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1.
J Exp Med ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601675

RESUMO

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is characterized by immune dysregulation due to inadequate restraint of overactivated immune cells and is associated with a variable clinical spectrum having overlap with more common pathophysiologies. HLH is difficult to diagnose and can be part of inflammatory syndromes. Here, we identify a novel hematological/autoinflammatory condition (NOCARH syndrome) in four unrelated patients with superimposable features, including neonatal-onset cytopenia with dyshematopoiesis, autoinflammation, rash, and HLH. Patients shared the same de novo CDC42 mutation (Chr1:22417990C>T, p.R186C) and altered hematopoietic compartment, immune dysregulation, and inflammation. CDC42 mutations had been associated with syndromic neurodevelopmental disorders. In vitro and in vivo assays documented unique effects of p.R186C on CDC42 localization and function, correlating with the distinctiveness of the trait. Emapalumab was critical to the survival of one patient, who underwent successful bone marrow transplantation. Early recognition of the disorder and establishment of treatment followed by bone marrow transplant are important to survival.

2.
Clin Genet ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600839

RESUMO

Aymé-Gripp syndrome (AYGRPS) is a recognizable condition caused by a restricted spectrum of dominantly acting missense mutations affecting the transcription factor MAF. Major clinical features of AYGRPS include congenital cataracts, sensorineural hearing loss, intellectual disability, and a distinctive flat facial appearance. Skeletal abnormalities have also been observed in affected individuals, even though these features have not been assessed systematically. Expanding the series with four additional patients, here we provide a more accurate delineation of the molecular aspects and clinical phenotype, particularly focusing on the skeletal features characterizing this disorder. Apart from previously reported malar flattening and joint limitations, we document that carpal/tarsal and long bone defects, and hip dysplasia occur in affected subjects more frequently than formerly appreciated.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 403-412, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303265

RESUMO

POU3F3, also referred to as Brain-1, is a well-known transcription factor involved in the development of the central nervous system, but it has not previously been associated with a neurodevelopmental disorder. Here, we report the identification of 19 individuals with heterozygous POU3F3 disruptions, most of which are de novo variants. All individuals had developmental delays and/or intellectual disability and impairments in speech and language skills. Thirteen individuals had characteristic low-set, prominent, and/or cupped ears. Brain abnormalities were observed in seven of eleven MRI reports. POU3F3 is an intronless gene, insensitive to nonsense-mediated decay, and 13 individuals carried protein-truncating variants. All truncating variants that we tested in cellular models led to aberrant subcellular localization of the encoded protein. Luciferase assays demonstrated negative effects of these alleles on transcriptional activation of a reporter with a FOXP2-derived binding motif. In addition to the loss-of-function variants, five individuals had missense variants that clustered at specific positions within the functional domains, and one small in-frame deletion was identified. Two missense variants showed reduced transactivation capacity in our assays, whereas one variant displayed gain-of-function effects, suggesting a distinct pathophysiological mechanism. In bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) interaction assays, all the truncated POU3F3 versions that we tested had significantly impaired dimerization capacities, whereas all missense variants showed unaffected dimerization with wild-type POU3F3. Taken together, our identification and functional cell-based analyses of pathogenic variants in POU3F3, coupled with a clinical characterization, implicate disruptions of this gene in a characteristic neurodevelopmental disorder.

4.
Horm Res Paediatr ; : 1-9, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid-onset Obesity with Hypothalamic dysfunction, Hypoventilation and Autonomic Dysregulation (ROHHAD) is a very rare and complex pediatric syndrome characterized by altered hypothalamic thermal regulation, pain threshold, and respiratory control, hyperphagia with rapid weight gain and, often, hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction. Its etiopathogenesis remains undetermined. We investigated the presence of alterations to target genes and hypothalamic-pituitary autoimmunity in a patient with -ROHHAD syndrome. METHODS: A 3-year-old girl presenting with obesity after rapid weight gain was diagnosed with ROHHAD syndrome based on clinical features and abnormal biochemical and functional testing results. Because of worsening of rapid symptoms and demonstration of oligoclonal bands on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, she was treated with plasmapheresis, methylprednisolone, anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, and azathioprine. Despite initial partial clinical improvement, the patient soon died of cardiorespiratory arrest. Post-mortem, whole exome sequencing, high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization array, and optimized indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) analysis were performed on blood and CSF. RESULTS: No putative causative genomic variants compatible with dominant or recessive inheritance nor clinically significant structural rearrangement were detected. IIF on serum and CSF demonstrated the presence of anti-pituitary and anti-hypothalamus autoantibodies. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the involvement of autoimmunity in ROHHAD syndrome. However, response to immunosuppressive treatment was only transient and the patient died. Further cases are required to define the complex disease pathogenesis.

