Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 26
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 180(6): 428-438, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593698

RESUMO

Anorexia nervosa (AN) occurs nine times more often in females than in males. Although environmental factors likely play a role, the reasons for this imbalanced sex ratio remain unresolved. AN displays high genetic correlations with anthropometric and metabolic traits. Given sex differences in body composition, we investigated the possible metabolic underpinnings of female propensity for AN. We conducted sex-specific GWAS in a healthy and medication-free subsample of the UK Biobank (n = 155,961), identifying 77 genome-wide significant loci associated with body fat percentage (BF%) and 174 with fat-free mass (FFM). Partitioned heritability analysis showed an enrichment for central nervous tissue-associated genes for BF%, which was more prominent in females than males. Genetic correlations of BF% and FFM with the largest GWAS of AN by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium were estimated to explore shared genomics. The genetic correlations of BF%male and BF%female with AN differed significantly from each other (p < .0001, δ = -0.17), suggesting that the female preponderance in AN may, in part, be explained by sex-specific anthropometric and metabolic genetic factors increasing liability to AN.

2.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988085

RESUMO

Macronutrient intake, the proportion of calories consumed from carbohydrate, fat, and protein, is an important risk factor for metabolic diseases with significant familial aggregation. Previous studies have identified two genetic loci for macronutrient intake, but incomplete coverage of genetic variation and modest sample sizes have hindered the discovery of additional loci. Here, we expanded the genetic landscape of macronutrient intake, identifying 12 suggestively significant loci (P < 1 × 10-6) associated with intake of any macronutrient in 91,114 European ancestry participants. Four loci replicated and reached genome-wide significance in a combined meta-analysis including 123,659 European descent participants, unraveling two novel loci; a common variant in RARB locus for carbohydrate intake and a rare variant in DRAM1 locus for protein intake, and corroborating earlier FGF21 and FTO findings. In additional analysis of 144,770 participants from the UK Biobank, all identified associations from the two-stage analysis were confirmed except for DRAM1. Identified loci might have implications in brain and adipose tissue biology and have clinical impact in obesity-related phenotypes. Our findings provide new insight into biological functions related to macronutrient intake.

3.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord ; 45(1-2): 66-78, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29694964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is increasingly evident that high blood pressure can promote reduction in global and regional brain volumes. While these effects may preferentially affect the hippocampus, reports are inconsistent. METHODS: Using data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), we examined the relationships of hippocampal volume to pulse pressure (PPR) and systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure according to apolipoprotein (APOE) ɛ4 positivity and cognitive status. The ADNI data included 1,308 participants: Alzheimer disease (AD = 237), late mild cognitive impairment (LMCI = 454), early mild cognitive impairment (EMCI = 254), and cognitively normal (CN = 365), with up to 24 months of follow-up. RESULTS: Higher quartiles of PPR were significantly associated with lower hippocampal volumes (Q1 vs. Q4, p = 0.034) in the CN and AD groups, but with increasing hippocampal volume (Q1, p = 0.008; Q2, p = 0.020; Q3, p = 0.017; Q4 = reference) in the MCI groups. In adjusted stratified analyses among non-APOE ɛ4 carriers, the effects in the CN (Q1 vs. Q4, p = 0.006) and EMCI groups (Q1, p = 0.002; Q2, p = 0.013; Q3, p = 0.002; Q4 = reference) remained statistically significant. Also, higher DBP was significantly associated with higher hippocampal volume (p = 0.002) while higher SBP was significantly associated with decreasing hippocampal volume in the EMCI group (p = 0.015). CONCLUSION: Changes in PPR, SBP, and DBP differentially influenced hippocampal volumes depending on the cognitive and APOE genotypic categories.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Pressão Sanguínea , Cognição , Frequência Cardíaca , Hipocampo/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neuroimagem , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Sintomas Prodrômicos
4.
PLoS One ; 12(12): e0186456, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29236708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regular fish and omega-3 consumption may have several health benefits and are recommended by major dietary guidelines. Yet, their intakes remain remarkably variable both within and across populations, which could partly owe to genetic influences. OBJECTIVE: To identify common genetic variants that influence fish and dietary eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (EPA+DHA) consumption. DESIGN: We conducted genome-wide association (GWA) meta-analysis of fish (n = 86,467) and EPA+DHA (n = 62,265) consumption in 17 cohorts of European descent from the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium Nutrition Working Group. Results from cohort-specific GWA analyses (additive model) for fish and EPA+DHA consumption were adjusted for age, sex, energy intake, and population stratification, and meta-analyzed separately using fixed-effect meta-analysis with inverse variance weights (METAL software). Additionally, heritability was estimated in 2 cohorts. RESULTS: Heritability estimates for fish and EPA+DHA consumption ranged from 0.13-0.24 and 0.12-0.22, respectively. A significant GWA for fish intake was observed for rs9502823 on chromosome 6: each copy of the minor allele (FreqA = 0.015) was associated with 0.029 servings/day (~1 serving/month) lower fish consumption (P = 1.96x10-8). No significant association was observed for EPA+DHA, although rs7206790 in the obesity-associated FTO gene was among top hits (P = 8.18x10-7). Post-hoc calculations demonstrated 95% statistical power to detect a genetic variant associated with effect size of 0.05% for fish and 0.08% for EPA+DHA. CONCLUSIONS: These novel findings suggest that non-genetic personal and environmental factors are principal determinants of the remarkable variation in fish consumption, representing modifiable targets for increasing intakes among all individuals. Genes underlying the signal at rs72838923 and mechanisms for the association warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/administração & dosagem , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Alimentos Marinhos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
6.
Nat Commun ; 8: 14977, 2017 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28443625

