Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 37
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Br J Pharmacol ; 2020 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A fluorinated derivative (2F-MT-45) of the synthetic µ-opioid receptor agonist MT-45 (1-cyclohexyl-4-(1,2-diphenylethyl)piperazine) was recently identified in a seized illicit tablet. While MT-45 is a Class A drug, banned in a number of countries, nothing is known about the pharmacology of 2F-MT-45. This study compares the pharmacology of MT-45, its fluorinated derivatives and two of its metabolites. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We used a ß-arrestin2 recruitment assay in CHO cells stably expressing µ receptors to quantify the apparent potencies and efficacies of known (MT-45, morphine, fentanyl and DAMGO) and potential agonists. In addition, the GloSensor protein was transiently expressed to quantify changes in cAMP levels. We measured Ca2+ to investigate whether MT-45 and its metabolites have effects on GluN1/N2A NMDA receptors stably expressed in Ltk- cells. KEY RESULTS: The fluorinated MT-45 derivatives have higher apparent potencies (2F-MT-45: 42 nM) than MT-45 (1.3 µM) for inhibition of cAMP accumulation and ß-arrestin2 recruitment (2F-MT-45: 196 nM; MT-45: 23.1 µM). While MT-45 and 2F-MT-45 are poor recruiters of ß-arrestin2, they have similar efficacies for reducing cAMP levels as DAMGO. Two MT-45 metabolites displayed negligible potencies as µ receptor agonists, but one, 1,2-diphenylethylpiperazine, inhibited the NMDA receptor with an IC50 of 29 µM. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Fluorinated derivatives of MT-45 are potent µ receptor agonists and this may pose a danger to illicit opioid users. Inhibition of NMDA receptors by a metabolite of MT-45 may contribute to the reported dissociative effects.

2.
Drug Test Anal ; 12(4): 538-554, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944624

RESUMO

Drug misuse in prisons contributes to increased disruption and violence and negatively impacts prisoner safety, rehabilitation, and recovery. Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs), colloquially known as "spice", are infused into papers and are of particular concern in a prison setting where they are commonly vaped. Methods for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of SCRA infused papers, including impurity profiling, were developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with qualitative confirmation by ultra high pressure liquid chromatography with photodiode array and quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry detection (UPLC-PDA-QToF-MS) and applied to 354 individual seized paper samples originating from 168 seizures from three Scottish prisons. Of these samples, 41% (146 samples from 101 seizures) contained at least one SCRA and multiple SCRAs were detected on 23% of these papers. Concentrations ranged from < 0.05-1.17 mg/cm2 paper, representing the first reported quantitative data for SCRA infused papers. An evolution in the SCRAs detected was demonstrated; 5F-MDMB-PINACA (5F-ADB) predominated until late 2018, after which time 5F-MDMB-PICA and 4F-MDMB-BINACA became increasingly more prevalent, followed by the arrival of MDMB-4en-PINACA in June 2019. Concentration mapping data from two seized paper samples demonstrated that SCRA concentrations across larger papers were highly variable (0.47-2.38 mg/cm2 paper) making consistent dosing by users, and representative sampling by laboratory analysts, difficult. Near real-time qualitative and quantitative information on SCRAs circulating in prisons acts as an early warning system for SCRAs emerging on the wider illicit market, inform the methods used to detect them and limit supply, and provide information to support harm reduction measures.

3.
Sci Justice ; 60(1): 1-8, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924284

RESUMO

Human biological samples with multiple contributors remain one of the most challenging aspects of DNA typing within a forensic science context. With the increasing sensitivity of commercially available kits allowing detection of low template DNA, complex mixtures are now a standard component of forensic DNA evidence. Over the years, various methods and techniques have been developed to try to resolve the issue of mixed profiles. However, forensic DNA analysis has relied on the same markers to generate DNA profiles for the past 30 years causing considerable challenges in the deconvolution of complex mixed samples. The future of resolving complicated DNA mixtures may rely on utilising markers that have been previously applied to gene typing of non-forensic relevance. With Massively Parallel Sequencing (MPS), techniques becoming more popular and accessible even epigenetic markers have become a source of interest for forensic scientists. The aim of this review is to consider the potential of alleles from the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) complex as effective forensic markers. While Massively Parallel Sequencing of HLA is routinely used in clinical laboratories in fields such as transplantation, pharmacology or population studies, there have not been any studies testing its suitability for forensic casework samples.

