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Toxicol Rep ; 10: 308-319, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36891509


Rapid urbanization and industrial development have prompted potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in urban soil in Bangladesh, which is a great concern for ecological and public health matters. The present study explored the receptor-based sources, probable human health and ecological risks of PTEs (As, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, and Cu) in the urban soil of the Jashore district, Bangladesh. The USEPA modified method 3050B and atomic absorption spectrophotometers were used to digest and evaluate the PTEs concentration in 71 soil samples collected from eleven different land use areas, respectively. The concentration ranges of As, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, and Cu in the studied soils were 1.8-18.09, 0.1-3.58, 0.4-113.26, 0.9-72.09, 2.1-68.23, and 3.82-212.57 mg/kg, respectively. The contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and enrichment factor (EF) were applied to evaluate the ecological risk posed by PTEs in soils. Soil quality evaluation indices showed that Cd was a great contributor to soil pollution. The PLI values range was 0.48-2.82, indicating base levels to continuous soil degradation. The positive matrix factorization (PMF) model showed that As (50.3 %), Cd (38.8 %), Cu (64.7 %), Pb (81.8 %) and Ni (47.2 %) were derived from industrial sources and mixed anthropogenic sources, while Cr (78.1 %) from natural sources. The highest contamination was found in the metal workshop, followed by the industrial area, and brick filed site. Soil from all land use types revealed moderate to high ecological risk after evaluating probable ecological risks, and the descending order of single metal potential ecological risk was Cd > As > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cr. Ingestion was the primary route of exposure to potentially toxic elements for both adults and children from the study area soil. The overall non-cancer risk to human health is caused by PTEs for children (HI=0.65 ± 0.1) and adults (HI=0.09 ± 0.03) under USEPA safe limit (HI>1), while the cancer risks from exclusively ingesting As through soil were 2.10E-03 and 2.74E-04 for children and adults, respectively, exceeding the USEPA acceptable standard (>1E-04).

Heliyon ; 8(10): e11172, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36325133


This study was intended to assess heavy metal contents and sources in commonly consumed vegetables and fish collected from the Jashore district of Bangladesh and to evaluate the probable human health risks via the ingesting of those vegetables and fish species. A total of 130 vegetable and fish samples were analyzed for As, Mn, Cu, Cr, Ni, and Pb concentration by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Metals and metalloids like As, Pb, and Cr in vegetable species were greater than the maximum allowable concentration (MAC), while Pb and cu in fish species exceeded the MAC. Pollution evaluation index values were ranges from 0.40-10.35 and 1.53-2.78 for vegetable and fish species, respectively, indicating light to serious pollution. Lactuca sativa followed by Cucurbita moschata, Amaranthus gangeticus for vegetables and Channa punctate, Oreochromis mossambicus, followed by Dendrobranchiata for fish are the most contaminated food items. The positive matrix factorization model showed that As (81.9%), Ni (48%), Cr (49.6%), Mn (46%), Pb (44.3%), and Cu (44.4%) for vegetable species and As (86.9%), Ni (90.5%), Mn (67.6%), Pb (65.3%), Cr (57%) and Cu (46.2%) for fish species were resulting from agrochemical, atmospheric emission, irrigation, contaminated feed, and mixed sources. The self-organizing map and principle component analysis indicates three spatial patterns e.g., As-Mn-Cu, Pb-Cr, and Ni in vegetables and As-Mn-Cr, Cu-Ni, and Pb in fish samples. The THQ values for single elements were less than 1 (except As for vegetables and Pb for fish species) for all food items but the HI values for all of the vegetables (2.18E+00 to 2.04E+01) and fish (1.07E+00 to 9.39E+00) samples were exceeded the USEPA acceptable risk level (HI > 1E+00). While the cancer risks only induced by As for all vegetables and fish species, which exceeded the USEPA safe level (TCR>1E-04). Sensitivity analysis indicates that metal concentration was the most responsible factor for carcinogenic risk.