RESUMO

Few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) account for environmental exposures, like smoking, potentially impacting the overall trait variance when investigating the genetic contribution to obesity-related traits. Here, we use GWAS data from 51,080 current smokers and 190,178 nonsmokers (87% European descent) to identify loci influencing BMI and central adiposity, measured as waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio both adjusted for BMI. We identify 23 novel genetic loci, and 9 loci with convincing evidence of gene-smoking interaction (GxSMK) on obesity-related traits. We show consistent direction of effect for all identified loci and significance for 18 novel and for 5 interaction loci in an independent study sample. These loci highlight novel biological functions, including response to oxidative stress, addictive behaviour, and regulatory functions emphasizing the importance of accounting for environment in genetic analyses. Our results suggest that tobacco smoking may alter the genetic susceptibility to overall adiposity and body fat distribution.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Obesidade/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Fumar/genética , Adiposidade/genética , Adulto , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Epistasia Genética , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Circunferência da Cintura/genética , Relação Cintura-Quadril
7.
PLoS Genet ; 13(4): e1006528, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28448500

RESUMO

Physical activity (PA) may modify the genetic effects that give rise to increased risk of obesity. To identify adiposity loci whose effects are modified by PA, we performed genome-wide interaction meta-analyses of BMI and BMI-adjusted waist circumference and waist-hip ratio from up to 200,452 adults of European (n = 180,423) or other ancestry (n = 20,029). We standardized PA by categorizing it into a dichotomous variable where, on average, 23% of participants were categorized as inactive and 77% as physically active. While we replicate the interaction with PA for the strongest known obesity-risk locus in the FTO gene, of which the effect is attenuated by ~30% in physically active individuals compared to inactive individuals, we do not identify additional loci that are sensitive to PA. In additional genome-wide meta-analyses adjusting for PA and interaction with PA, we identify 11 novel adiposity loci, suggesting that accounting for PA or other environmental factors that contribute to variation in adiposity may facilitate gene discovery.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/genética , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Exercício , Obesidade/genética , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Epigenômica , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril
8.
Exp Gerontol ; 87(Pt A): 129-136, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27864047

