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1.
J Clin Rheumatol ; 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cross-sectional study is to determine the prevalence of opioid use in a large sample of fibromyalgia (FM) patients and examine the factors associated with opioid prescription/use despite multiple clinical guidelines that do not recommend opioid use in this population. METHODS: Data were collected from a convenience sample of 698 patients admitted from August 2017 to May 2019 into an intensive 2-day Fibromyalgia Treatment Program at a tertiary medical center in the United States after FM diagnosis. Patients were administered the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire-Revised, the Center for Epidemiologic Study of Depression Scale, and the Pain Catastrophizing Scale upon admission to the program. Demographic information and opioid use were self-reported. Logistic regression analysis was utilized to determine associations between patient-related variables and opioid use in this prospective study. RESULTS: Of 698 patients, 27.1% (n = 189) were taking opioids at intake. Extended duration of symptoms (>3 years), increased age, higher degree of functional impairment, and increased pain catastrophizing were significantly associated with opioid use. CONCLUSIONS: Opioids are not recommended for the treatment of FM under current guidelines. Greater burden of illness appeared to be associated with the prescription and use of opioids in this population. These findings suggest that some providers may not be aware of current recommendations that have been found to be effective in the management of FM that are contained in guidelines. Alternative approaches to the management of FM that do not involve opioids are reviewed in an effort to improve care.

2.
Psychosomatics ; 61(1): 8-18, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648776

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We describe a three-phase implementation of the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement Depression and Anxiety Standard Set in a Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry practice. METHODS: During the preintervention phase, we reviewed patient-reported outcome tools and engaged stakeholders and leadership. During phase 1, the standard set was converted into an electronic previsit intake assessment that was implemented in a physician champion's practice. Patients completed the intake on a tablet, and computer adaptive testing was used to reduce response burden. Physician-facing data display facilitated use during subsequent in-person visits. An electronic version of the follow-up standard set was used during follow-up visits. During phase 2, a second physician tested scalability and the intervention was disseminated department wide in phase 3. RESULTS: During phase 1, 186 intakes and 67 follow-up electronic patient-reported outcome sets were completed. Average patient age was 54 years, and 44% were male. On average, patients ranked the tool 4.4 out of 5 and spent 22 minutes completing the intake. Time-driven activity-based costing found the new process to be cost-effective. During phase 2, 386 patients completed electronic patient-reported outcome sets, with 315 follow-up visits. Patients ranked the tool as 4.0 out of 5 and spent 26 minutes completing the questions. During phase 3, 2166 patients completed intake electronic patient-reported outcome sets and 1249 follow-up visits. Patients ranked the tool 4.3 out of 5 and spent 26 minutes on it. Scores and completion time did not differ greatly between phases. CONCLUSIONS: Integration of the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement Depression and Anxiety Standard Set is feasible. Future research comparing International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement set with other approaches and in different settings is needed.

3.
Psychosomatics ; 61(2): 145-153, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychiatric disorders are common in cancer patients and impact outcomes. Impact on cancer care cost needs study to develop business case for psychosocial interventions. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of preexisting psychiatric comorbidities on total cost of care during 6 months after cancer diagnosis. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study examined patients diagnosed with cancer between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2014, at one National Cancer Institute-designated cancer center. Patients who received all cancer treatment at the study site (6598 of 11,035 patients) were included. Patients were divided into 2 groups, with or without psychiatric comorbidity, based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) diagnosis codes. Total costs of care during the first 6 months of treatment were based on standardized costs adjusted to 2014 dollars, determined by assigning Medicare reimbursement rates to professional billed services and applying appropriate cost-to-charge ratios. Quantile regression models with covariate adjustments were developed to assess the effect of psychiatric comorbidity across the distribution of costs. RESULTS: Six hundred ninety-eight (10.6%) of 6598 eligible patients had at least one psychiatric comorbidity. These patients had more nonpsychiatric Elixhauser comorbidities (mean 4 vs. 3). Unadjusted total cancer care costs were higher for patients with psychiatric comorbidity (mean [standard deviation]: $51,798 [$74,549] vs. $32,186 [$45,240]; median [quartiles]: $23,871 [$10,705-$57,338] vs. $19,073 [$8120-$38,230]). Quantile regression models demonstrated that psychiatric comorbidity had significant incremental effects at higher levels of cost: 75th percentile $8629 (95% confidence interval: $3617-13,642) and 90th percentile $42,586 (95% confidence interval: $25,843-59,330). CONCLUSIONS: Psychiatric comorbidities are associated with increased total cancer costs, especially in patients with very high cancer care costs, representing an opportunity to develop mitigation strategies.