4.
Front Chem ; 7: 321, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157203

RESUMO

Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) have been the largest group of illicit psychoactive substances reported to international monitoring and early warning systems for many years. Carboxamide-type SCRAs are amongst the most prevalent and potent. Enantiospecific synthesis and characterization of four indazole-3-carboxamides, AMB-FUBINACA, AB-FUBINACA, 5F-MDMB-PINACA (5F-ADB), and AB-CHMINACA is reported. The interactions of the compounds with CB1 and CB2 receptors were investigated using a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) activation assay based on functional complementation of a split NanoLuc luciferase and EC50 (a measure of potency) and Emax (a measure of efficacy) values determined. All compounds demonstrated higher potency at the CB2 receptor than at the CB1 receptor and (S)-enantiomers had an enhanced potency to both receptors over the (R)-enantiomers. The relative potency of the enantiomers to the CB2 receptor is affected by structural features. The difference was more pronounced for compounds with an amine moiety (AB-FUBINACA and AB-CHMINACA) than those with an ester moiety (AMB-FUBINACA and 5F-MDMB-PINACA). An HPLC method was developed to determine the prevalence of (R)-enantiomers in seized samples. Lux® Amylose-1 [Amylose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate)] has the greatest selectivity for the SCRAs with a terminal methyl ester moiety and a Lux® i-Cellulose-5 column for SCRAs with a terminal amide moiety. Optimized isocratic separation methods yielded enantiomer resolution values (Rs) ≥ 1.99. Achiral GC-MS analysis of seized herbal materials (n = 16), found 5F-MDMB-PINACA (<1.0-91.5 mg/g herbal material) and AMB-FUBINACA (15.5-58.5 mg/g herbal material), respectively. EMB-FUBINACA, AMB-CHMICA, 5F-ADB-PINACA isomer 2, and ADB-CHMINACA were also tentatively identified. Analysis using chiral chromatography coupled to photodiode array and quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (chiral HPLC-PDA-QToF-MS/MS) confirmed that the (S)-enantiomer predominated in all samples (93.6-99.3% (S)-enantiomer). Small but significant differences in synthesis precursor enantiopurity may provide significant differences between synthesis batches or suppliers and warrants further study. A method to compare potency between samples containing different SCRAs at varying concentrations was developed and applied in this small preliminary study. A 10-fold difference in the "intrinsic" potency of samples in the study was noted. With the known heterogeneity of SCRA infused materials, the approach provides a simplified method for assessing and communicating the risk of their use.

5.
Forensic Toxicol ; 37(1): 1-16, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636980

RESUMO

Purpose: A detailed review on the chemistry and pharmacology of non-fentanil novel synthetic opioid receptor agonists, particularly N-substituted benzamides and acetamides (known colloquially as U-drugs) and 4-aminocyclohexanols, developed at the Upjohn Company in the 1970s and 1980s is presented. Method: Peer-reviewed literature, patents, professional literature, data from international early warning systems and drug user fora discussion threads have been used to track their emergence as substances of abuse. Results: In terms of impact on drug markets, prevalence and harm, the most significant compound of this class to date has been U-47700 (trans-3,4-dichloro-N-[2-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl]-N-methylbenzamide), reported by users to give short-lasting euphoric effects and a desire to re-dose. Since U-47700 was internationally controlled in 2017, a range of related compounds with similar chemical structures, adapted from the original patented compounds, have appeared on the illicit drugs market. Interest in a structurally unrelated opioid developed by the Upjohn Company and now known as BDPC/bromadol appears to be increasing and should be closely monitored. Conclusions: International early warning systems are an essential part of tracking emerging psychoactive substances and allow responsive action to be taken to facilitate the gathering of relevant data for detailed risk assessments. Pre-emptive research on the most likely compounds to emerge next, so providing drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic data to ensure that new substances are detected early in toxicological samples is recommended. As these compounds are chiral compounds and stereochemistry has a large effect on their potency, it is recommended that detection methods consider the determination of configuration.