5.
Hum Mutat ; 40(6): 721-728, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825388

RESUMO

The pathogenic variants in the neuroblastoma-amplified sequence (NBAS) are associated with a clinical spectrum involving the hepatic, skeletal, ocular, and immune systems. Here, we report on two unrelated subjects with a complex phenotype solved by whole-exome sequencing, who shared a synonymous change in NBAS that was documented to affect the transcript processing and co-occurring with a truncating change. Starting from these two cases, we systematically assessed the clinical information available for all subjects with biallelic NBAS pathogenic variants (73 cases in total). We revealed a recognizable facial profile (hypotelorism, thin lips, pointed chin, and "progeroid" appearance) determined by using DeepGestalt facial recognition technology, and we provide evidence for the occurrence of genotype-phenotype correlations. Notably, severe hepatic involvement was associated with variants affecting the NBAS-Nter and Sec39 domains, whereas milder liver involvement and immunodeficiency were generally associated with variants located at the N-terminus and C-terminus of the protein. Remarkably, no patient was reported to carry two nonsense variants, suggesting lethality of complete NBAS loss-of-function.

6.
Clin Genet ; 95(4): 525-531, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684285

RESUMO

Whole exome sequencing (WES) has led to the understanding of the molecular events affecting neurodevelopment in an extremely diverse clinical context, including diseases with intellectual disability (ID) associated with variable central nervous system (CNS) malformations, and developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs). Recently, PACS2 mutations have been causally linked to a DEE with cerebellar dysgenesis and facial dysmorphism. All known patients presented with a recurrent de novo missense mutation, c.625G>A (p.Glu209Lys). Here, we report on a 7-year-old boy with DEE, cerebellar dysgenesis, facial dysmorphism and postnatal growth delay, apparently not fitting with any recognized disorder. WES disclosed a de novo novel missense PACS2 variant, c.631G>A (p.Glu211Lys), as the molecular cause of this complex phenotype. We provide a detailed clinical characterization of this patient, and analyse the available clinical data of individuals with PACS2 mutations to delineate more accurately the clinical spectrum associated with this recently described syndrome. Our study expands the clinical and molecular spectrum of PACS2 mutations. Overview of the available clinical data allow to delineate the condition associated with PACS2 mutations as a variable trait, in which the key features are represented by moderate to severe ID, cerebellar dysgenesis and other CNS malformations, reduced growth, and facial dysmorphism.

7.
Eur J Med Genet ; 2018 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30189253

RESUMO

TARP syndrome (TARPS) is an X-linked syndromic condition including Robin sequence, congenital heart defects, developmental delay, feeding difficulties and talipes equinovarus, as major features. The disease is caused by inactivating mutations in RBM10 which encodes for a RNA binding motif protein involved in transcript processing. We herein report a male born from healthy and non-consanguineous parents, presenting prenatal record of intrauterine fetal growth retardation, and postnatal features including growth and developmental delays, CNS abnormalities, facial dysmorphisms, bilateral syndactyly at the hands, talipes equinovarus and congenital heart defects. By using trio-based Whole Exome Sequencing approach, a maternally inherited RBM10 frameshift variant causing decay of the RBM10 transcript was identified. Despite the syndrome is considered lethal in affected males, our subject with molecularly confirmed TARPS is still alive at 11 years of age supporting the chance of surviving. Long-term surviving in TARPS is extremely rare and should be considered in genetic counselling and clinical follow up of the syndrome. We provide the natural history of the syndrome, reviewing the major clinical characteristics. Congenital heart defects are confirmed as specific diagnostic markers for the syndrome. In addition, cardiac anatomical details are defining a possible clinical overlap with syndromic conditions related to the hedgehog pathway and/or primary cilium anomalies as Oral-Facial-Digital or Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndromes.