4.
Am J Transplant ; 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612625

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to assess the availability of mental health (MH) and chemical dependency (CD) services at US transplant centers, because appropriate psychosocial assessment and care is associated with better transplant outcomes. We used the 2017-2018 American Hospital Association survey, Area Health Resource File, and Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Hospital Compare databases to quantify availability of services and examined associations of hospital- and health services area-level characteristics with odds of offering services with generalized linear mixed models. We found that 15% of transplant centers did not offer MH services and 62% did not offer CD services. Hospitals were more likely to offer MH services if they were larger (OR [95% CI]: 1.03 [1.01, 1.06]) and had a lower rate of uninsured patients in the health services area (OR [95% CI]: 0.89 [0.80, 0.99]) and were more likely to offer CD services if they were larger (OR [95% CI]: 1.02 [1.01, 1.03]) or were members of a system (OR [95% CI]: 2.31 [1.26, 4.24]). Additional research is needed to understand whether lack of MH or CD services at transplant centers affects patients' ability to access comprehensive psychosocial care and whether this affects patient outcomes.

6.
Psychosomatics ; 60(5): 488-498, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing numbers of patients over the age of 60 are undergoing liver transplantation. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether age or clinical morbidities were associated with pre- and post-transplant executive and memory performance using the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT). METHODS: Participants included 36 recipients with n = 20 in the older group (>60 y) and n = 16 in the younger group (≤60 years). The BTACT was administered an average of 3 months before transplant, and at follow-up post-transplant intervals of 3, 6, and 9 months. BTACT composite scores for memory and executive function with age and education norms were obtained. RESULTS: Older recipients were more likely to have hepatocellular carcinoma, a lower biological MELD score at transplant, less cellular rejection, and fewer post-operative hospital days. Older and younger recipients showed comparable pre-transplant executive and memory function and comparable post-transplant improvement. Both older and younger patients showed statistically significant improvement in executive function scores at 3 months post-transplant and maintained improvement at 6 and 9 months. Memory function improved significantly in older patients by 6 months post-transplant but did not improve significantly in the younger group. CONCLUSION: Older liver transplant recipients were more likely to have hepatocellular carcinoma and a lower biological MELD score than younger recipients, but both age groups showed comparable pre-transplant cognitive performance and post-transplant cognitive improvement. Additionally, a normed telephone test can be used to effectively screen and track executive and memory function post-transplant.

