PPVs were detected together in only one sample from Thua Thien Hue. Three nearly complete PPV4 genome sequences of 5,453 nt were determined and deposited in the GenBank database. Alignment and comparison of the three genome sequences showed 99.5-99.6% nucleotide sequence identity, and the deduced amino acid sequences of open reading frames 1-3 were 99.6-99.9% identical to each other, 98.9-99.3% identical to those of other Vietnamese strains and 99.4-99.7% identical to those of Chinese strains). Phylogenetic analysis further confirmed a close relationship between Vietnamese and Chinese PPV4 strains. These results are the first to report the prevalence of PPV1, PPV2, PPV3, and PPV4 and nearly complete genomic sequences of PPV4 in pigs from slaughterhouses in Vietnam.

7.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 13(2): 127-133, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454068

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objectives were to describe pharmacy students' perceptions of professionalism and to compare students and faculty/staff perceptions of professionalism during the didactic years at Touro University California College of Pharmacy in California (TUC COP). METHODS: A two-part online survey was administered to the TUC COP faculty/staff and first-year (P1) and second-professional year (P2) students in May 2016. The first part of the survey collected demographic information, assessment of faculty/staff and students' overall opinions on behavior and conduct displayed by P1 and P2 students, students' responses about the average of missed lectures per month, and the average number of days of late arrival to lecture per week. The second part assessed professionalism perceptions responses to 20 scenarios using a 4-point Likert rating. RESULTS: The study included 37 (88.4%) faculty/staff and 181 (96.4%) P1 and P2 students, for a 98% response rate. Of the faculty/staff, 59.5% perceived the students' overall behaviors and conduct as acceptable whereas 35.3% of students perceived the overall behavior of P1 and P2 students as acceptable, with the majority of students self-reporting missing on average fewer than five lectures per month (65.2%) and arriving late to lecture fewer than one day each week (71.8%). There were statistically significant differences between faculty/staff and students' responses in 9 of the 20 scenarios. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in responses between faculty/staff and students regarding what is considered professional suggest that there is a gap in professionalism perceptions that should be addressed during didactic years.

8.
Methods ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484827

RESUMO

Precision chemistry entailing user-directed nucleotide substitutions and template-specified repair can be facilitated by base editing and prime editing, respectively. Recently, the diversification of adenine, cytosine, and prime editor variants obliges a considered, high-throughput evaluation of these tools for optimized, end-point applications. Herein, we outline novel, cost-effective and scalable approaches for the rapid detection of base editing and prime editing outcomes using gel electrophoresis. For base editing, we exploit primer mismatch amplification (SNP genotyping) for the gel-based detection of base editing efficiencies as low as 0.1%. For prime editing, we describe a one-pot reaction combining polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the target region with restriction digestion (restriction fragment length polymorphism; RFLP). RFLP enables the rapid detection of insertion or deletion events in under 2.5 h from genomic DNA extraction. We show that our method of SNP genotyping is amenable to both endogenous target loci as well as transfected, episomal plasmid targets in BHK-21 cells. Next, we validate the incidence of base and prime editing by describing Sanger sequencing and next-generation sequencing (NGS) workflows for the accurate validation and quantification of on-target editing efficiencies. Our workflow details three different methods for the detection of rare base and prime editing events, enabling a tiered approach from low to high resolution that makes use of gel electrophoresis, Sanger sequencing, and NGS.

9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 346, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436641

RESUMO

Anti-PD-1 therapy is used as a front-line treatment for many cancers, but mechanistic insight into this therapy resistance is still lacking. Here we generate a humanized (Hu)-mouse melanoma model by injecting fetal liver-derived CD34+ cells and implanting autologous thymus in immune-deficient NOD-scid IL2Rγnull (NSG) mice. Reconstituted Hu-mice are challenged with HLA-matched melanomas and treated with anti-PD-1, which results in restricted tumor growth but not complete regression. Tumor RNA-seq, multiplexed imaging and immunohistology staining show high expression of chemokines, as well as recruitment of FOXP3+ Treg and mast cells, in selective tumor regions. Reduced HLA-class I expression and CD8+/Granz B+ T cells homeostasis are observed in tumor regions where FOXP3+ Treg and mast cells co-localize, with such features associated with resistance to anti-PD-1 treatment. Combining anti-PD-1 with sunitinib or imatinib results in the depletion of mast cells and complete regression of tumors. Our results thus implicate mast cell depletion for improving the efficacy of anti-PD-1 therapy.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Mastócitos/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Mastócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/patologia , Melanoma/terapia , Camundongos Transgênicos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Sunitinibe/farmacologia , Sunitinibe/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia
10.
Surg Endosc ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trans-vaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (vNOTES) is a recently popularised minimally invasive surgical procedure, aimed at minimising abdominal wall scars and improving pain and patient recovery times. Although vNOTES has been studied in the context of post-operative pain and cosmesis, women's acceptance of the technique has only been cursorily examined. In this survey-based observational study, we assessed the acceptability of this technique among a cohort of Middle Eastern women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 175 Middle Eastern women were surveyed using a 13-item questionnaire at a single gynaecology centre. The survey used was a translated version of a questionnaire from a previous study (1) and comprised open-response, five-point Likert Scale and agree-disagree items. RESULTS: Among 175 Middle Eastern women participated in this study most of them holding neutral view on abdominal and gynaecological procedures via vagina. 47% of participants were unsure regarding the effect of surgery via vagina on their sexual function. Although 61% of the participants showed no preference towards vNOTES over laparoscopic cholecystectomy, more than half of them indicated preference if vNOTES shown to be as effective and safe as laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The gender of the surgeon was shown to have no influence on the perspectives of the majority of participants to undergo vNOTES. CONCLUSIONS: vNOTES may hold value for women who have conservative upbringing and/or value cosmesis. This study provides information regarding Middle Eastern women's perspectives on vNOTES, which may be of considerable clinical use as the popularity of this surgical technique continues to increase.

