Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 258
Filtrar
1.
Food Chem ; 367: 130624, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339982

RESUMO

Wuyi Rock tea (WRT), a top-ranking oolong tea, possesses characteristic woody, floral, nutty flavor. WRT flavor is mainly formed during the manufacturing process. However, details regarding its formation process are not fully understood yet. In this study, the dynamics of volatile and phenolic components over the whole manufacturing process of WRT were investigated. During withering, despite minor changes in volatile and phenolic components, the central vacuole shrunk remarkably, which reduced the cell mechanical performance and facilitated the subsequent enzymatic fermentation. During fermentation, approximately 78% of flavan-3-ols in fresh tea leaves were oxidized and converted to a diverse mixture of highly heterogeneous oxidation products, such as theaflavins, whereas flavonols, phenolic acids, and xanthine alkaloids remained stable throughout the manufacturing process. Aldehydes, ketones, and heterocyclic compounds, imparting woody, floral, and nutty scent, were mainly formed during the roasting steps. This detailed information can expand our understanding on the formation of WRT flavor.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Chá , Aromatizantes , Manipulação de Alimentos , Odorantes/análise , Folhas de Planta , Paladar
2.
Food Chem ; 367: 130735, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365247

RESUMO

Green and black teas are regarded to possess therapeutic potential for the treatment of obesity, however it is not clear which tea performs better in body weight control. In this study, aiming to eliminate cultivar variation, green tea phenolics (GTP) were oxidized by tyrosinase to obtain oxidized tea phenolics (OTP). Thereafter, their anti-obesity effect on high-fat diet induced obese mice were compared. The results showed that despite their distinctive phenolic profiles, GTP and OTP exerted similar anti-obesity properties after 12 weeks of dietary intervention. Furthermore, cecal microbiota profiling exhibited comparable modulatory effects of GTP and OTP on multiple bacterial taxa, including Parabacteroides distasonis, Bifidobacterium, Prevotella, and Akkermansia muciniphila, which were strongly associated with obesity related indexes. Putative bacterial function profiling implicated that both GTP and OTP might regulate the lipid metabolism similarly. Collectively, the oxidation of GTP did not influence the anti-obesity and gut microbiota modulatory effects to any large extent.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Chá , Animais , Bacteroidetes , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/etiologia
3.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34870341

RESUMO

Skeletal stem/progenitor cells (SSPCs) can differentiate into osteogenic or adipogenic lineage. The mechanism governing lineage allocation of SSPCs is still not completely understood. Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays an essential role in specifying osteogenic fate of mesenchymal progenitors during embryogenesis. However, it is still unclear whether Hh signaling is required for lineage allocation of SSPCs in postnatal skeleton, and whether its dysregulation is related to age-related osteoporosis. Here, we demonstrated that Hh signaling was activated in metaphyseal SSPCs during osteogenic differentiation in the adult skeleton, and its activity decreased with aging. Inactivation of Hh signaling by genetic ablation of Smo, a key molecule in Hh signaling, in Osx-Cre-targeted SSPCs and hypertrophic chondrocytes led to decreased bone formation and increased bone marrow adiposity, two key pathological features of age-related osteoporosis. Moreover, we found that the bone-fat imbalance phenotype caused by Smo deletion mainly resulted from aberrant allocation of SSPCs toward adipogenic lineage at the expense of osteogenic differentiation, but not due to accelerated transdifferentiation of chondrocytes into adipocytes. Mechanistically, we found that Hh signaling regulated osteoblast versus adipocyte fate of SSPCs partly through upregulating Wnt signaling. Thus, our results indicate that Hh signaling regulates bone homeostasis and age-related osteoporosis by acting as a critical switch of cell fate decisions of Osx-Cre-targeted SSPCs in mice and suggest that Hh signaling may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of osteoporosis and other metabolic bone diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Foods ; 10(12)2021 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34945644