7.
Psychosomatics ; 60(1): 56-65, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30122643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver transplant candidates undergo psychosocial assessment as a component of their pretransplant evaluation. Global psychosocial assessment scales, including the Psychosocial Assessment of Candidates for Transplantation (PACT), capture and quantify these psychiatric and social variables. OBJECTIVE: Our primary aim was to assess for an association between global PACT score and survival in liver transplant recipients. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study examined records of all liver recipients at one U.S. Transplant Center from 2000 to 2012 with outcomes monitoring until 07/01/2016. We investigated for associations between the following variables and mortality: PACT score, age, gender, marital status, race, alcoholic liver disease (ALD), and body mass index (BMI). Statistical methods included Student's t-test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, chi-square, Fisher's exact test, Kaplan-Meier curve, and Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: Of 1040 liver recipients, 538 had a documented PACT score. Among these, PACT score was not associated with mortality. In women, a lower PACT score was associated with mortality (p = 0.003) even after adjustments for age, marital status, and BMI. Women with ALD had a 2-fold increased hazard of death (p = 0.012). Increasing age was associated with increased risk of death for the cohort as a whole (p = 0.019) and for men (p = 0.014). In men, being married and BMI were marginally protective (p = 0.10 and p = 0.13, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Transplant psychosocial screening scales, specifically the PACT, identify psychosocial burden and may predict post-transplant outcomes in certain populations. In female liver recipients, lower PACT scores and ALD were associated with a greater risk of post-transplant mortality.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado , Saúde Mental , Mortalidade , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Estilo de Vida , Cirrose Hepática/cirurgia , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
8.
Psychosomatics ; 60(1): 47-55, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30064730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychosocial assessment is an essential component of the pretransplant evaluation. Many individuals have significant psychosocial problems, and they are either denied for transplantation or deferred from listing and transplant until the psychosocial issues are addressed. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of patients who initially had significant psychosocial problems, but who addressed them and received a heart transplant. METHODS: This retrospective study included heart transplant recipients from 1/1/2000 to 12/31/2012. Those with initial Psychosocial Assessment of Candidates for Transplantation (PACT) scale score <2 were compared with those whose initial score was ≥2 for the variables new onset depression and anxiety, length of stay, rejection, and survival using logistic and linear regression and Cox proportional hazards modeling. RESULTS: Of 164 heart recipients with pretransplant PACT scores, 46 (28%) were female, 154 (94%) were white, and the mean age was 52.7 years. Only 11 (7%) received an initial PACT score <2; these candidates underwent heart transplantation after their scores increased to ≥2. Initial PACT <2 increased the odds of new depression by 11-fold (p = 0.002), but was not associated with differences in survival, posttransplant length of stay, the occurrence of treated episodes of rejection or new anxiety (p ≥ 0.20 for all). CONCLUSION: Among heart recipients, initially high pretransplant psychosocial risk, as assessed by PACT, was associated with posttransplant new episode depression. However, after addressing the primary psychosocial issues before transplant, posttransplant length of stay, organ rejection, and survival were the same as those without prior psychosocial concerns.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/epidemiologia , Transplante de Coração , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Transplante de Coração/psicologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
J Psychosom Res ; 111: 27-35, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29935751

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the impact of psychiatric comorbidities in liver transplant (LT) recipients aged ≥65 years (elderly) on length of hospital-stay (LOS), death, and a composite outcome of graft loss or death. METHODS: This retrospective study assessed impact of psychiatric comorbidities in 122 elderly LT recipients and a matched group of 122 LT recipients aged <65 years (younger). Associations were assessed using adjusted multivariable regression models. RESULTS: Among elderly, median age at LT was 68 years, most were males (62%), white (85%) and 61.7% had a history of any psychiatric diagnosis. Among younger, median age was 55, most were males (67.2%), white (77.5%) and 61.5% had any psychiatric diagnosis. Median LOS was 8 days for both groups. Among elderly, after a median follow-up of 5 years, 25.4% died and 29.5% experienced graft loss or death. History of adjustment disorder, history of depression, past psychiatric medication use, and pain prior to LT were associated with an increased risk of death or the composite graft loss or death. Perioperative use of SSRIs and lack of sleeping medication use were associated with longer LOS. Among aged <65, after median follow-up of 4.7 years, 21 patients (17%) died and 25 (20%) experienced graft loss or death; history of depression, perioperative SSRIs or sleeping medications use was associated with increased mortality and graft-loss or death. CONCLUSION: Six out of 10 patients among both elderly and younger cohorts had pre-LT psychiatric comorbidities, some of which adversely affected outcomes after LT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Fígado/psicologia , Transplante de Fígado/tendências , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transplantados/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
10.
Ann Hematol ; 97(3): 519-528, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29218388