RESUMO

Possession of the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene ε4 allele is the most prevalent genetic risk factor for late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent evidence suggests that APOE genotype differentially affects the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Notably, aerobic exercise-induced upregulation of BDNF is well documented; and exercise has been shown to improve cognitive function. As BDNF is known for its role in neuroplasticity and survival, its upregulation is a proposed mechanism for the neuroprotective effects of physical exercise. In this pilot study designed to analyze exercise-induced BDNF upregulation in an understudied population, we examined the effects of APOEε4 (ε4) carrier status on changes in BDNF expression after a standardized exercise program. African Americans, age 55years and older, diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment participated in a six-month, supervised program of either stretch (control treatment) or aerobic (experimental treatment) exercise. An exercise-induced increase in VO2Max was detected only in male participants. BDNF levels in serum were measured using ELISA. Age, screening MMSE scores and baseline measures of BMI, VO2Max, and BDNF did not differ between ε4 carriers and non-ε4 carriers. A significant association between ε4 status and serum BDNF levels was detected. Non-ε4 carriers showed a significant increase in BDNF levels at the 6month time point while ε4 carriers did not. We believe we have identified a relationship between the ε4 allele and BDNF response to physiologic adaptation which likely impacts the extent of neuroprotective benefit gained from engagement in physical exercise. Replication of our results with inclusion of diverse racial cohorts, and a no-exercise control group will be necessary to determine the scope of this association in the general population.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/sangue , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Exercício/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Cognição/fisiologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
9.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 16(1): 148, 2016 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27809784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Typical survival studies follow individuals to an event and measure explanatory variables for that event, sometimes repeatedly over the course of follow up. The Cox regression model has been used widely in the analyses of time to diagnosis or death from disease. The associations between the survival outcome and time dependent measures may be biased unless they are modeled appropriately. METHODS: In this paper we explore the Time Dependent Cox Regression Model (TDCM), which quantifies the effect of repeated measures of covariates in the analysis of time to event data. This model is commonly used in biomedical research but sometimes does not explicitly adjust for the times at which time dependent explanatory variables are measured. This approach can yield different estimates of association compared to a model that adjusts for these times. In order to address the question of how different these estimates are from a statistical perspective, we compare the TDCM to Pooled Logistic Regression (PLR) and Cross Sectional Pooling (CSP), considering models that adjust and do not adjust for time in PLR and CSP. RESULTS: In a series of simulations we found that time adjusted CSP provided identical results to the TDCM while the PLR showed larger parameter estimates compared to the time adjusted CSP and the TDCM in scenarios with high event rates. We also observed upwardly biased estimates in the unadjusted CSP and unadjusted PLR methods. The time adjusted PLR had a positive bias in the time dependent Age effect with reduced bias when the event rate is low. The PLR methods showed a negative bias in the Sex effect, a subject level covariate, when compared to the other methods. The Cox models yielded reliable estimates for the Sex effect in all scenarios considered. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that survival analyses that explicitly account in the statistical model for the times at which time dependent covariates are measured provide more reliable estimates compared to unadjusted analyses. We present results from the Framingham Heart Study in which lipid measurements and myocardial infarction data events were collected over a period of 26 years.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Cardiopatias/sangue , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Triglicerídeos/sangue
10.
N Am J Med Sci ; 8(7): 279-83, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27583235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current guidelines do not support the routine use of computed tomography (CT) scan of the head in the diagnostic workup of syncope. There is a lack of research to support whether these guidelines apply to the Black population. AIMS: This study aims to evaluate the yield of neuroimaging in the evaluation of Syncope in a predominantly Black patient population and to test whether current guidelines based on studies conducted in other populations hold true in this group. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective review of records of 151 patients admitted to a University Hospital with Syncope from 2011 to 2014 was performed. Data collected include CT head, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, magnetic resonance angiogram, electroencephalogram, and orthostatic vital signs. Demographic data, admitting service, and comorbid conditions were identified. Syncope was classified as cardiogenic, orthostatic, vasovagal, situational, or undetermined. Statistical analysis was performed to determine which diagnostic tools were useful in identifying the potential causes of syncope. Data analysis was conducted using the Statistical Analysis System software 9.3 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC) and Statistical Analysis and Graphics (NCSS 9.0.7, Kaysville, UT). RESULTS: One hundred and twenty eight (84.8%) of the patients were Black. The average age was 56.62 ± 18.78 standard deviation and 68.2% (103) were female. One hundred and fourteen patients (75.5%) had a CT brain. Five out of 114 patients had an acute abnormality on CT (4.4%). Only 1 of these 5 patients had an abnormality that was related to syncope. CT brain (P = 0.978) was not found to be predictive of underlying etiology of syncope despite high frequency of use. CONCLUSIONS: CT head was not useful in determining the etiology of syncope in a predominantly Black population. Current guidelines and studies conducted in other populations have detected similar findings.