9.
Clin Genet ; 93(2): 401-407, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28374925

RESUMO

Kabuki syndrome is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by postnatal growth retardation, skeletal abnormalities, intellectual disability, facial dysmorphisms and a variable range of organ malformations. In ~30% of affected individuals, the underlying genetic defect remains unknown. A small number of inactivating heterozygous HNRNPK mutations has recently been reported to be associated with a condition partially overlapping or suggestive of Kabuki syndrome. Here, we report on an 11-year-old girl with a complex phenotype in whom the diagnosis of KS was suggested but molecular testing for the known causative disease genes was negative. Whole-exome sequencing identified a previously undescribed de novo truncating mutation in HNRNPK as the molecular defect underlying the trait. Analysis of available records of patients with HNRNPK haploinsufficiency was performed to delineate the associated clinical phenotype and outline their distinguishing features in comparison with the KS clinical spectrum. The clinical profile associated with inactivating HNRNPK mutations supports the idea that the associated disorder should be considered as a distinct nosologic entity clinically related to KS, and that the condition should be considered in differential diagnosis with KS, in particular in subjects exhibiting brain malformation (nodular heterotopia), craniosynostosis, and polydactyly.

10.
G Ital Dermatol Venereol ; 153(5): 619-623, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28206724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Catalase gene (CAT) polymorphisms were analyzed as responsible for the deficiency of catalase enzyme activity and concomitant accumulation of excessive hydrogen peroxide in vitiligo patients. Catalase is a well-known oxidative stress regulator that could play an important role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. This study was conducted to evaluate three CAT gene polymorphisms (-89A/T, 389C/T, 419C/T) and their association with vitiligo susceptibility in Sicilian population. METHODS: Sixty out of 73 Sicilian patients with vitiligo were enrolled and submitted to CAT gene analysis. RESULTS: Contrary to the Northern part of Europe but likewise to the Mediterranean area, the frequency of the CAT genotypes in Sicily is equally distributed. Out of all CAT genotypes, only CAT-89 T/T frequency was found to be significantly higher amongst vitiligo patients than controls. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the involvement of the CAT enzyme in the pathogenesis of vitiligo, the biological significance of CAT gene polymorphisms is still controversial. With the only exception for CAT variant -89A/T, the other studied CAT gene polymorphisms (389C/T and 419C/T) might not to be associated with vitiligo in Sicilian population.

11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(5): 815-823, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29100092

RESUMO

Fibronectin is a master organizer of extracellular matrices (ECMs) and promotes the assembly of collagens, fibrillin-1, and other proteins. It is also known to play roles in skeletal tissues through its secretion by osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and mesenchymal cells. Spondylometaphyseal dysplasias (SMDs) comprise a diverse group of skeletal dysplasias and often manifest as short stature, growth-plate irregularities, and vertebral anomalies, such as scoliosis. By comparing the exomes of individuals with SMD with the radiographic appearance of "corner fractures" at metaphyses, we identified three individuals with fibronectin (FN1) variants affecting highly conserved residues. Furthermore, using matching tools and the SkelDys emailing list, we identified other individuals with de novo FN1 variants and a similar phenotype. The severe scoliosis in most individuals and rare developmental coxa vara distinguish individuals with FN1 mutations from those with classical Sutcliffe-type SMD. To study functional consequences of these FN1 mutations on the protein level, we introduced three disease-associated missense variants (p.Cys87Phe [c.260G>T], p.Tyr240Asp [c.718T>G], and p.Cys260Gly [c.778T>G]) into a recombinant secreted N-terminal 70 kDa fragment (rF70K) and the full-length fibronectin (rFN). The wild-type rF70K and rFN were secreted into the culture medium, whereas all mutant proteins were either not secreted or secreted at significantly lower amounts. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated increased intracellular retention of the mutant proteins. In summary, FN1 mutations that cause defective fibronectin secretion are found in SMD, and we thus provide additional evidence for a critical function of fibronectin in cartilage and bone.