RESUMO

A quarter of cancer patients struggle with distress or depression during their illness. Multiple organizations including the National Comprehensive Cancer Network recommend universal screening for distress and depression. Herein, we describe a universal screening program in patients with hematologic malignancies and factors associated with distress and depression. Between December 2013 and February 2015, patients with hematologic malignancies took the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) and Distress Thermometer (DT) prior to receiving their first outpatient parenteral chemotherapy. Patient demographic information as well as information regarding visit burden and baseline use of psychiatric medications were recorded. A PHQ-9 score of ≥ 9 and a DT score ≥ 4 suggested a high risk of major depression and distress. Intergroup comparisons of categorical and continuous variables were performed via chi-square and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Multivariate models were constructed using the stepwise selection technique using all potential variables. Two hundred forty-six patients with a median age at diagnosis 65 years (range 18-94 years) were included. In the multivariate analysis, a PHQ-9 score ≥ 9 was associated with living alone (P = 0.007), positive PHQ-2 (P = 0.003), and high Charlson comorbidity index (CCI; P = 0.02), while a DT score ≥ 4 was associated with being married (P = 0.03) and female (P = 0.03). There was no other association with high scores on either questionnaire. Patients with hematologic malignancies often have prolonged treatment and surveillance. We identified subpopulations within this group who may be at high risk of developing distress and depression and who should be aggressively screened even when universal screening programs are not available.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Curr Opin Organ Transplant ; 22(6): 578-583, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28937405

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The majority of liver transplantation centers have required patients with alcohol-induced liver disease to demonstrate a period of abstinence (generally 6 months' duration) to qualify for transplant listing. This requirement has excluded patients with alcoholic hepatitis from transplant consideration. Since 2011, several studies have examined the outcomes of patients undergoing liver transplantation with brief abstinence as a lifesaving intervention for alcoholic hepatitis. This review includes each of the recent studies and discusses their implications for general transplant practice. RECENT FINDINGS: A Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System search revealed five published studies - three prospective and two retrospective - pertaining to liver transplantation for alcoholic hepatitis. Among patients with medication-nonresponsive alcoholic hepatitis, those who underwent transplantation had superior survival. Liver recipients with alcoholic hepatitis had comparable survival to those with 6 or more months of abstinence. Their relapse rates were not statistically different in the short term over those transplanted with longer abstinence, although some patients in each prospective cohort relapsed to drinking despite narrow inclusion criteria and extensive pretransplant staff reviews and posttransplant surveillance. SUMMARY: Liver transplantation is a reasonable treatment consideration for highly selective cases of alcoholic hepatitis. Further research is needed to refine inclusion criteria, address posttransplant relapse prevention interventions, and monitor long-term outcomes.


Assuntos
Hepatite Alcoólica/cirurgia , Hepatite Alcoólica/terapia , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Adv Radiat Oncol ; 2(2): 211-219, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28740934

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patient-reported distress (PRD) has not been well assessed in association with survival after radiation therapy (RT). The aims of this study were to evaluate the association between PRD level and survival after definitive RT and to identify the main causes of distress in definitive RT patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 678 consecutive patients receiving definitive RT at our institution from April 2012 through May 2015 were included. All patients answered a PRD questionnaire that contained 30 items related to possible causes of distress, which could be rated from 1 (no distress) to 5 (high distress). Additionally, patients were asked to rate their overall distress level from 0 (no distress) to 10 (extreme distress). This overall distress level was our primary patient-reported distress measure and was examined as a continuous variable and as a categorical variable with 3 PRD levels (low, 0-3 [n = 295]; moderate, 4-6 [n = 222]; and high, 7-10 [n = 161]). RESULTS: As a continuous variable in multivariable Cox regression analysis, a higher overall PRD level was associated with poorer survival after RT (hazard ratio [HR], 1.39; P = .004). As a categorical variable, compared with patients with low distress, survival was poorer for patients with moderate distress (HR, 1.62; P = .038) or high distress (HR, 1.49; P = .12), but the latter difference was not significant. When the moderate and high distress levels were combined, survival was significantly poorer compared with the low distress level (HR, 1.57; P = .034). The top 5 specific causes of distress that patients mentioned were "How I feel during treatment," "Fatigue," "Out-of-pocket medical costs," "Pain that affects my daily functioning," and "Sleep difficulties." CONCLUSIONS: PRD before or during RT is a prognostic factor associated with decreased survival. Distress screening guidelines and interventions should be implemented for patients receiving definitive RT.