11.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 102(5): 1266-78, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26354543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that meat intake is associated with diabetes-related phenotypes. However, whether the associations of meat intake and glucose and insulin homeostasis are modified by genes related to glucose and insulin is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the associations of meat intake and the interaction of meat with genotype on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations in Caucasians free of diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Fourteen studies that are part of the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium participated in the analysis. Data were provided for up to 50,345 participants. Using linear regression within studies and a fixed-effects meta-analysis across studies, we examined 1) the associations of processed meat and unprocessed red meat intake with fasting glucose and insulin concentrations; and 2) the interactions of processed meat and unprocessed red meat with genetic risk score related to fasting glucose or insulin resistance on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. RESULTS: Processed meat was associated with higher fasting glucose, and unprocessed red meat was associated with both higher fasting glucose and fasting insulin concentrations after adjustment for potential confounders [not including body mass index (BMI)]. For every additional 50-g serving of processed meat per day, fasting glucose was 0.021 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.011, 0.030 mmol/L) higher. Every additional 100-g serving of unprocessed red meat per day was associated with a 0.037-mmol/L (95% CI: 0.023, 0.051-mmol/L) higher fasting glucose concentration and a 0.049-ln-pmol/L (95% CI: 0.035, 0.063-ln-pmol/L) higher fasting insulin concentration. After additional adjustment for BMI, observed associations were attenuated and no longer statistically significant. The association of processed meat and fasting insulin did not reach statistical significance after correction for multiple comparisons. Observed associations were not modified by genetic loci known to influence fasting glucose or insulin resistance. CONCLUSION: The association of higher fasting glucose and insulin concentrations with meat consumption was not modified by an index of glucose- and insulin-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Six of the participating studies are registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT0000513 (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities), NCT00149435 (Cardiovascular Health Study), NCT00005136 (Family Heart Study), NCT00005121 (Framingham Heart Study), NCT00083369 (Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network), and NCT00005487 (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).


Assuntos
Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Hiperinsulinismo/etiologia , Resistência à Insulina , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Produtos da Carne/efeitos adversos , Carne/efeitos adversos , Glicemia/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Hiperglicemia/genética , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Hiperinsulinismo/sangue , Hiperinsulinismo/genética , Hiperinsulinismo/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
12.
Hum Mol Genet ; 24(16): 4728-38, 2015 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25994509

RESUMO

Obesity is highly heritable. Genetic variants showing robust associations with obesity traits have been identified through genome-wide association studies. We investigated whether a composite score representing healthy diet modifies associations of these variants with obesity traits. Totally, 32 body mass index (BMI)- and 14 waist-hip ratio (WHR)-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped, and genetic risk scores (GRS) were calculated in 18 cohorts of European ancestry (n = 68 317). Diet score was calculated based on self-reported intakes of whole grains, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts/seeds (favorable) and red/processed meats, sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages and fried potatoes (unfavorable). Multivariable adjusted, linear regression within each cohort followed by inverse variance-weighted, fixed-effects meta-analysis was used to characterize: (a) associations of each GRS with BMI and BMI-adjusted WHR and (b) diet score modification of genetic associations with BMI and BMI-adjusted WHR. Nominally significant interactions (P = 0.006-0.04) were observed between the diet score and WHR-GRS (but not BMI-GRS), two WHR loci (GRB14 rs10195252; LYPLAL1 rs4846567) and two BMI loci (LRRN6C rs10968576; MTIF3 rs4771122), for the respective BMI-adjusted WHR or BMI outcomes. Although the magnitudes of these select interactions were small, our data indicated that associations between genetic predisposition and obesity traits were stronger with a healthier diet. Our findings generate interesting hypotheses; however, experimental and functional studies are needed to determine their clinical relevance.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Epistasia Genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Loci Gênicos , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dieta Ocidental , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Mol Psychiatry ; 20(5): 647-656, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25288136

RESUMO

Coffee, a major dietary source of caffeine, is among the most widely consumed beverages in the world and has received considerable attention regarding health risks and benefits. We conducted a genome-wide (GW) meta-analysis of predominately regular-type coffee consumption (cups per day) among up to 91,462 coffee consumers of European ancestry with top single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) followed-up in ~30 062 and 7964 coffee consumers of European and African-American ancestry, respectively. Studies from both stages were combined in a trans-ethnic meta-analysis. Confirmed loci were examined for putative functional and biological relevance. Eight loci, including six novel loci, met GW significance (log10Bayes factor (BF)>5.64) with per-allele effect sizes of 0.03-0.14 cups per day. Six are located in or near genes potentially involved in pharmacokinetics (ABCG2, AHR, POR and CYP1A2) and pharmacodynamics (BDNF and SLC6A4) of caffeine. Two map to GCKR and MLXIPL genes related to metabolic traits but lacking known roles in coffee consumption. Enhancer and promoter histone marks populate the regions of many confirmed loci and several potential regulatory SNPs are highly correlated with the lead SNP of each. SNP alleles near GCKR, MLXIPL, BDNF and CYP1A2 that were associated with higher coffee consumption have previously been associated with smoking initiation, higher adiposity and fasting insulin and glucose but lower blood pressure and favorable lipid, inflammatory and liver enzyme profiles (P<5 × 10(-8)).Our genetic findings among European and African-American adults reinforce the role of caffeine in mediating habitual coffee consumption and may point to molecular mechanisms underlying inter-individual variability in pharmacological and health effects of coffee.


Assuntos
Coffea/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/genética , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A2/genética , Humanos , Fenótipo
14.
Hum Mol Genet ; 23(25): 6961-72, 2014 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25104851

RESUMO

FTO is the strongest known genetic susceptibility locus for obesity. Experimental studies in animals suggest the potential roles of FTO in regulating food intake. The interactive relation among FTO variants, dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) is complex and results from previous often small-scale studies in humans are highly inconsistent. We performed large-scale analyses based on data from 177,330 adults (154 439 Whites, 5776 African Americans and 17 115 Asians) from 40 studies to examine: (i) the association between the FTO-rs9939609 variant (or a proxy single-nucleotide polymorphism) and total energy and macronutrient intake and (ii) the interaction between the FTO variant and dietary intake on BMI. The minor allele (A-allele) of the FTO-rs9939609 variant was associated with higher BMI in Whites (effect per allele = 0.34 [0.31, 0.37] kg/m(2), P = 1.9 × 10(-105)), and all participants (0.30 [0.30, 0.35] kg/m(2), P = 3.6 × 10(-107)). The BMI-increasing allele of the FTO variant showed a significant association with higher dietary protein intake (effect per allele = 0.08 [0.06, 0.10] %, P = 2.4 × 10(-16)), and relative weak associations with lower total energy intake (-6.4 [-10.1, -2.6] kcal/day, P = 0.001) and lower dietary carbohydrate intake (-0.07 [-0.11, -0.02] %, P = 0.004). The associations with protein (P = 7.5 × 10(-9)) and total energy (P = 0.002) were attenuated but remained significant after adjustment for BMI. We did not find significant interactions between the FTO variant and dietary intake of total energy, protein, carbohydrate or fat on BMI. Our findings suggest a positive association between the BMI-increasing allele of FTO variant and higher dietary protein intake and offer insight into potential link between FTO, dietary protein intake and adiposity.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia/genética , Obesidade/etnologia , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas/genética , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Alelos , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Índice de Massa Corporal , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia
15.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 97(6): 1395-402, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23636237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Macronutrient intake varies substantially between individuals, and there is evidence that this variation is partly accounted for by genetic variants. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to identify common genetic variants that are associated with macronutrient intake. DESIGN: We performed 2-stage genome-wide association (GWA) meta-analysis of macronutrient intake in populations of European descent. Macronutrients were assessed by using food-frequency questionnaires and analyzed as percentages of total energy consumption from total fat, protein, and carbohydrate. From the discovery GWA (n = 38,360), 35 independent loci associated with macronutrient intake at P < 5 × 10(-6) were identified and taken forward to replication in 3 additional cohorts (n = 33,533) from the DietGen Consortium. For one locus, fat mass obesity-associated protein (FTO), cohorts with Illumina MetaboChip genotype data (n = 7724) provided additional replication data. RESULTS: A variant in the chromosome 19 locus (rs838145) was associated with higher carbohydrate (ß ± SE: 0.25 ± 0.04%; P = 1.68 × 10(-8)) and lower fat (ß ± SE: -0.21 ± 0.04%; P = 1.57 × 10(-9)) consumption. A candidate gene in this region, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), encodes a fibroblast growth factor involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. The variants in this locus were associated with circulating FGF21 protein concentrations (P < 0.05) but not mRNA concentrations in blood or brain. The body mass index (BMI)-increasing allele of the FTO variant (rs1421085) was associated with higher protein intake (ß ± SE: 0.10 ± 0.02%; P = 9.96 × 10(-10)), independent of BMI (after adjustment for BMI, ß ± SE: 0.08 ± 0.02%; P = 3.15 × 10(-7)). CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that variants in genes involved in nutrient metabolism and obesity are associated with macronutrient consumption in humans. Trials related to this study were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005131 (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities), NCT00005133 (Cardiovascular Health Study), NCT00005136 (Family Heart Study), NCT00005121 (Framingham Heart Study), NCT00083369 (Genetic and Environmental Determinants of Triglycerides), NCT01331512 (InCHIANTI Study), and NCT00005487 (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Alelos , Aterosclerose/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Ingestão de Energia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/sangue , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Seguimentos , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Hum Mol Genet ; 22(17): 3597-607, 2013 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23669352