Assuntos
Fibronectinas/genética , Fraturas Ósseas/genética , Mutação/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/genética , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Cartilagem/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Escoliose/genética
12.
Brain ; 140(10): 2550-2556, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28969374

RESUMO

Hypomyelinating leukodystrophies are genetically heterogeneous disorders with overlapping clinical and neuroimaging features reflecting variable abnormalities in myelin formation. We report on the identification of biallelic inactivating mutations in NKX6-2, a gene encoding a transcription factor regulating multiple developmental processes with a main role in oligodendrocyte differentiation and regulation of myelin-specific gene expression, as the cause underlying a previously unrecognized severe variant of hypomyelinating leukodystrophy. Five affected subjects (three unrelated families) were documented to share biallelic inactivating mutations affecting the NKX6-2 homeobox domain. A trio-based whole exome sequencing analysis in the first family detected a homozygous frameshift change [c.606delinsTA; p.(Lys202Asnfs*?)]. In the second family, homozygosity mapping coupled to whole exome sequencing identified a homozygous nucleotide substitution (c.565G>T) introducing a premature stop codon (p.Glu189*). In the third family, whole exome sequencing established compound heterozygosity for a non-conservative missense change affecting a key residue participating in DNA binding (c.599G>A; p.Arg200Gln) and a nonsense substitution (c.589C>T; p.Gln197*), in both affected siblings. The clinical presentation was homogeneous, with four subjects having severe motor delays, nystagmus and absent head control, and one individual showing gross motor delay at the age of 6 months. All exhibited neuroimaging that was consistent with hypomyelination. These findings define a novel, severe form of leukodystrophy caused by impaired NKX6-2 function.


Assuntos
Genes Homeobox/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Leucoencefalopatias/genética , Mutação/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Consanguinidade , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos do Tronco Encefálico , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Leucoencefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Leucoencefalopatias/patologia , Leucoencefalopatias/fisiopatologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares
13.
Ital J Pediatr ; 43(1): 65, 2017 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28768552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL) deficiency is a defect of purine metabolism affecting purinosome assembly and reducing metabolite fluxes through purine de novo synthesis and purine nucleotide recycling pathways. The disorder shows a wide spectrum of symptoms from slowly to rapidly progressing forms. The most severe form is characterized by neonatal encephalopathy, absence of spontaneous movement, respiratory failure, intractable seizures, and early death within the first weeks of life. More commonly, ADSL presents purely neurologic clinical picture characterized by severe psychomotor retardation, microcephaly, early onset of seizures, and autistic features (type I) or a more slowly progressing form with later onset, and major features including slight to moderate psychomotor retardation, and transient contact disturbances (type II). Diagnostic markers are the presence of succinylaminoimidazole carboxamide riboside (SAICAr) and succinyladenosine (SAdo) in extracellular fluids. ADSL is a rare disorder, although its prevalence remains unknown. Of note, the wide range of essentially nonspecific manifestations and lack of awareness of the condition often prevent diagnosis. CASE PRESENTATION: We present here the case of particularly mild, late onset ADSL that has been unsuccessfully investigated until whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed. CONCLUSIONS: Besides emphasizing the valuable diagnostic value of WES, this report provides new data further documenting the relatively wide clinical manifestation of ADSL.


Assuntos
Adenilossuccinato Liase/deficiência , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo da Purina-Pirimidina/diagnóstico por imagem , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo da Purina-Pirimidina/genética , Adenilossuccinato Liase/genética , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico por imagem , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Doenças Raras , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
14.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 21(6): 873-883, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28760337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Collagen VI-related disorders (COL6-RD) are a group of heterogenous muscular diseases due to mutations in the COL6A1, COL6A2 and COL6A3 genes, encoding for collagen VI, a critical component of the extracellular matrix. Ullrich congenital muscle disorder and Bethlem myopathy represent the ends of a clinical spectrum that includes intermediate phenotypes of variable severity. UCMD are caused by recessive loss of function mutations or de-novo dominant-negative mutations. The intermediate phenotype and BM are more commonly caused by dominantly acting mutations, and less commonly by recessive mutations. Recently parental mosaicism for dominant mutations in COL6 have been reported in four COL6-RD families and germinal mosaicism has been also identified in a family with recurrence of UCMD in two half-sibs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here we report three unrelated patients affected by a COL6-RD who carried de novo mosaic mutations in COL6A genes. These mutations, missed by Sanger sequencing, were identified by next generation sequencing. CONCLUSIONS: This report highlights the importance of a complete diagnostic workup when clinical and histological finding are consistent with a COL6-RD and strengthen the impression that mosaicisms are underestimated events underlying COL6-RD.


Assuntos
Colágeno Tipo VI/genética , Contratura/genética , Distrofias Musculares/congênito , Esclerose/genética , Adolescente , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Mosaicismo , Distrofias Musculares/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Irmãos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 12(1): 89, 2017 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28494813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heterozygous mutations in OPA1 are a common cause of autosomal dominant optic atrophy, sometimes associated with extra-ocular manifestations. Few cases harboring compound heterozygous OPA1 mutations have been described manifesting complex neurodegenerative disorders in addition to optic atrophy. RESULTS: We report here three patients: one boy showing an early-onset mitochondrial disorder with hypotonia, ataxia and neuropathy that was severely progressive, leading to early death because of multiorgan failure; two unrelated sporadic girls manifesting a spastic ataxic syndrome associated with peripheral neuropathy and, only in one, optic atrophy. Using a targeted resequencing of 132 genes associated with mitochondrial disorders, in two probands we found compound heterozygous mutations in OPA1: in the first a 5 nucleotide deletion, causing a frameshift and insertion of a premature stop codon (p.Ser64Asnfs*7), and a missense change (p.Ile437Met), which has recently been reported to have clinical impact; in the second, a novel missense change (p.Val988Phe) co-occurred with the p.Ile437Met substitution. In the third patient a homozygous mutation, c.1180G > A (p.Ala394Thr) in OPA1 was detected by a trio-based whole exome sequencing approach. One of the patients presented also variants in mitochondrial DNA that may have contributed to the peculiar phenotype. The deleterious effect of the identified missense changes was experimentally validated in yeast model. OPA1 level was reduced in available patients' biological samples, and a clearly fragmented mitochondrial network was observed in patients' fibroblasts. CONCLUSIONS: This report provides evidence that bi-allelic OPA1 mutations may lead to complex and severe multi-system recessive mitochondrial disorders, where optic atrophy might not represent the main feature.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Atrofia Óptica Autossômica Dominante/genética , Atrofia Óptica/genética , Western Blotting , Encefalopatias/metabolismo , Pré-Escolar , Eletrofisiologia , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Mutação , Atrofia Óptica/metabolismo , Atrofia Óptica Autossômica Dominante/metabolismo , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
16.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2017 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28480548

RESUMO

Exome sequencing has led to the comprehension of the molecular bases of several forms of neurodevelopmental disorders, a clinically heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). De novo mutations in POGZ has been causally linked to isolated ASD and syndromic ID, only recently. Here we report on a 15 year-old girl in whom exome sequencing allowed to identify a de novo POGZ truncating mutation as the molecular cause underlying a complex phenotype apparently not fitting any recognized syndrome. We describe the evolution of her clinical features with age, and review published clinical data of patients with POGZ mutations to systematically analyze the clinical spectrum associated with mutations. Our finding expands the clinical and molecular spectrum of POGZ mutations. Revision of the literature indicate that moderate to severe ID, microcephaly, variable CNS malformations, reduced growth, brachytelephalangy, and facial dysmorphism represent recurrent features associated with POGZ mutations.

18.
J Neurol ; 264(1): 102-111, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27785568

RESUMO

Defects of the Fe/S cluster biosynthesis represent a subgroup of diseases affecting the mitochondrial energy metabolism. In the last years, mutations in four genes (NFU1, BOLA3, ISCA2 and IBA57) have been related to a new group of multiple mitochondrial dysfunction syndromes characterized by lactic acidosis, hyperglycinemia, multiple defects of the respiratory chain complexes, and impairment of four lipoic acid-dependent enzymes: α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, pyruvic dehydrogenase, branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex and the H protein of the glycine cleavage system. Few patients have been reported with mutations in IBA57 and with variable clinical phenotype. Herein, we describe four unrelated patients carrying novel mutations in IBA57. All patients presented with combined or isolated defect of complex I and II. Clinical features varied widely, ranging from fatal infantile onset of the disease to acute and severe psychomotor regression after the first year of life. Brain MRI was characterized by cavitating leukodystrophy. The identified mutations were never reported previously and all had a dramatic effect on IBA57 stability. Our study contributes to expand the array of the genotypic variation of IBA57 and delineates the leukodystrophic pattern of IBA57 deficient patients.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Mutação , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Western Blotting , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico , Encefalopatias/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Estabilidade Proteica
19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 99(4): 974-983, 2016 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27666369

RESUMO

Tubulinopathies constitute a family of neurodevelopmental/neurodegenerative disorders caused by mutations in several genes encoding tubulin isoforms. Loss-of-function mutations in TBCE, encoding one of the five tubulin-specific chaperones involved in tubulin folding and polymerization, cause two rare neurodevelopmental syndromes, hypoparathyroidism-retardation-dysmorphism and Kenny-Caffey syndrome. Although a missense mutation in Tbce has been associated with progressive distal motor neuronopathy in the pmn/pmn mice, no similar degenerative phenotype has been recognized in humans. We report on the identification of an early-onset and progressive neurodegenerative encephalopathy with distal spinal muscular atrophy resembling the phenotype of pmn/pmn mice and caused by biallelic TBCE mutations, with the c.464T>A (p.Ile155Asn) change occurring at the heterozygous/homozygous state in six affected subjects from four unrelated families originated from the same geographical area in Southern Italy. Western blot analysis of patient fibroblasts documented a reduced amount of TBCE, suggestive of rapid degradation of the mutant protein, similarly to what was observed in pmn/pmn fibroblasts. The impact of TBCE mutations on microtubule polymerization was determined using biochemical fractionation and analyzing the nucleation and growth of microtubules at the centrosome and extracentrosomal sites after treatment with nocodazole. Primary fibroblasts obtained from affected subjects displayed a reduced level of polymerized α-tubulin, similarly to tail fibroblasts of pmn/pmn mice. Moreover, markedly delayed microtubule re-polymerization and abnormal mitotic spindles with disorganized microtubule arrangement were also documented. Although loss of function of TBCE has been documented to impact multiple developmental processes, the present findings provide evidence that hypomorphic TBCE mutations primarily drive neurodegeneration.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/complicações , Encefalopatias/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/complicações , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/genética , Mutação/genética , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Animais , Criança , Feminino , Fibroblastos , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Itália , Masculino , Camundongos , Microtúbulos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/patologia , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Nocodazol/farmacologia , Fuso Acromático/metabolismo , Fuso Acromático/patologia , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 99(4): 962-973, 2016 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27666370

RESUMO

Microtubules are dynamic cytoskeletal elements coordinating and supporting a variety of neuronal processes, including cell division, migration, polarity, intracellular trafficking, and signal transduction. Mutations in genes encoding tubulins and microtubule-associated proteins are known to cause neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Growing evidence suggests that altered microtubule dynamics may also underlie or contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegeneration. We report that biallelic mutations in TBCD, encoding one of the five co-chaperones required for assembly and disassembly of the αß-tubulin heterodimer, the structural unit of microtubules, cause a disease with neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative features characterized by early-onset cortical atrophy, secondary hypomyelination, microcephaly, thin corpus callosum, developmental delay, intellectual disability, seizures, optic atrophy, and spastic quadriplegia. Molecular dynamics simulations predicted long-range and/or local structural perturbations associated with the disease-causing mutations. Biochemical analyses documented variably reduced levels of TBCD, indicating relative instability of mutant proteins, and defective ß-tubulin binding in a subset of the tested mutants. Reduced or defective TBCD function resulted in decreased soluble α/ß-tubulin levels and accelerated microtubule polymerization in fibroblasts from affected subjects, demonstrating an overall shift toward a more rapidly growing and stable microtubule population. These cells displayed an aberrant mitotic spindle with disorganized, tangle-shaped microtubules and reduced aster formation, which however did not alter appreciably the rate of cell proliferation. Our findings establish that defective TBCD function underlies a recognizable encephalopathy and drives accelerated microtubule polymerization and enhanced microtubule stability, underscoring an additional cause of altered microtubule dynamics with impact on neuronal function and survival in the developing brain.


Assuntos
Alelos , Encefalopatias/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Mutação , Dobramento de Proteína , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Encefalopatias/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fibroblastos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/patologia , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Fuso Acromático/metabolismo , Fuso Acromático/patologia , Tubulina (Proteína)/química
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