RESUMO

Inhibiting the growth of spoilage bacteria, such as Pseudomonas spp., is key to reducing spoilage in fish. The mucus adhesion test in vitro showed that the adhesion ability of Bacillus subtilis was positively correlated with its inhibition ability to Pseudomonas spp. In vivo experiments of tilapia showed that dietary supplementation with B. subtilis could reduce the adhesion and colonization of Pseudomonas spp. in fish intestines and flesh, as well as reduce total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) production. High throughput and metabolomic analysis showed treatment with B. subtilis, especially C6, reduced the growth of Pseudomonas spp., Aeromonas spp., Fusobacterium spp., and Enterobacterium spp., as well as aromatic spoilage compounds associated with these bacteria, such as indole, 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-phenol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, phenol, and 1-octen-3-ol. Our work showed that B. subtilis could improve the flavor of fish by changing the intestinal flora of fish, and it shows great promise as a microecological preservative.

5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(23): 6163-6177, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34951243

RESUMO

This study aimed to qualitatively analyze the chemical components in Xiaoer Chiqiao Qingre Granules(XRCQ) by UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS/MS and identify its material basis. The absorbed components in plasma were combined for exploring the potential action mechanism by integrated network pharmacology. ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.8 µm) column and mobile phase system of 0.1% formic acid solution(A)-acetonitrile(B) were used for gradient elution, followed by high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in both positive and negative ion scanning modes. According to the precise relative molecular mass and MS/MS fragment ions, a total of 124 chemical components were identified in XRCQ by the comparison with references and literature reports, among which 29 compounds were completely confirmed by comparison with reference substances. Then, the main absorbed components of XRCQ in plasma were also analyzed and clarified by UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS/MS. BATMAN-TCM and SwissTargetPrediction were used for target prediction of absorbed components in plasma. Following the plotting of association network with Cytoscape 3.8.2, the core targets were subjected to GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis and a component-target-pathway network was constructed. A total of eight main targets of XRCQ against fever in children were obtained together with eight absorbed components in plasma, including glycyrhydinic acid, hesperidin, emodin, reticuline, daidzein, magnolignan C, magnolignan A, and magnolaldehyde D. It was inferred that XRCQ might improve alimentary system abnormality, inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and endocrine disorder through tumor necrosis factor, PI3 K-AKT, and other signaling pathways. The present study comprehensively expounded the chemical profiles of XRCQ and the main absorbed components in plasma and predicted the potential mechanism of XRCQ based on integrated network pharmacology, which has provided certain theoretical reference for the clinical application of XRCQ.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Criança , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos
6.
Int J Cardiol ; 345: 111-117, 2021 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Only one large series has been reported on fat embolism syndrome (FES), a condition caused by fat globules release into the circulation, primarily as consequence of bone fracture. Thus, more data on clinical features, therapies, and prognosis are needed. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study screened 1090 manuscripts in PubMed and Web of Science on cases of FES published from June 2010 to June 2020. The authors identified 124 studies and included in the pooled-analysis 135 patients (>14 years), plus one additional unpublished case managed in Tongji hospital. All had confirmed diagnosis of FES with complete clinical data. The median age at presentation was 39 years, and 82 (61.8%) were men. FES was predominantly associated with bone fractures (78, 57.4%), particularly femur fracture (59, 43.4%). The most common clinical finding at the onset was respiratory abnormalities in 34.6% of all clinical presentations. Therapies included respiratory supportive care in 127 (93.4%) patients, application of corticosteroids in 22 (16.2%) and anticoagulant in 5 (3.7%) cases. Overall mortality was 30.2% (N = 41), and logistic regression analysis showed that corticosteroid therapy was significantly associated with reduced mortality with an OR of 0.143 (95%CI 0.029-0.711), while age ≥ 65 years and non-orthopedic conditions were significantly associated with increased mortality with an OR of 4.816 (95%CI 1.638-14.160) and 4.785 (95%CI 1.019-22.474). CONCLUSIONS: FES has been associated with a larger mortality rate than previously observed, although publication bias can have led to overestimation of mortality. Finally, a potential protective effect of corticosteroid therapy has been suggested by the current analysis.