RESUMO

Genetic loci for body mass index (BMI) in adolescence and young adulthood, a period of high risk for weight gain, are understudied, yet may yield important insight into the etiology of obesity and early intervention. To identify novel genetic loci and examine the influence of known loci on BMI during this critical time period in late adolescence and early adulthood, we performed a two-stage meta-analysis using 14 genome-wide association studies in populations of European ancestry with data on BMI between ages 16 and 25 in up to 29 880 individuals. We identified seven independent loci (P < 5.0 × 10⁻8) near FTO (P = 3.72 × 10⁻²³), TMEM18 (P = 3.24 × 10⁻¹7), MC4R (P = 4.41 × 10⁻¹7), TNNI3K (P = 4.32 × 10⁻¹¹), SEC16B (P = 6.24 × 10⁻9), GNPDA2 (P = 1.11 × 10⁻8) and POMC (P = 4.94 × 10⁻8) as well as a potential secondary signal at the POMC locus (rs2118404, P = 2.4 × 10⁻5 after conditioning on the established single-nucleotide polymorphism at this locus) in adolescents and young adults. To evaluate the impact of the established genetic loci on BMI at these young ages, we examined differences between the effect sizes of 32 published BMI loci in European adult populations (aged 18-90) and those observed in our adolescent and young adult meta-analysis. Four loci (near PRKD1, TNNI3K, SEC16B and CADM2) had larger effects and one locus (near SH2B1) had a smaller effect on BMI during adolescence and young adulthood compared with older adults (P < 0.05). These results suggest that genetic loci for BMI can vary in their effects across the life course, underlying the importance of evaluating BMI at different ages.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Loci Gênicos , Ganho de Peso/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
17.
Hum Mol Genet ; 22(9): 1895-902, 2013 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23372041

RESUMO

Dietary intake of macronutrients (carbohydrate, protein, and fat) has been associated with risk of chronic conditions such as obesity and diabetes. Family studies have reported a moderate contribution of genetics to variation in macronutrient intake. In a genome-wide meta-analysis of a population-based discovery cohort (n = 33 533), rs838133 in FGF21 (19q13.33), rs197273 near TRAF family member-associated NF-kappa-B activator (TANK) (2p24.2), and rs10163409 in FTO (16q12.2) were among the top associations (P < 10(-5)) for percentage of total caloric intake from protein and carbohydrate. rs838133 was replicated in silico in an independent sample from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium (CHARGE) Nutrition Working Group (n = 38 360) and attained genome-wide significance in combined analysis (Pjoint = 7.9 × 10(-9)). A cytokine involved in cellular metabolism, FGF21 is a potential susceptibility gene for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Our results highlight the potential of genetic variation for determining dietary macronutrient intake.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Loci Gênicos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
18.
J Nutr ; 143(3): 345-53, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23343670

RESUMO

Favorable associations between magnesium intake and glycemic traits, such as fasting glucose and insulin, are observed in observational and clinical studies, but whether genetic variation affects these associations is largely unknown. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with either glycemic traits or magnesium metabolism affect the association between magnesium intake and fasting glucose and insulin. Fifteen studies from the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium provided data from up to 52,684 participants of European descent without known diabetes. In fixed-effects meta-analyses, we quantified 1) cross-sectional associations of dietary magnesium intake with fasting glucose (mmol/L) and insulin (ln-pmol/L) and 2) interactions between magnesium intake and SNPs related to fasting glucose (16 SNPs), insulin (2 SNPs), or magnesium (8 SNPs) on fasting glucose and insulin. After adjustment for age, sex, energy intake, BMI, and behavioral risk factors, magnesium (per 50-mg/d increment) was inversely associated with fasting glucose [ß = -0.009 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.013, -0.005), P < 0.0001] and insulin [-0.020 ln-pmol/L (95% CI: -0.024, -0.017), P < 0.0001]. No magnesium-related SNP or interaction between any SNP and magnesium reached significance after correction for multiple testing. However, rs2274924 in magnesium transporter-encoding TRPM6 showed a nominal association (uncorrected P = 0.03) with glucose, and rs11558471 in SLC30A8 and rs3740393 near CNNM2 showed a nominal interaction (uncorrected, both P = 0.02) with magnesium on glucose. Consistent with other studies, a higher magnesium intake was associated with lower fasting glucose and insulin. Nominal evidence of TRPM6 influence and magnesium interaction with select loci suggests that further investigation is warranted.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Loci Gênicos , Insulina/sangue , Magnésio/farmacologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Oligoelementos/farmacologia , Glicemia/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/genética , Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Magnésio/metabolismo , Masculino , Canais de Cátion TRPM/genética , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Oligoelementos/metabolismo
19.
Blood ; 121(8): e50-6, 2013 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23287867

RESUMO

Circulating blood CD34(+) cells consist of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, angiogenic cells, and endothelial cells. In addition to their clinical use in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, CD34(+) cells may also promote therapeutic neovascularization. Therefore, understanding the factors that influence circulating CD34(+) cell frequency has wide implications for vascular biology in addition to stem cell transplantation. In the present study, we examined the clinical and genetic characteristics associated with circulating CD34(+) cell frequency in a large, community-based sample of 1786 Framingham Heart Study participants.Among subjects without cardiovascular disease (n = 1595), CD34(+) frequency was inversely related to older age, female sex, and smoking. CD34(+) frequency was positively related to weight, serum total cholesterol, and statin therapy. Clinical covariates accounted for 6.3% of CD34(+) variability. CD34(+) frequency was highly heritable (h(2) = 54%; P < .0001). Genome-wide association analysis of CD34(+) frequency identified suggestive associations at several loci, including OR4C12 (chromosome 11; P = 6.7 × 10(-7)) and ENO1 and RERE (chromosome 1; P = 8.8 × 10(-7)). CD34(+) cell frequency is reduced in older subjects and is influenced by environmental factors including smoking and statin use. CD34(+) frequency is highly heritable. The results of the present study have implications for therapies that use CD34(+) cell populations and support efforts to better understand the genetic mechanisms that underlie CD34(+) frequency.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hematopoese/genética , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/fisiologia , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Idoso , Antígenos CD34/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11 , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/genética , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
20.
Am J Epidemiol ; 177(2): 103-15, 2013 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23255780

RESUMO

Whether loci that influence fasting glucose (FG) and fasting insulin (FI) levels, as identified by genome-wide association studies, modify associations of diet with FG or FI is unknown. We utilized data from 15 U.S. and European cohort studies comprising 51,289 persons without diabetes to test whether genotype and diet interact to influence FG or FI concentration. We constructed a diet score using study-specific quartile rankings for intakes of whole grains, fish, fruits, vegetables, and nuts/seeds (favorable) and red/processed meats, sweets, sugared beverages, and fried potatoes (unfavorable). We used linear regression within studies, followed by inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis, to quantify 1) associations of diet score with FG and FI levels and 2) interactions of diet score with 16 FG-associated loci and 2 FI-associated loci. Diet score (per unit increase) was inversely associated with FG (ß = -0.004 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval: -0.005, -0.003) and FI (ß = -0.008 ln-pmol/L, 95% confidence interval: -0.009, -0.007) levels after adjustment for demographic factors, lifestyle, and body mass index. Genotype variation at the studied loci did not modify these associations. Healthier diets were associated with lower FG and FI concentrations regardless of genotype at previously replicated FG- and FI-associated loci. Studies focusing on genomic regions that do not yield highly statistically significant associations from main-effect genome-wide association studies may be more fruitful in identifying diet-gene interactions.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Dieta , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Genótipo , Homeostase/genética , Insulina/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/genética , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Jejum , Marcadores Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Insulina/genética , Modelos Lineares , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA