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2.
Pediatr Transplant ; 22(7): e13263, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30070010

RESUMO

ABO-ILT have re-emerged as an alternate option for select patients awaiting transplant. However, treatment protocols for children undergoing deceased donor ABO-ILT are not standardized. We implemented a novel IS protocol for children undergoing deceased donor ABO-ILT based on pretransplant IH titers. Children with high pretransplant IH titers (≥1:32) underwent an enhanced IS protocol including plasmapheresis, rituximab, IVIG, and mycophenolate, while children with IH titers ≤1:16 received steroids and tacrolimus. We retrospectively assessed our outcomes of ABO-ILT with ABO-compatible recipients of similar age and diagnosis over a 2-year period. Ten children with median age of 8.9 months underwent ABO-ILT, 4 of 10 patients underwent enhanced IS due to high IH titers. Rates of complications (rejection, infections, biliary, and vascular) at both 1 year and up to 3 years post-transplant were comparable between the groups. Patients with ABO-ILT had good graft function with 100% survival at a median follow-up of 3.3 years. In conclusion, IS tailored to pretransplant IH titers in pediatric deceased donor ABO-ILT is feasible and can achieve outcomes similar to ABO-CLT at 1 and 3 years post-transplantation.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(6): 1126-1142, 2018 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29805043

RESUMO

The proteasome processes proteins to facilitate immune recognition and host defense. When inherently defective, it can lead to aberrant immunity resulting in a dysregulated response that can cause autoimmunity and/or autoinflammation. Biallelic or digenic loss-of-function variants in some of the proteasome subunits have been described as causing a primary immunodeficiency disease that manifests as a severe dysregulatory syndrome: chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE). Proteasome maturation protein (POMP) is a chaperone for proteasome assembly and is critical for the incorporation of catalytic subunits into the proteasome. Here, we characterize and describe POMP-related autoinflammation and immune dysregulation disease (PRAID) discovered in two unrelated individuals with a unique constellation of early-onset combined immunodeficiency, inflammatory neutrophilic dermatosis, and autoimmunity. We also begin to delineate a complex genetic mechanism whereby de novo heterozygous frameshift variants in the penultimate exon of POMP escape nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) and result in a truncated protein that perturbs proteasome assembly by a dominant-negative mechanism. To our knowledge, this mechanism has not been reported in any primary immunodeficiencies, autoinflammatory syndromes, or autoimmune diseases. Here, we define a unique hypo- and hyper-immune phenotype and report an immune dysregulation syndrome caused by frameshift mutations that escape NMD.

4.
Blood ; 132(1): 89-100, 2018 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29632024

RESUMO

The HLH-2004 criteria are used to diagnose hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), yet concern exists for their misapplication, resulting in suboptimal treatment of some patients. We sought to define the genomic spectrum and associated outcomes of a diverse cohort of children who met the HLH-2004 criteria. Genetic testing was performed clinically or through research-based whole-exome sequencing. Clinical metrics were analyzed with respect to genomic results. Of 122 subjects enrolled over the course of 17 years, 101 subjects received genetic testing. Biallelic familial HLH (fHLH) gene defects were identified in only 19 (19%) and correlated with presentation at younger than 1 year of age (P < .0001). Digenic fHLH variants were observed but lacked statistical support for disease association. In 28 (58%) of 48 subjects, research whole-exome sequencing analyses successfully identified likely molecular explanations, including underlying primary immunodeficiency diseases, dysregulated immune activation and proliferation disorders, and potentially novel genetic conditions. Two-thirds of patients identified by the HLH-2004 criteria had underlying etiologies for HLH, including genetic defects, autoimmunity, and malignancy. Overall survival was 45%, and increased mortality correlated with HLH triggered by infection or malignancy (P < .05). Differences in survival did not correlate with genetic profile or extent of therapy. HLH should be conceptualized as a phenotype of critical illness characterized by toxic activation of immune cells from different underlying mechanisms. In most patients with HLH, targeted sequencing of fHLH genes remains insufficient for identifying pathogenic mechanisms. Whole-exome sequencing, however, may identify specific therapeutic opportunities and affect hematopoietic stem cell transplantation options for these patients.

5.
J Infect Dis ; 216(6): 678-687, 2017 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28934427

RESUMO

Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a respiratory virus detected in ≥9% of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients, in whom it can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Given the lack of effective antivirals, we investigated the potential for immunotherapeutic intervention, using adoptively transferred T cells. Thus, we characterized the cellular immune response to the virus and identified F, N, M2-1, M, and P as immunodominant target antigens. Reactive T cells were polyclonal (ie, they expressed CD4 and CD8), T-helper type 1 polarized, and polyfunctional (ie, they produced interferon γ, tumor necrosis factor α, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and granzyme B), and they were able to kill autologous antigen-loaded targets. The detection of hMPV-specific T cells in HSCT recipients who endogenously controlled active infections support the clinical importance of T-cell immunity in mediating protective antiviral effects. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of developing an immunotherapy for immunocompromised patients with uncontrolled infections.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia Adotiva , Metapneumovirus/imunologia , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/terapia , Adulto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/imunologia , Granzimas/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/imunologia , Epitopos Imunodominantes/imunologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Masculino , Metapneumovirus/isolamento & purificação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/imunologia , Linfócitos T/virologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 139(1): 232-245, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27577878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders thus far associated with mutations in more than 300 genes. The clinical phenotypes derived from distinct genotypes can overlap. Genetic etiology can be a prognostic indicator of disease severity and can influence treatment decisions. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the ability of whole-exome screening methods to detect disease-causing variants in patients with PIDDs. METHODS: Patients with PIDDs from 278 families from 22 countries were investigated by using whole-exome sequencing. Computational copy number variant (CNV) prediction pipelines and an exome-tiling chromosomal microarray were also applied to identify intragenic CNVs. Analytic approaches initially focused on 475 known or candidate PIDD genes but were nonexclusive and further tailored based on clinical data, family history, and immunophenotyping. RESULTS: A likely molecular diagnosis was achieved in 110 (40%) unrelated probands. Clinical diagnosis was revised in about half (60/110) and management was directly altered in nearly a quarter (26/110) of families based on molecular findings. Twelve PIDD-causing CNVs were detected, including 7 smaller than 30 Kb that would not have been detected with conventional diagnostic CNV arrays. CONCLUSION: This high-throughput genomic approach enabled detection of disease-related variants in unexpected genes; permitted detection of low-grade constitutional, somatic, and revertant mosaicism; and provided evidence of a mutational burden in mixed PIDD immunophenotypes.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Genômica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 138(4): 1142-1151.e2, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27484032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs) are inherited disorders of the immune system. The most severe form, severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), presents with profound deficiencies of T cells, B cells, or both at birth. If not treated promptly, affected patients usually do not live beyond infancy because of infections. Genetic heterogeneity of SCID frequently delays the diagnosis; a specific diagnosis is crucial for life-saving treatment and optimal management. OBJECTIVE: We developed a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based multigene-targeted panel for SCID and other severe PIDDs requiring rapid therapeutic actions in a clinical laboratory setting. METHODS: The target gene capture/NGS assay provides an average read depth of approximately 1000×. The deep coverage facilitates simultaneous detection of single nucleotide variants and exonic copy number variants in one comprehensive assessment. Exons with insufficient coverage (<20× read depth) or high sequence homology (pseudogenes) are complemented by amplicon-based sequencing with specific primers to ensure 100% coverage of all targeted regions. RESULTS: Analysis of 20 patient samples with low T-cell receptor excision circle numbers on newborn screening or a positive family history or clinical suspicion of SCID or other severe PIDD identified deleterious mutations in 14 of them. Identified pathogenic variants included both single nucleotide variants and exonic copy number variants, such as hemizygous nonsense, frameshift, and missense changes in IL2RG; compound heterozygous changes in ATM, RAG1, and CIITA; homozygous changes in DCLRE1C and IL7R; and a heterozygous nonsense mutation in CHD7. CONCLUSION: High-throughput deep sequencing analysis with complete clinical validation greatly increases the diagnostic yield of severe primary immunodeficiency. Establishing a molecular diagnosis enables early immune reconstitution through prompt therapeutic intervention and guides management for improved long-term quality of life.


Assuntos
Análise de Sequência de DNA , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/diagnóstico , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Patologia Molecular/normas , Patologia Molecular/tendências
8.
J Am Coll Surg ; 222(4): 681-9, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27016995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The initial experience with ABO incompatible (ABOi) orthotopic liver transplantations (OLTs) was dismal. In the current study, we investigated whether ABOi pediatric OLTs could achieve acceptable patient outcomes. The option for ABOi transplantation is vital because critically ill children have limited access to donor liver allografts. STUDY DESIGN: Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox analysis was performed on data collected from 13,179 pediatric OLT recipients in the United Network for Organ Sharing database, including 540 ABOi recipients. We also analyzed 18 pediatric recipients of ABOi OLTs at Texas Children's Hospital. Recipients were divided into 2 groups: transplanted between 1987 to 2002 (remote era) and 2002 to 2013 (modern era). RESULTS: Analysis revealed 4 main points. First, there was a significant (p < 0.01) improvement in ABOi OLT survival in the modern era. Second, threshold analysis revealed superior outcomes (p < 0.01) for OLT recipients younger than 2 years of age. Third, survival outcomes for ABOi and ABO-identical OLTs were the same for recipients younger than 2 years: ABOi was 91.8% (1 year) and 88.4% (5 year), and ABO identical was 91.5% (1 year) and 86.7% (5 year) (p = 0.94). Lastly, we found identical OLT results when analyzing our own institutional experience. To date, there has been a 92.9% survival rate in the modern era compared with 75% in the remote era. All recipients younger than 2 years (n = 9) are still alive, compared with 78% of those older than 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis revealed a significant improvement in the survival of ABOi liver transplant recipients in the modern era. Importantly, ABOi liver transplantation can be performed in recipients younger than 2 years of age with equivalent outcomes compared with ABO-identical recipients.


Assuntos
Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo ABO , Incompatibilidade de Grupos Sanguíneos , Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Hepática Terminal/etiologia , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 137(5): 1498-1505.e1, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26920464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viral infections are a leading fatal complication for patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) who require hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Use of virus-specific T lymphocytes (VSTs) has been successful for the treatment and prevention of viral infections after HSCT for malignant and nonmalignant conditions. Here we describe the clinical use of VSTs in patients with PIDs at 4 centers. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of VSTs for treatment of viral infections in patients with PIDs. METHODS: Patients with PIDs who have received VST therapy on previous or current protocols were reviewed in aggregate. Clinical information, including transplantation details, viral infections, and use of antiviral and immunosuppressive pharmacotherapy, were evaluated. Data regarding VST production, infusions, and adverse reactions were compared. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients with 12 classes of PID diagnoses received 37 VST products before or after HSCT. Twenty-six (72%) patients had received a diagnosis of infection with cytomegalovirus, EBV, adenovirus, BK virus, and/or human herpesvirus 6. Two patients were treated before HSCT because of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease. Partial or complete responses against targeted viruses occurred in 81% of patients overall. Time to response varied from 2 weeks to 3 months (median, 28 days). Overall survival at 6 months after therapy was 80%. Four patients had graft-versus-host disease in the 45 days after VST infusion, which in most cases was therapy responsive. CONCLUSION: VSTs derived from either stem cell donors or third-party donors are likely safe and effective for the treatment of viral infections in patients with PIDs.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Linfócitos T/transplante , Viroses/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/virologia , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/virologia , Lactente , Carga Viral , Viroses/virologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nat Genet ; 47(6): 654-60, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25894502

RESUMO

Unbiased genetic studies have uncovered surprising molecular mechanisms in human cellular immunity and autoimmunity. We performed whole-exome sequencing and targeted sequencing in five families with an apparent mendelian syndrome of autoimmunity characterized by high-titer autoantibodies, inflammatory arthritis and interstitial lung disease. We identified four unique deleterious variants in the COPA gene (encoding coatomer subunit α) affecting the same functional domain. Hypothesizing that mutant COPA leads to defective intracellular transport via coat protein complex I (COPI), we show that COPA variants impair binding to proteins targeted for retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport. Additionally, expression of mutant COPA results in ER stress and the upregulation of cytokines priming for a T helper type 17 (TH17) response. Patient-derived CD4(+) T cells also demonstrate significant skewing toward a TH17 phenotype that is implicated in autoimmunity. Our findings uncover an unexpected molecular link between a vesicular transport protein and a syndrome of autoimmunity manifested by lung and joint disease.


Assuntos
Artrite/genética , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Proteína Coatomer/genética , Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Pré-Escolar , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Lactente , Escore Lod , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Linhagem , Transporte Proteico
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