Assuntos
Embolia Gordurosa , Fraturas Ósseas , Corticosteroides , Idoso , Embolia Gordurosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Gordurosa/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico
7.
Reprod Sci ; 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750770

RESUMO

To assess associations between infants with macrosomia and placental expression levels of lipid activated/transport-related factors and umbilical cord blood lipid concentrations in healthy pregnancy. We conducted a case-control study of 38 macrosomic neonates (MS group) and 39 normal-birth-weight newborns (NC group) in a healthy pregnancy. Cord blood lipid levels were measured by automatic biochemical analyzer, mRNA and protein expression levels of placental lipid activated/transport-related factors were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot, respectively. Compared with NC group, cord blood total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations were decreased in the MS group. The mRNA and protein expression levels of placental peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARα, PPARγ), plasma membrane fatty acid-binding protein (FABPpm), and fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) were significantly higher in the MS group than the NC group. And there was a weak positive correlation between the expression of PPARγ, FABP4, and FABP3 mRNA in the placenta and the HDLC (rs = 0.439; P = 0.005), NEFA (rs = 0.342; P = 0.041), and TG (rs = 0.349; P = 0.034) levels in the cord blood in the MS group, respectively. After multivariate adjustment, the logistic regression analysis showed that high placental PPARα (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.022; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.032-8.853) and FAT/CD36 (AOR=2.989; 95%CI 1.029-8.679) and low LDLC concentration in the cord blood (AOR=0.246; 95%CI 0.080-0.759) increased the risk of macrosomia. The increased PPARα and FAT/CD36 expression levels may influence the occurrence of fetal macrosomia through regulating placental lipid transport.

8.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 38(11): 1101-1105, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729752

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the phenotype and genetic variant in a pedigree affected with inherited protein C (PC) deficiency. METHODS: The proband and her family members (7 individuals from 3 generations) were tested for plasma protein C activity (PC:A), protein C antigen (PC:Ag) content and other coagulation indicators. All of the 9 exons and flanking sequences of the proband's PROC gene were amplified by PCR and sequenced. Suspected variants were verified by reverse sequencing of the proband and her family members. Bioinformatic software was used to analyze the pathogenicity and conservation of the variant site. Swiss-PdbViewer was used to analyze the three-dimensional model and the interaction with the mutant amino acid. RESULTS: The PC:A and PC:Ag of the proband, her grandmother, father and elder brother were decreased to 55%, 52%, 48%, 51% and 53%, 55%, 50%, 56%, respectively. Genetic analysis showed that the four individuals have all carried heterozygous c.1318C>T (p.Arg398Cys) missense mutation in exon 9 of the PROC gene. The score of MutationTaster was 0.991, PROVEAN was -3.72, and FATHMM was -2.49, all predicted it to be a harmful mutation. Phylogenetic analysis also showed that Arg398 was weakly conservative among homologous species. Protein model analysis showed that, in the wild type, Arg398 can form a hydrogen bond with Glu341 and Lys395 respectively, when it was mutated to Cys398, the hydrogen bond with Glu341 disappears and an additional hydrogen bond was formed with Lys395, which has changed the spatial structure of the protein. CONCLUSION: The heterozygous missense mutation c.1318C>T (p.Arg398Cys) of the PROC gene probably underlay the decreased PC:A and PC:Ag in this pedigree.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Proteína C , Idoso , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Deficiência de Proteína C/genética
9.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648001

RESUMO

AIMS: Abnormal intracellular calcium handling contributes to the progressive nature of atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. Evidence in mouse models suggests that activation of the nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT) signaling pathway contributes to atrial remodeling. Our aim was to determine the role of NFATc2 in AF in humans and mouse models. METHODS AND RESULTS: Expression levels of NFATc1-c4 isoforms were assessed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in right atrial appendages from patients with chronic AF. NFATc1 and NFATc2 mRNA levels were elevated in chronic AF (cAF) patients compared with those in sinus rhythm (SR). Western blotting revealed increased cytosolic and nuclear levels of NFATc2 in AF patients. Similar findings were obtained in CREM-IbΔC-X transgenic (CREM) mice, a model of progressive AF. Telemetry ECG recordings revealed age-dependent spontaneous AF in CREM mice, which was prevented by NFATc2 knockout in CREM: NFATc2-/- mice. Programmed electrical stimulation revealed that CREM: NFATc2-/- mice lacked an AF substrate. Morphometric analysis and histology revealed increased atrial weight and atrial fibrosis in CREM mice compared with WT controls, which was reversed in CREM: NFATc2-/- mice. Confocal microscopy showed an increased Ca2+ spark frequency despite a reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ load in CREM mice compared with controls, whereas these abnormalities were normalized in CREM: NFATc2-/- mice. Western blotting revealed that genetic inhibition of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation of S2814 on RyR2 in CREM: RyR2-S2814A mice suppressed NFATc2 activation observed in CREM mice, suggesting that NFATc2 is activated by excessive SR Ca2+ leak via RyR2. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing from AF patients identified Ras And EF-Hand Domain-Containing Protein (RASEF) as a direct target of NFATc2 mediated transcription. CONCLUSION: Our findings reveal activation of the NFAT signaling pathway in patients of Chinese and European descent. NFATc2 knockout prevents the progression of AF in the CREM mouse model. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a progressive disease characterized by electrical and structural remodeling which promotes atrial arrhythmias. This study provides evidence for increased 'nuclear factor of activated T-cell' (NFAT) signaling in patients with chronic AF. Studies in the CREM transgenic model of progressive AF revealed that the NFATc2 isoform mediates atrial remodeling associated with AF substrate development. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing of atrial biopsies from AF patients identified 'Ras And EF-Hand Domain-Containing Protein' (RASEF) as a downstream target of NFATc2-mediated transcription, suggesting that targeting these factors might be beneficial for curtailing AF progression.

10.
Foods ; 10(10)2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34681485

RESUMO

The potential effects of Auricularia auricula melanin (AAM) on the intestinal flora and liver metabolome in mice exposed to alcohol intake were investigated for the first time. The results showed that oral administration of AAM significantly reduced the abnormal elevation of serum total triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and significantly inhibited hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis in mice exposed to alcohol intake. Besides, the abnormally high levels of bile acids (BAs) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the liver of mice with alcohol intake were significantly decreased by AAM intervention, while the hepatic levels of glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were appreciably increased. Compared with the model group, AAM supplementation significantly changed the composition of intestinal flora and up-regulated the levels of Akkermansia, Bifidobacterium, Romboutsia, Muribaculaceae, Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group, etc. Furthermore, liver metabolomics demonstrated that AAM had a significant regulatory effect on the composition of liver metabolites in mice with alcohol intake, especially the metabolites involved in phosphatidylinositol signaling system, ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, galactose metabolism, alpha-linolenic acid metabolism, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids. At the gene level, AAM treatment regulated the mRNA levels of lipid metabolism and inflammatory response related genes in liver, including ACC-1, FASn, CPT-1, CD36, IFN-γ, LDLr and TNF-α. Conclusively, these findings suggest that AAM has potential beneficial effects on alleviating alcohol-induced liver injury and is expected to become a new functional food ingredient.

11.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(11): e008459, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34711067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac sialylation is involved in a variety of physiological processes in the heart. Altered sialylation has been implicated in heart failure (HF) mice. However, its role in patients with HF is unclear, and the potential effect of modulation of cardiac sialylation is worth exploring. METHODS: We first assessed the association between plasma N-acetylneuraminic acid levels and the incidence of adverse cardiovascular events in patients with HF over a median follow-up period of 2 years. Next, immunoblot analysis and lectin histochemistry were performed in cardiac tissue to determine the expression levels of neuraminidases and the extent of cardiac desialylation. Finally, the therapeutic impact of a neuraminidase inhibitor was evaluated in animal models of HF. RESULTS: Among 1699 patients with HF, 464 (27%) died of cardiovascular-related deaths or underwent heart transplantation. We found that the elevated plasma N-acetylneuraminic acid level was independently associated with a higher risk of incident cardiovascular death and heart transplantation (third tertile adjusted hazard ratio, 2.11 [95% CI, 1.67-2.66], P<0.001). In addition, in cardiac tissues from patients with HF, neuraminidase expression was upregulated, accompanied by desialylation. Treatment with oseltamivir, a neuraminidase inhibitor, in HF mice infused with isoproterenol and angiotensin II significantly inhibited desialylation and ameliorated cardiac dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: This study uncovered a significant association between elevated plasma N-acetylneuraminic acid level and an increased risk of a poor clinical outcome in patients with HF. Our data support the notion that desialylation represents an important contributor to the progression of HF, and neuraminidase inhibition may be a potential therapeutic strategy for HF.