7.
Forensic Toxicol ; 36(2): 359-374, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29963206

RESUMO

Purpose: The detection of a novel psychoactive substance, 2F-MT-45, a fluorinated analogue of the synthetic opioid MT-45, was reported in a single seized tablet. MT-45, 2F-, 3F- and 4F-MT-45 were synthesised and reference analytical data were reported. The in vitro and in vivo metabolisms of MT-45 and 2F-MT-45 were investigated. Method: The reference standards and seized sample were characterised using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Presumptive tests were performed and physicochemical properties of the compounds determined. Metabolite identification studies using human liver microsomes, human hepatocytes, mouse hepatocytes and in vivo testing using mice were performed and identified MT-45 metabolites were confirmed in authentic human urine samples. Results: Metabolic pathways identified for MT-45 and 2F-MT-45 were N-dealkylation, hydroxylation and subsequent glucuronidation. The major MT-45 metabolites identified in human in vitro studies and in authenticated human urine were phase I metabolites and should be incorporated as analytical targets to existing toxicological screening methods. Phase II glucuronidated metabolites were present in much lower proportions. Conclusions: 2F-MT-45 has been detected in a seized tablet for the first time. The metabolite identification data provide useful urinary metabolite targets for forensic and clinical testing for MT-45 and allows screening of urine for 2F-MT-45 and its major metabolites to determine its prevalence in case work.

8.
PLoS One ; 12(12): e0189177, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29281650

RESUMO

Explosives are a common soil contaminant at a range of sites, including explosives manufacturing plants and areas associated with landmine detonations. As many explosives are toxic and may cause adverse environmental effects, a large body of research has targeted the remediation of explosives residues in soil. Studies in this area have largely involved spiking 'pristine' soils using explosives solutions. Here we investigate the fate of explosives present in soils following an actual detonation process and compare this to the fate of explosives spiked into 'pristine' undetonated soils. We also assess the effects of the detonations on the physical properties of the soils. Our scanning electron microscopy analyses reveal that detonations result in newly-fractured planes within the soil aggregates, and novel micro Computed Tomography analyses of the soils reveal, for the first time, the effect of the detonations on the internal architecture of the soils. We demonstrate that detonations cause an increase in soil porosity, and this correlates to an increased rate of TNT transformation and loss within the detonated soils, compared to spiked pristine soils. We propose that this increased TNT transformation is due to an increased bioavailability of the TNT within the now more porous post-detonation soils, making the TNT more easily accessible by soil-borne bacteria for potential biodegradation. This new discovery potentially exposes novel remediation methods for explosive contaminated soils where actual detonation of the soil significantly promotes subsequent TNT degradation. This work also suggests previously unexplored ramifications associated with high energy soil disruption.


Assuntos
Substâncias Explosivas , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Trinitrotolueno/química , Bactérias/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Porosidade , Microbiologia do Solo , Trinitrotolueno/análise , Trinitrotolueno/metabolismo , Microtomografia por Raio-X
9.
Sci Justice ; 57(2): 95-100, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28284444

RESUMO

Explosives residues are often collected from explosion scenes, and from surfaces suspected of being in contact with explosives, by swabbing with solvent-wetted cotton swabs. It is vital that any explosives traces present on the swabs are successfully extracted and detected when received in a laboratory. However, a 2007 proficiency test initiated by the European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI) Expert Working Group on Explosives involving TNT-spiked cotton swabs highlighted that explosives may not always be detected from such samples. This paper outlines work performed to determine potential reasons for this finding. Cotton swabs were spiked using a solution of TNT and stored in nylon bags and glass vials for periods of 1, 2 and 4weeks. Simulated swab extracts were also prepared and investigated. The samples were stored in a freezer, or at room temperature either in the dark or exposed to daylight. Overall, the cotton swabs stored at room temperature and exposed to daylight showed a very rapid loss of TNT over time, whereas cotton swabs stored in the freezer, and all simulated swab extracts, gave high recoveries over time. These results will be of benefit for practicing forensic explosives laboratories and for persons undertaking cold-case reviews involving explosive-based samples.

10.
Forensic Sci Int ; 266: 202-208, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27314546

RESUMO

A cost effective hydrogel test kit was successfully developed for the detection of pre- and post-blast trinitrotoluene (TNT). A polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel matrix was used to entrap the potassium hydroxide (KOH) colourimetric reagent. The easily portable test kit was fabricated in situ in a small tube to which the sample could be added directly. The test kit was used in conjunction with digital image colourimetry (DIC) to demonstrate the rapid quantitative analysis of TNT in a test soil sample. The built-in digital camera of an iPhone was used to capture digital images of the colourimetric products from the test kit. Red-Green-Blue (RGB) colour data from the digital images of TNT standard solutions were used to establish a calibration graph. The validation of the DIC method indicated excellent inter day precision (0.12-3.60%RSD) and accuracy (93-108% relative accuracy). Post-blast soil samples containing TNT were analysed using the test kit and were in good agreement with spectrophotometric analysis. The intensity of the RGB data from the TNT complex deviated by +6.3%, +5.1%, and -4.9% after storage of the test kits in a freezer for 3 months. The test kit was also reusable for up to 12 times with only -5.4%, +0.3%, and +4.0% deviations. The hydrogel test kit was applied in the detection of trace explosive residues at the scene of the recent Bangkok bombing at the Ratchaprasong intersection and produced positive results for TNT demonstrating its operational field application as a rapid and cost effective quantitative tool for explosive residue analysis.

11.
Appl Spectrosc ; 70(5): 923-31, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27059444

RESUMO

Concrete is by far the world's most common construction material. Modern concrete is a mixture of industrial pozzolanic cement formulations and aggregate fillers. The former acts as the glue or binder in the final inorganic composite; however, when exposed to a fire the degree of concrete damage is often difficult to evaluate nondestructively. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy through techniques such as transmission, attenuated total reflectance, and diffuse reflectance have been rarely used to evaluate thermally damaged concrete. In this paper, we report on a study assessing the thermal damage of concrete via the use of a nondestructive handheld FT-IR with a diffuse reflectance sample interface. In situ measurements can be made on actual damaged areas, without the need for sample preparation. Separate multivariate models were developed to determine the equivalent maximal temperature endured for three common industrial concrete formulations. The concrete mixtures were successfully modeled displaying high predictive power as well as good specificity. This has potential uses in forensic investigation and remediation services particularly for fires in buildings.

12.
Talanta ; 148: 721-8, 2016 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26653508

RESUMO

It can be very challenging to recover explosives traces from porous surfaces, such as clothing and car seats, compared to non-porous surfaces. The contact heater has been developed as a novel instrument designed to recover explosives traces from porous surfaces. Samples are taken by heating and drawing air across a surface, with the air flowing through a sampling cartridge containing adsorbent polymer beads, which act to trap any recovered explosive material. Any collected explosive can then be eluted from this cartridge using a solvent, prior to analysis. This paper outlines work performed to evaluate the usefulness of the contact heater with regards to the recovery of explosives traces from porous materials. Ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN) and triacetone triperoxide (TATP) were chosen as two representative explosives for this study. Quantification was performed using GC-MS for EGDN and LC-MS/MS for TATP. Different sampling temperatures, sampling times and elution solvents were investigated. Recovery was trialled from leather, carpet and denim. Recoveries of up to 71% were obtained following optimisation. It was also possible to recover TATP from fabrics exposed to TATP vapour in a vapour-laden jar up to two hours after exposure. The contact heater therefore appears to be a very useful tool for the recovery of explosives traces from porous materials.