11.
Am J Med ; 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of loop diuretics on clinical outcomes in heart failure has not been evaluated in randomized controlled trials. In hospitalized patients with heart failure, a discharge loop diuretic prescription has been shown to be associated with improved 30-day outcomes, which appears to be more pronounced in subgroups with congestion. In the current study, we examined these associations and association modifications during longer follow-up. METHODS: We assembled a propensity score-matched cohort of 2191 pairs of hospitalized heart failure patients discharged with, vs without, a prescription for loop diuretics, balanced on 74 baseline characteristics (mean age 78 years; 54% women; 11% African American). RESULTS: Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for 6-year combined endpoint of heart failure readmission or all-cause mortality was 1.02 (0.96-1.09). HRs and 95% CIs for this combined endpoint in patients with no, mild-to-moderate, and severe pulmonary rales were 1.19 (1.07-1.33), 0.95 (0.86-1.04), and 0.77 (0.63-0.94), respectively (P for interaction, < .001). Respective HRs (95% CIs) for no, mild-to-moderate, and severe lower extremity edema were 1.16 (1.06-1.28), 0.94 (0.85-1.04), and 0.71 (0.56-0.89; interaction P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The association between a discharge loop diuretic prescription and long-term clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with heart failure is modified by admission congestion with worse, neutral, and better outcomes in patients with no, mild-to-moderate, and severe congestion, respectively. If these findings can be replicated, congestion may be used to risk-stratify patients with heart failure for potential optimization of loop diuretic prescription and outcomes.

12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(1): 205-213, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350920

RESUMO

Central nervous system (CNS) infection is a serious neurologic condition, although the etiology remains unknown in >50% of patients. We used metagenomic next-generation sequencing to detect viruses in 204 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with acute CNS infection who were enrolled from Vietnam hospitals during 2012-2016. We detected 8 viral species in 107/204 (52.4%) of CSF samples. After virus-specific PCR confirmation, the detection rate was lowered to 30/204 (14.7%). Enteroviruses were the most common viruses detected (n = 23), followed by hepatitis B virus (3), HIV (2), molluscum contagiosum virus (1), and gemycircularvirus (1). Analysis of enterovirus sequences revealed the predominance of echovirus 30 (9). Phylogenetically, the echovirus 30 strains belonged to genogroup V and VIIb. Our results expanded knowledge about the clinical burden of enterovirus in Vietnam and underscore the challenges of identifying a plausible viral pathogen in CSF of patients with CNS infections.

13.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 68(1): e28795, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155419

RESUMO

Etoposide administration can be complicated by hypersensitivity reactions. Desensitization may provide a strategy to prevent hypersensitivity recurrence. One challenge with desensitization is regimen complexity. This case series describes 12 pediatric, adolescent, and young adult patients who received a simplified six-step etoposide desensitization protocol. This protocol contains 50% fewer titration steps compared with previously described protocols and eliminates infusion rate changes during titration. Simplified titration may minimize risk of error during administration and improve safety. This protocol was tolerated by 92% of patients. Given increasing frequency and duration of drug shortages, a simplified desensitization protocol provides a valuable treatment option.

14.
Hosp Pediatr ; 2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334815

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Roseville Protocol modifies the Rochester Protocol by adding a high-risk temperature criterion of >38.5°C for infants 7 to 28 days old and by allowing febrile infants 29 to 60 days old with abnormal urinalysis but reassuring complete blood cell counts to be discharged home on oral antibiotics without receiving a lumbar puncture (LP). In this study, we define the Roseville Protocol test characteristics to detect invasive bacterial infection (IBI) and retrospectively compare its performance to that of the Rochester, Philadelphia, and Boston protocols. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we examine all cases of fever in infants aged 7 to 60 days presenting to a large health maintenance organization from 2007 to 2016 and having requisite laboratory tests for protocol analysis. The 4 protocols were retrospectively applied to this cohort to calculate each protocol's sensitivity and specificity to detect IBI. Protocols were compared regarding recommended LPs, admissions, and parenteral antibiotics. RESULTS: In 627 infants 7 to 28 days old, the Roseville Protocol had a sensitivity of 96.7% and a negative predictive value of 99.5%. It identified 2 IBIs missed by the Rochester Protocol but recommended an absolute increase of 19% in LPs and admissions. In 1176 infants 29 to 60 days old, the Roseville Protocol had a sensitivity of 91.4% and a negative predictive value of 99.6%. There was an absolute reduction in LPs by 18% to 44% compared to the Rochester Protocol and by 74% to 100% compared to the Philadelphia and Boston protocols. There was an absolute reduction in admissions by 18% to 44% compared to the Rochester Protocol, by 25% to 51% compared to the Philadelphia Protocol, and by 10% to 36% compared to the Boston Protocol. CONCLUSIONS: The Roseville Protocol has sensitivity and specificity comparable to that of existing protocols for IBI in febrile infants 7 to 60 days old, while allowing for fewer invasive procedures and hospitalizations in infants ≥29 days old.

15.
ACS Chem Biol ; 15(11): 3021-3029, 2020 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166460

RESUMO

Bacterial tRNA-guanine transglycosylase (Tgt) is involved in the biosynthesis of the modified tRNA nucleoside queuosine present in the anticodon wobble position of tRNAs specific for aspartate, asparagine, histidine, and tyrosine. Inactivation of the tgt gene leads to decreased pathogenicity of Shigella bacteria. Therefore, Tgt constitutes a putative target for Shigellosis drug therapy. Since it is only active as homodimer, interference with dimer-interface formation may, in addition to active-site inhibition, provide further means to disable this protein. A cluster of four aromatic residues seems important to stabilize the homodimer. We mutated residues of this aromatic cluster and analyzed each mutated variant with respect to the dimer and thermal stability or enzyme activity by applying native mass spectrometry, a thermal shift assay, enzyme kinetics, and X-ray crystallography. Our structural studies indicate a strong influence of pH on the homodimer stability. Apparently, protonation of a histidine within the aromatic cluster supports the collapse of an essential structural motif within the dimer interface at slightly acidic pH.

16.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 14: 570917, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132845

RESUMO

CRISPR/Cas has opened the prospect of direct gene correction therapy for some inherited retinal diseases. Previous work has demonstrated the utility of adeno-associated virus (AAV) mediated delivery to retinal cells in vivo; however, with the expanding repertoire of CRISPR/Cas endonucleases, it is not clear which of these are most efficacious for retinal editing in vivo. We sought to compare CRISPR/Cas endonuclease activity using both single and dual AAV delivery strategies for gene editing in retinal cells. Plasmids of a dual vector system with SpCas9, SaCas9, Cas12a, CjCas9 and a sgRNA targeting YFP, as well as a single vector system with SaCas9/YFP sgRNA were generated and validated in YFP-expressing HEK293A cell by flow cytometry and the T7E1 assay. Paired CRISPR/Cas endonuclease and its best performing sgRNA was then packaged into an AAV2 capsid derivative, AAV7m8, and injected intravitreally into CMV-Cre:Rosa26-YFP mice. SpCas9 and Cas12a achieved better knockout efficiency than SaCas9 and CjCas9. Moreover, no significant difference in YFP gene editing was found between single and dual CRISPR/SaCas9 vector systems. With a marked reduction of YFP-positive retinal cells, AAV7m8 delivered SpCas9 was found to have the highest knockout efficacy among all investigated endonucleases. We demonstrate that the AAV7m8-mediated delivery of CRISPR/SpCas9 construct achieves the most efficient gene modification in neurosensory retinal cells in vivo.

17.
Parasitol Int ; 81: 102229, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144197

RESUMO

Asymptomatic leishmaniasis is believed to play important role in maintaining the transmission of Leishmania spp. within endemic communities. Therefore, the efforts to eliminate leishmaniasis are daunting if we cannot manage asymptomatic leishmaniasis well. To clarify the global prevalence and factors associated with the asymptomatic Leishmania infection, we assessed the prevalence of asymptomatic leishmaniasis by a systematic review followed by meta-analyses. In addition, factors associated with the asymptomatic leishmaniasis versus symptomatic were also analyzed. We included all of the original articles alluding to the human asymptomatic leishmaniasis that was confirmed by at least one laboratory diagnosis method regardless of age, sex, race, and ethnicity of the patients, study design, publication date or languages. In total, 111 original articles were chosen for the data extraction. Based on our meta-analyses of the original articles reporting asymptomatic leishmaniasis mostly in endemic areas, the prevalence of asymptomatic leishmaniasis was 11.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.6%-14.4%] in general population, 36.7% [95% CI 27.6%-46.8%] in inhabitants living in the same or neighboring household to the symptomatic patients, and 11.8% [95% CI 7.1%-19%] in HIV infected patients. Among individuals with leishmaniasis, 64.9% [95% CI 54.7%-73.9%] were asymptomatic and males were more susceptible to develop symptoms, with OR=1.88, 95% CI 1.19-2.99, P=0.007. Meta-regression analysis showed no significant change in the prevalence of asymptomatic leishmaniasis during the last 40 years.

18.
Plant Cell Environ ; 2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249604

RESUMO

Through a combination of physiological, pharmacological, molecular and targeted metabolomics approaches, we showed that retention of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed dormancy levels induced by low and high seed development temperatures during post-desiccation phases is associated with modulation of gibberellin (GA) level and seed responsiveness to abscisic acid (ABA) and GA via expression of TaABI5 and TaGAMYB, respectively. Dormancy retention during imbibition, however, is associated with modulations of both ABA level and responsiveness via expression of specific ABA metabolism (TaNCED2 and TaCYP707A1) and signalling (TaPYL2, TaSnRK2, TaABI3, TaABI4 and TaABI5) genes, and alterations of GA levels and responsiveness through expression of specific GA biosynthesis (TaGA20ox1, TaGA20ox2 and TaGA3ox2) and signalling (TaGID1 and TaGID2) genes, respectively. Expression patterns of GA signalling genes, TaRHT1 and TaGAMYB, lacked positive correlation with that of GA regulated genes and dormancy level observed in seeds developed at the two temperatures, implying their regulation at post-transcriptional level. Our results overall implicate that a shift in ABA/GA balance underlies retention of dormancy levels induced by seed development temperature during post-desiccation and imbibition phases. Consistently, genes regulated by ABA and GA during imbibition overlapped with those differentially expressed between imbibed seeds developed at the two temperatures and mediate different biological functions.

19.
Int J Surg Case Rep ; 76: 266-269, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053487

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Aortic valve infective endocarditis with annular abscess is associated with high mortality rate and surgery is usually the choice of treatment. Plasty or reconstruction of aortic valve is being performed more widely. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report a case study of a 56-year-old male who was diagnosed with congenital bicuspid aortic valve, severe aortic stenosis and regurgitation, and annular abscess. This patient underwent operation in december 2019 and Ozaki's procedure was used to measure the distance between two commissures to reconstruct new leaflets and close the abscess using autologous pericardium. A bicuspid valve was reconstructed based on the anatomical feature of the patient. 6 months after surgery, aortic valve function was good with no residual insufficiency, maximum gradient was 8 mmHg. DISCUSSION: Reconstruction of aortic valve by Ozaki's procedure has been reported with many advantages for the patient. In case of infectious endocarditis, this technique helps avoid the use of artificial materials. Bicuspid aortic valve reconstruction surgery following the novel methods of reconstructing three leaflets or maintaining the bicuspid morphology could both be performed with good results. CONCLUSION: Reconstruction of aortic valve by Ozaki's procedure in infectious endocarditis has good results. In case of true bicuspid aortic valve, reconstruction bi-leaflets can be performed.

20.
Sci Total Environ ; : 142865, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097262

RESUMO

This review provides focused insights into the contamination status, sources, and ecological risks associated with multiple classes of antibiotics in surface water from the East and Southeast Asia based on publications over the period 2007 to 2020. Antibiotics are ubiquitous in surface water of these countries with concentrations ranging from <1 ng/L to hundreds µg/L and median values from 10 to 100 ng/L. Wider ranges and higher maximum concentrations of certain antibiotics were found in surface water of the East Asian countries like China and South Korea than in the Southeast Asian nations. Environmental behavior and fate of antibiotics in surface water is discussed. The reviewed occurrence of antibiotics in their sources suggests that effluent from wastewater treatment plants, wastewater from aquaculture and livestock production activities, and untreated urban sewage are principal sources of antibiotics in surface water. Ecological risks associated with antibiotic residues were estimated for aquatic organisms and the prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotic-resistant bacteria were reviewed. Such findings underline the need for synergistic efforts from scientists, engineers, policy makers, government managers, entrepreneurs, and communities to manage and reduce the burden of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in water bodies of East and Southeast Asian countries.

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