12.
J Ren Nutr ; 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688540

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Vascular calcification (VC) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. Hyperphosphatemia and microinflammation statement are known major contributors to the development of VC; however, the mechanisms are unknown. The aims of this study were to explore the risk factors of VC in MHD patients and to explore whether high phosphate could increase the secretion of inflammatory cytokines via PiT-1 in monocytes. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 65 MHD patients to assess the relevance of coronary artery calcification (CAC), inflammatory factors, serum phosphate, and sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter (NPT) mRNA expression of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the predictors of CAC. The calcification effects of high phosphate (HP), TNF-α, and supernatants of healthy human monocytes treated with HP were further evaluated in cultured HASMCs. RESULTS: Diabetes, longer dialysis vintage, higher serum TNF-α levels, and PiT-1 mRNA expression of PBMCs) were independent risk factors of CAC in MHD patients. The mRNA levels of PiT-1 in PBMCs were positively correlated with serum phosphate, CAC scores, and Pit-2 mRNA levels of PBMCs. The expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, and PiT-1 in human monocytes were significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner after treatment with HP, which was subsequently inhibited by NPT antagonist phosphonoformic acid. Neither TNF-α alone nor supernatants of monocytes stimulated with HP promoted the expression of osteopontin and Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) or caused mineralization in human aortic smooth muscle cells, but combined with HP intervention, the calcification effects were markedly increased in human aortic smooth muscle cells and ameliorated by phosphonoformic acid treatment. CONCLUSION: Hyperphosphatemia directly increased the synthesis and secretion of TNF-α by monocytes may via PiT-1 pathway, resulting in elevated systemic inflammatory response, which may further aggravate VC induced by phosphate overload in MHD patients.

13.
J Inflamm Res ; 14: 4267-4282, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511967

RESUMO

Purpose: We previously reported that monoclonal antibody (mAb) cocktail improves survival in Staphylococcus aureus infection. In this study, we used acute pneumonia model and lethal sepsis model to investigate the efficacy of antibiotic combined with epitope-specific mAb cocktail in treating MRSA252 infection. Methods: MRSA252 was challenged by tail vein injection or tracheal intubation to establish sepsis model or pneumonia model. One hour after infection, the mice received a single intravenous injection of normal saline, vancomycin, and vancomycin combined monoclonal antibody, linezolid alone or linezolid combined monoclonal antibody. Daily record survival rate (total 7 days), bacterial load, histology, cytokine analysis of serum and alveolar lavage fluid, and in vitro determination of the neutralizing ability of antibodies to SEB toxin and Hla toxin explained the mechanism of antibody action. Results: The mAb cocktail combined with low doses of vancomycin or linezolid improved survival rates in acute pneumonia model (70%, 80%) and lethal sepsis model (80%, 80%). Epitope-specific monoclonal antibodies reduced bacterial colonization in the kidneys and lungs of mice and inhibited the biological functions of the toxins Hla and SEB in vitro. Compared to the antibiotic alone or PBS groups, the combination group had higher levels of IL-1α, IL-1ß and IFN-γ and lower levels of IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α. Further, the combination of antibiotic and mAb cocktail improved infection survival against the clinical MRSA isolates in a lethal sepsis model. Conclusion: This study demonstrates a novel method to treat people with low immunity against drug-resistant S. aureus infections.

14.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 707342, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483997

RESUMO

Background: The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has created a severe mental health problem for international students living in China. Despite the little information on the psychological impact on international students, we aimed to assess the psychological outcomes and associated factors among international students currently living in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted from May 28, 2020 to June 12, 2020 on 402 full-time international students across 26 provinces in China. The frequency of symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress, insomnia, psychological distress, loneliness, and fear was assessed with the English versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6), University of California, Los Angeles, Loneliness Scale (UCLA-LS), and Fear of COVID-19 scale (FCV-19S) scales, respectively. Results: The prevalence of symptoms of depression (73.4%), anxiety (76.6%), stress (58.5%), insomnia (77.6%), psychological distress (71.4%), loneliness (62.4%), and fear (73.1%) among international students during the COVID-19 pandemic was shown. The prevalence of moderate to extremely severe symptoms of all psychological outcomes was significantly associated with 26-30-year-old students, students who lived with roommates, and students who stayed in China shorter than 2 years. Participants in the central region reported significantly moderate to extremely severe symptom levels of all the psychological outcomes except fear symptoms. Univariate analysis indicated that a significant association of all psychological outcomes was found among 26-30-year-old students and students who stayed in China shorter than 2 years. Multivariate analysis showed that Engineering, Business, Social Sciences and Law, and Language students were significantly associated with the symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and fear. Participants staying in China for shorter than 2 years were associated with a higher risk of all psychological outcomes except psychological distress and loneliness symptoms. Conclusions: We found a higher prevalence of psychological outcomes and risk factors among international students during the COVID-19 pandemic. We immediately appealed to university authorities, mental health professionals, and government officials to provide mental health interventions and strategies for their international students, particularly young, central region students, living with roommates, different study backgrounds, and short time staying during the pandemic.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462638

RESUMO

Red yeast rice is a traditional Chinese medicine and food that has been purported to color food, ferment, and lower cholesterol. In order to study the antioxidative capacity of red yeast rice and the effects on electrical potential difference (EPD) of 12 acupuncture meridians, the pH value, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), ABTS, FRAP, T-SOD, and particle size distribution of red yeast rice were analyzed. 20 volunteers were recruited and randomly divided into two groups, the red yeast rice group (10 g red yeast rice and 40 g water) and control CK group (50 g water). The left 12 acupuncture meridians' EPD was real-time monitored. Samples were taken at the 10th minutes. The whole procedure continued for 70 minutes. It is shown that the pH value of the red yeast rice was 4.22, the ORP was 359.63 mV, the ABTS was 0.48 mmol Trolox, the FRAP was 0.08 mmol FeSO4, the T-SOD was 4.71 U, and the average particle size was 108 nm (7.1%) and 398.1 nm (92.9%). The results of 12 acupuncture meridians' EPD showed that the red yeast rice can significantly affect the EPD of stomach, heart, small intestine, and liver meridians.

16.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 715295, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408740

RESUMO

This study is the first to investigate the difference in the composition of Monascus azaphilone pigments (MonAzPs) between functional Qu (FQ) and coloring Qu (CQ) and analyze their relationships with antioxidant activity. The composition of key active components and antioxidant activity of the ethanol extracts of FQ and CQ were analyzed by Uv-vis, HPLC, and chemical antioxidant tests. The composition of MonAzPs of the ethanol extracts was further analyzed by HPLC-MS. Seven Monascus yellow pigments (MYPs) with high abundance were successfully purified for the antioxidation evaluation in vitro and in the cell. Correlation analysis between the metabolites and the antioxidant activity of Hongqu indicated that MonAzPs might play an essential role in the antioxidant activity (r > 0.80). By contrast, the monacolin K (MK), polysaccharide, ergosterol, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were not significantly correlated with the antioxidant activity. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) based on the composition of MonAzPs revealed that the abundance of MYPs is significantly different between FQ and CQ (P < 0.05 and VIP > 1.0). Seven MYPs (monasfluore A, monaphilone B, monascuspilion, monascin, monaphilone A, ankaflavin, and new yellow pigment) with high abundance were successfully purified for the antioxidation evaluation. Chemical antioxidant tests revealed that the antioxidant activities of monaphilone A, ankaflavin, and new yellow pigment only from CQ were significantly more potent than monasfluore A and monascuspilion only separated from FQ. The cellular antioxidant assay (CAA) showed that the new yellow pigment had the best antioxidant activity (quercetin equivalent 7.23 µM), followed by monasfluore A and monaphilone B, all of which were significantly better than monascin and ankaflavin, the two most frequently reported MYPs. Research on the structure-activity relationship demonstrated that alterations of the hydroxyl that occurred on C-3' or C-11 obviously affected the antioxidant activities of MYPs. Our findings provide evidence that MYPs may be the key active components for CQ to have a more potent antioxidant capacity than FQ. The alterations of the hydroxyl that occurred on C-3' or C-11 obviously affected the antioxidant activities of MYPs.

17.
J Psychiatr Res ; 141: 378-384, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is widely acknowledged as a severe traumatic event, and depression, anxiety, and psychological distress are common in diagnosed patients. However, the correlations of biological indicators with emotion are rarely reported. The primary objective of this study was to explore the dysfunction of immune-inflammatory characteristics in patients with depression-anxiety symptoms. METHODS: We investigated the mental status of inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan and compared the differences in cytokines and lymphocytes between patients with and without depression-anxiety symptoms at admission. After two weeks of treatment, we evaluated the mental conditions and measured the cytokines and lymphocytes of the patients with depression and anxiety symptoms and explored the changes and their associations. RESULTS: Approximately half of the patients with COVID-19 had depression and anxiety symptoms, and the symptoms were related to the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ and the level of CD4+T lymphocytes. When compared with patients without depression-anxiety symptoms, CD4+T lymphocytes level was significantly higher in COVID-19 patients with depression-anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSION: This study provided novel evidence regarding the association between depression and anxiety symptoms and immune characteristics, especially CD4+T lymphocyte levels, in COVID-19 patients. We emphasized the importance of paying attention to the dynamic immune process of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 with depression/anxiety.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pacientes Internados
18.
Food Funct ; 12(16): 7145-7160, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231612

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of the oral administration of Lactobacillus brevis FZU0713-fermented Laminaria japonica (FLJ) on lipid metabolism and intestinal microbiota in hyperlipidemic rats fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). The results demonstrated that the oral administration of FLJ significantly inhibited obesity and improved the serum and hepatic biochemical parameters in HFD-fed rats. Histopathological results also indicated that FLJ intervention could significantly reduce the accumulation of lipid droplets in the liver induced by HFD feeding. Furthermore, FLJ intervention up-regulated the fecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels (mainly acetate, propionate and isobutyrate) in HFD-fed rats. Intestinal microbiota profiling by 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that FLJ intervention increased the relative abundance of Akkermansia, Collinsella, Ruminococcaceae_UCG-013, Defluviitaleaceae_UCG-011, Intestinimonas, Actinomyces and Tyzzerella, but decreased the abundance of Flavonifractor, Collinsella, Sporosarcina and Lacticigenium. Based on Spearman's correlation, the fecal levels of TC, TG, acetic acid and butyric acid were positively correlated with the relative abundance of Akkermansia and Ruminococcaceae_NK4A214, but negatively correlated with the relative amount of Flavonifractor and Collinsella. The metabolic function of intestinal microbiota predicted by PICRUSt analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that primary and secondary bile acid biosyntheses, fatty acid biosynthesis, taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, etc. were significantly down-regulated after 8 weeks of FLJ intervention. Additionally, FLJ intervention significantly regulated the hepatic mRNA levels (including BSEP, CYP7A1, LDLR, HMGCR, CD36 and SREBP1-C) involved in lipid metabolism and bile acid homeostasis. In conclusion, these findings support the possibility that Laminaria japonica fermented with probiotic Lactobacillus has the potential to reduce the disturbance of lipid metabolism by regulating intestinal microflora and liver gene expression profiles, so it can be employed as a potential functional food to prevent hyperlipidemia.

19.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 702951, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234769

RESUMO

Hongqu is a famous fermented food produced by Monascus and has been used as food coloring, wine starters and food additives for thousands of years in China. Excellent Monascus strain is an important prerequisite for producing high-quality Hongqu. However, the isolation of Monascus pure culture from Hongqu samples is time-consuming and laborious because it is easily interfered by other microorganisms (especially filamentous fungi). Therefore, the development of restrictive medium for Monascus enrichment from Hongqu is of great significance for the preparation and screening of excellent Monascus strains. Results of this study showed that Monascus has good tolerance to lactic acid and ethanol. Under the conditions of tolerance limits [7.5% lactic acid (v/v) and 12.0% ethanol (v/v)], Monascus could not grow but it still retained the vitality of spore germination, and the spore activity gradually decreased with the increasing concentrations of lactic acid and ethanol. More interestingly, the addition of lactic acid and ethanol significantly changed the microbial community structure in rice milk inoculated with Hongqu. After response surface optimization, Monascus could be successfully enriched without the interference of other microorganisms when 3.98% (v/v) lactic acid and 6.24% (v/v) ethanol were added to rice milk simultaneously. The optimal enrichment duration of Monascus by the restrictive medium based on the synergistic stress of lactic acid and ethanol is 8∼24 h. The synergistic stress of lactic acid and ethanol had no obvious effects on the accumulation of major metabolites in the progeny of Monascus, and was suitable for the enrichment of Monascus from different types of Hongqu. Finally, the possible mechanisms on the tolerance of Monascus to the synergistic stress of lactic acid and ethanol were preliminarily studied. Under the synergistic stress of lactic acid and ethanol, the cell membrane of Monascus defends against lactic acid and ethanol into cells to some extent, and the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities of Monascus were higher than those of other fungi, which significantly reduced the degree of lipid peroxidation of cell membrane, while secreting more amylase to make reducing sugars to provide the cells with enough energy to resist environmental stress. This work has great application value for the construction of Monascus strain library and the better development of its germplasm resources.

20.
Front Physiol ; 12: 672572, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34220535

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study is to verify whether melatonin (Mel) could mitigate intervertebral disk degeneration (IVDD) in rats and to investigate the potential mechanism of it. Method: A rat acupuncture model of IVDD was established with intraperitoneal injection of Mel. The effect of Mel on IVDD was analyzed via radiologic and histological evaluations. The specific Mel receptors were investigated in both the nucleus pulposus (NP) and cartilaginous endplates (EPs). In vitro, EP cartilaginous cells (EPCs) were treated by different concentrations of Mel under lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Luzindole conditions. In addition, LPS-induced inflammatory response and matrix degradation following nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) pathway activation were investigated to confirm the potential mechanism of Mel on EPCs. Results: The percent disk height index (%DHI) and MRI signal decreased after initial puncture in the degeneration group compared with the control group, while Mel treatment protected disk height from decline and prevented the loss of water during the degeneration process. In the meantime, the histological staining of the Mel groups showed more integrity and well-ordered construction of the NP and EPs in both low and high concentration than that of the degeneration group. In addition, more deep-brown staining of type II collagen (Coll-II) was shown in the Mel groups compared with the degeneration group. Furthermore, in rat samples, immunohistochemical staining showed more positive cells of Mel receptors 1a and 1b in the EPs, instead of in the NP. Moreover, evident osteochondral lacuna formation was observed in rat EPs in the degeneration group; after Mel treatment, the osteochondral destruction alleviated accompanying fewer receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-stained positive cells expressed in the EPs. In vitro, Mel could promote the proliferation of EPCs, which protected EPCs from degeneration under LPS treatment. What is more, Mel downregulated the inflammatory response and matrix degradation of EPCs activated by NF-κB pathway through binding to its specific receptors. Conclusion: These results indicate that Mel protects the integrity of the EPs and attenuates IVDD by binding to the Mel receptors in the EPs. It may alleviate the inflammatory response and matrix degradation of EPCs activated by NF-κB pathway.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...