13.
Psychosomatics ; 57(5): 489-97, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27494985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The United Network for Organ Sharing mandates a psychosocial assessment of transplant candidates before listing. A quantified measure for determining transplant candidacy is the Psychosocial Assessment of Candidates for Transplant (PACT) scale. This instrument's predictive value for survival has not been rigorously evaluated among lung transplantation recipients. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of all patients who underwent lung transplantation at Mayo Clinic, Rochester from 2000-2012. A transplant psychiatrist had assessed lung transplant candidates for psychosocial risk with the PACT scale. Recipients were divided into high- and low psychosocial risk cohorts using a PACT score cutoff of 2. The main outcome variable was posttransplant survival. Mortality was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: This study included 110 lung recipients: 57 (51.8%) were females, 101 (91.8%) Whites, mean age: 56.4 years. Further, 7 (6.4%) recipients received an initial PACT score <2 (poor or borderline candidates) and later achieved a higher score, allowing transplant listing; 103 (93.6%) received initial scores ≥2 (acceptable, good or great candidates). An initial PACT score < 2 was modestly associated with higher mortality (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.73, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Lung transplant recipients who initially received a low score on the PACT scale, reflecting poor or borderline psychosocial candidacy, experienced greater likelihood of mortality. This primary finding suggests that the psychosocial assessment, as measured by the PACT scale, may provide additional mortality risk stratification for lung transplant candidates.


Assuntos
Transplante de Pulmão/mortalidade , Transplante de Pulmão/psicologia , Seleção de Pacientes , Psicologia , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Colaboração Intersetorial , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minnesota , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
14.
Psychosomatics ; 55(2): 109-22, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24370112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Collaborative care interventions for psychiatric disorders combine several components integrated into the medical setting: (1) systematic psychiatric assessment, (2) use of a nonphysician care manager to perform longitudinal symptom monitoring, treatment interventions, and care coordination, and (3) specialist-provided stepped-care recommendations. Collaborative care interventions have now been evaluated in a wide spectrum of care settings and offer great promise as a way of increasing quality of patient care, improving health of populations, and reducing health care costs. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed/MEDLINE databases was performed for publications between January 1970 and May 2013 to identify articles describing collaborative care and related interventions. Identified articles were then evaluated independently by multiple reviewers for quality and importance; additional articles were identified by searching reference lists and through recommendations of senior content-matter experts. The articles considered to be both of high quality and most important were then placed into categories and annotated reviews performed. RESULTS: Over 600 articles were identified of which 67 were selected for annotated review. The results reported in these articles indicate that collaborative care interventions for psychiatric disorders have been consistently successful in improving key outcomes in both research and clinical intervention studies; cost analyses also suggest that this model is cost effective. CONCLUSIONS: Collaborative care models for psychiatric disorders are likely to serve an increasingly large role in health care given their effect on patient and population outcomes and their focus on integration of care.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Medicina Psicossomática/métodos , Academias e Institutos , Humanos
15.
WMJ ; 111(5): 220-7, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23189455

RESUMO

There is increased recognition of the importance of physician health and the need to actively maintain and promote it. Attending to the health and well-being of medical clinicians is considered an important component of professionalism, and is important for the sustainability of safe, high-quality practice of medicine. This report highlights the importance of physician health programs, describes their history and evolution as well as the variability in program structure in various states, and reviews the present status of physician health resources, especially in Wisconsin. It gives an example of a program within a large, integrated health system and emphasizes the advantages of a statewide program.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/organização & administração , Médicos/psicologia , Inabilitação Profissional , Humanos , Iowa , Michigan , Minnesota , Nebraska , Fatores de Risco , South Dakota , Wisconsin
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