Assuntos
Substâncias Explosivas/análise , Medicina Legal/métodos , Temperatura Alta , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Medicina Legal/instrumentação , Porosidade , Propriedades de Superfície , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/instrumentação
13.
Sci Justice ; 55(6): 437-45, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26654079

RESUMO

Digital image colourimetry was successfully applied in the semi-quantitative analysis of ammonium nitrate using Griess's test with zinc reduction. A custom-built detection box was developed to enable reproducible lighting of samples, and was used with the built-in webcams of a netbook and an ultrabook for on-site detection. The webcams were used for colour imaging of chemical reaction products in the samples, while the netbook was used for on-site colour analysis. The analytical performance was compared to a commercial external webcam and a digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera. The relationship between Red-Green-Blue intensities and ammonium nitrate concentration was investigated. The green channel intensity (IG) was the most sensitive for the pink-violet products from ammonium nitrate that revealed a spectrometric absorption peak at 546 nm. A wide linear range (5 to 250 mgL⁻¹) with a high sensitivity was obtained with the built-in webcam of the ultrabook. A considerably lower detection limit (1.34 ± 0.05mgL⁻¹) was also obtained using the ultrabook, in comparison with the netbook (2.6 ± 0.2 mgL⁻¹), the external web cam (3.4 ± 0.1 mgL⁻¹) and the DSLR (8.0 ± 0.5 mgL⁻¹). The best inter-day precision (over 3 days) was obtained with the external webcam (0.40 to 1.34%RSD), while the netbook and the ultrabook had 0.52 to 3.62% and 1.25 to 4.99% RSDs, respectively. The relative errors were +3.6, +5.6 and -7.1%, on analysing standard ammonium nitrate solutions of known concentration using IG, for the ultrabook, the external webcam, and the netbook, respectively, while the DSLR gave -4.4% relative error. However, the IG of the pink-violet reaction product suffers from interference by soil, so that blank subtraction (|IG-IGblank| or |AG-AGblank|) is recommended for soil sample analysis. This method also gave very good accuracies of -0.11 to -5.61% for spiked soil samples and the results presented for five seized samples showed good correlations between the various imaging devices and spectrophotometer used to determine ammonium nitrate concentrations. Five post-blast soil samples were also analysed and pink-violet product were observed using Griess's test without zinc reduction indicating the absence of ammonium nitrate. This demonstrates significant potential for practical and accurate on-site semi-quantitative determinations of ammonium nitrate concentration.

15.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 370(1674)2015 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26101291

RESUMO

We are at a critical juncture for the forensic sciences. A number of high-profile reports and a growing body of literature question and critically reflect on core issues pertaining to the methodologies informing forensic science and their effective use within the criminal justice system. We argue for the need for an improved association and outline key areas that require attention from practitioners operating within the fields of both forensic science and law.


Assuntos
Ciências Forenses/métodos , Ciências Forenses/normas , Jurisprudência , Ciências Forenses/tendências , Direitos Humanos , Humanos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25643710

RESUMO

MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a Class A substance that is usually found in a tableted form. It is only observed in one orthorhombic polymorph under ambient conditions. It shows slight positional disorder around the methlyenedioxy ring which persists during compression up to 6.66 GPa. The crystal quality deteriorates above 6.66 GPa where the hydrostatic limit of the pressure-transmitting medium is exceeded. The structure undergoes anisotropic compression with the a-axis compressing the greatest (12% cf. 4 and 10% for the b- and c-axes, respectively). This is due to the pattern of the hydrogen bonding which acts like a spring and allows the compression along this direction.


Assuntos
N-Metil-3,4-Metilenodioxianfetamina/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Pós , Pressão
17.
Sci Justice ; 54(5): 327-34, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25278193

RESUMO

This paper considers how likelihood ratios can be derived for a combination of physical, chemical and isotopic measurements. Likelihood ratios were formulated based on the characteristics of a small convenience sample of 20 duct tapes. The propositions considered were: The physical and isotopic characteristics of ten rolls of duct tape were shown to be consistent throughout each roll. The width and thickness of the tapes and the density of the scrim fibres provided equivalent information and the combined physical characteristics provided a basis upon which to discriminate between many of the samples. Scatter-plots and confidence ellipses provided a convenient method to group the isotopic composition of the tape backing material and provided a basis to discriminate between samples which were physically indistinguishable. Considering both the physical and isotopic characteristics it was possible, at best, to ascertain that the evidence provided moderately strong support for the proposition that two samples of tape were derived from the same batch (LR=400). Kernel density estimates were used to model the distribution of isotopic compositions of the backing material. Using this technique it was possible to estimate objectively the probability that a sample with given characteristics could be drawn, at random, from the background population and to calculate a likelihood ratio based on the propositions above. The strength of evidence which could be presented by either model was ultimately limited by the size of the background sample.

18.
Sci Justice ; 54(1): 22-31, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24438774

RESUMO

The prevalence of so-called 'legal high' drugs in forensic science drug casework has increased markedly in recent years. This has given rise to both legal and analytical challenges in the identification of these substances. The requirement for validated, reliable and rapid testing methodologies for these compounds is obvious. This work reports the analysis of sixteen synthesised cathinone derivatives encountered in casework using presumptive testing, thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

19.
Sci Justice ; 53(1): 8-13, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23380056

RESUMO

Enhancement of footwear impressions, using ninhydrin or ninhydrin analogues is not considered common practice and such techniques are generally used to target amino acids present in fingermarks where the reaction gives rise to colour and possibly fluorescence. Ninhydrin and two of its analogues were used for the enhancement of footwear impressions in blood on various types, colours and porosities of fabric. Test footwear impressions on fabric were prepared using a specifically built rig to minimise the variability between each impression. Ninhydrin enhancement of footwear impressions in blood on light coloured fabric yielded good enhancement results, however the contrast was weak or non-existent on dark coloured fabrics. Other ninhydrin analogues which have the advantage of fluorescence failed to enhance the impressions in blood on all fabrics. The sequential treatment of impressions in blood on fabric with other blood enhancing reagents (e.g. protein stains and heme reagents) was also investigated.


Assuntos
Sangue , Sapatos , Coloração e Rotulagem , Animais , Bovinos , Ciências Forenses , Indanos/química , Indicadores e Reagentes , Ninidrina/química
20.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 405(9): 2931-41, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23241818

RESUMO

A number of methods of clandestine manufacture of methylamphetamine involve the extraction and subsequent reaction of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride with other essential chemicals. The precursor can be easily extracted from over-the-counter medication widely available in the UK and elsewhere. Essential chemicals such as iodine and red phosphorous are also readily available and can be extracted from iodine tinctures and matchboxes, respectively. This work reports the repetitive preparation of methylamphetamine using two popular routes (the Moscow and Hypophosphorous synthesis). The focus was on the extraction solvent used for isolation of the precursor chemical and any consequential isotopic variation which may arise in the final product. Six batches of methylamphetamine were prepared under precisely controlled conditions for each synthetic route and for each of three different precursor extraction solvents. Synthesis of the final product from laboratory grade precursor using the synthetic methods described was used as a template for comparison. The resultant IRMS data from all 48 prepared samples suggests some underlying trends in the identification of the synthetic route which may aid in the interpretation of IRMS data derived from clandestine samples.


Assuntos
Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/síntese química , Metanfetamina/síntese química , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/química , Técnicas de Química Sintética/métodos , Deutério/análise , Metanfetamina/química , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Pseudoefedrina/síntese química , Pseudoefedrina/química , Solventes , Comprimidos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA