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1.
J Neurol ; 2020 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306172

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neuronal antibodies can cause encephalopathy syndromes often presenting with subacute cognitive impairment, sometimes resembling neurodegenerative dementias. METHODS: We searched Medline and Embase for studies reporting associations between neuronal surface antibodies in all-cause dementia versus controls. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to pool adjusted estimates across studies. RESULTS: Six studies were included, all reporting frequency of serum NMDAR antibodies in dementia with four also reporting frequency in atypical dementias. Both IgG [OR = 8.09 (1.51; 56.85), p = 0.036] and IgA/IgM NMDAR antibodies [OR = 42.48 (11.39; 158.52), p < 0.001] were associated with atypical dementia, but neither were associated with all-cause dementia. DISCUSSION: In the first meta-analysis to explore this literature, serum IgG and IgA/IgM NMDAR antibodies were significantly more common in atypical dementias. However, methodological issues and small-sample sizes necessitate caution interpreting this result. Further studies measuring both serum and CSF antibodies are needed to investigate the role of neuronal antibodies in dementia, since evidence of pathogenicity in even a subset of patients could pave the way for novel treatment options.

2.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 91(6): 638-649, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111637

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify existing outcome measures for functional neurological disorder (FND), to inform the development of recommendations and to guide future research on FND outcomes. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted to identify existing FND-specific outcome measures and the most common measurement domains and measures in previous treatment studies. Searches of Embase, MEDLINE and PsycINFO were conducted between January 1965 and June 2019. The findings were discussed during two international meetings of the FND-Core Outcome Measures group. RESULTS: Five FND-specific measures were identified-three clinician-rated and two patient-rated-but their measurement properties have not been rigorously evaluated. No single measure was identified for use across the range of FND symptoms in adults. Across randomised controlled trials (k=40) and observational treatment studies (k=40), outcome measures most often assessed core FND symptom change. Other domains measured commonly were additional physical and psychological symptoms, life impact (ie, quality of life, disability and general functioning) and health economics/cost-utility (eg, healthcare resource use and quality-adjusted life years). CONCLUSIONS: There are few well-validated FND-specific outcome measures. Thus, at present, we recommend that existing outcome measures, known to be reliable, valid and responsive in FND or closely related populations, are used to capture key outcome domains. Increased consistency in outcome measurement will facilitate comparison of treatment effects across FND symptom types and treatment modalities. Future work needs to more rigorously validate outcome measures used in this population.

3.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051548

RESUMO

Functional neurological (conversion) disorder (FND) is a neuropsychiatric condition whereby individuals present with sensorimotor symptoms incompatible with other neurological disorders. Early-life maltreatment (ELM) is a risk factor for developing FND, yet few studies have investigated brain network-trauma relationships in this population. In this neuroimaging-gene expression study, we used two graph theory approaches to elucidate ELM subtype effects on resting-state functional connectivity architecture in 30 patients with motor FND. Twenty-one individuals with comparable depression, anxiety, and ELM scores were used as psychiatric controls. Thereafter, we compared trauma endophenotypes in FND with regional differences in transcriptional gene expression as measured by the Allen Human Brain Atlas (AHBA). In FND patients only, we found that early-life physical abuse severity, and to a lesser extent physical neglect, correlated with corticolimbic weighted-degree functional connectivity. Connectivity profiles influenced by physical abuse occurred in limbic (amygdalar-hippocampal), paralimbic (cingulo-insular and ventromedial prefrontal), and cognitive control (ventrolateral prefrontal) areas, as well as in sensorimotor and visual cortices. These findings held adjusting for individual differences in depression/anxiety, PTSD, and motor phenotypes. In FND, physical abuse also correlated with amygdala and insula coupling to motor cortices. In exploratory analyses, physical abuse correlated connectivity maps overlapped with the AHBA spatial expression of three gene clusters: (i) neuronal morphogenesis and synaptic transmission genes in limbic/paralimbic areas; (ii) locomotory behavior and neuronal generation genes in left-lateralized structures; and (iii) nervous system development and cell motility genes in right-lateralized structures. These circuit-specific architectural profiles related to individual differences in childhood physical abuse burden advance our understanding of the pathophysiology of FND.

5.
Epilepsy Behav ; 104(Pt A): 106895, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986440

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to review the literature on the terminologies for psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) and make a proposal on the terminology of this condition. This proposal reflects the authors' own opinions. METHODS: We systematically searched MEDLINE (accessed from PubMed) and EMBASE from inception to October 10, 2019 for articles written in English with a main focus on PNES (with or without discussion of other functional neurological disorders) and which either proposed or discussed the accuracy or appropriateness of PNES terminologies. RESULTS: The search strategy reported above yielded 757 articles; 30 articles were eventually included, which were generally of low quality. "Functional seizures" (FS) appeared to be an acceptable terminology to name this condition from the perspective of patients. In addition, FS is a term that is relatively popular with clinicians. CONCLUSION: From the available evidence, FS meets more of the criteria proposed for an acceptable label than other popular terms in the field. While the term FS is neutral with regard to etiology and pathology (particularly regarding whether psychological or not), other terms such as "dissociative", "conversion", or "psychogenic" seizures are not. In addition, FS can potentially facilitate multidisciplinary (physical and psychological) management more than other terms. Adopting a universally accepted terminology to describe this disorder could standardize our approach to the illness and facilitate communication between healthcare professionals, patients, their families, carers, and the wider public.

6.
Epilepsy Behav ; 102: 106705, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785480

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous studies from a few countries have reported semiological differences in younger children compared with adolescents or adults with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs). This study tested the hypothesis that semiological, demographic, and historical risk factors vary with different ages of PNES onset in a large cohort from different countries. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we investigated patients consecutively referred for PNES, who were admitted to epilepsy monitoring units in Iran, Brazil, Venezuela, Canada, Argentina, and USA. Age, gender, age at seizure onset, seizure semiology, and factors predisposing to PNES (abuse, stressors) were documented according to routine diagnostic practices at each center. Participants were grouped according to their age at onset (i.e., childhood, adolescence, or adulthood). RESULTS: A total of 448 patients were studied. Female predominance was associated with adolescent- (85/122, 70%) and adult-onset (190/270, 70%) but not in childhood-onset PNES (28/56, 50%) (p = 0.011). Event frequency in the month preceding the diagnosis was higher in the childhood- [x¯â€¯= 50, standard deviation (sd) = 82, p = 0.025] versus adolescent- (x¯â€¯= 24, sd = 36) or adult-onset groups (x¯â€¯= 29, sd = 61). Significant between-group differences were observed for generalized body movements (p = 0.0001) and ictal injury (p = 0.027), suggesting more severe ictal presentations in adult-onset PNES compared with younger ages. Adult-onset patients were also more likely to be taking an unnecessary antiepileptic medication (p = 0.010). CONCLUSION: While PNES may present at any age, there appear to be notable differences across the lifespan with respect to some of the clinical characteristics. Further international and cross-cultural studies may reveal other interesting characteristics of PNES.

7.
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 32(1): 33-42, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865871

RESUMO

The development and selection of optimal outcome measures is increasingly recognized as a key component of evidence-based medicine, particularly the need for the development of a standardized set of measures for use in clinical trials. This process is particularly complex for functional neurological disorder (FND) for several reasons. FND can present with a wide range of symptoms that resemble the full spectrum of other neurological disorders. Additional physical (e.g., pain, fatigue) and psychological (e.g., depression, anxiety) symptoms are commonly associated with FND, which also can be highly disabling with implications for prognosis, and warrant concurrent assessment, despite an unclear etiological relationship with FND. Furthermore, several unique clinical aspects of FND make it likely that the usual prioritization of "objective" (or clinician-rated) over "subjective" (or patient-rated) measures might not be appropriate. Self-report measures may be more clinically meaningful in this patient population. Despite being a common and disabling disorder, there has been little research into outcome measures in FND, and to date trials have largely used measures designed for the assessment of other disorders. An international FND Core Outcome Measure group (FND-COM) has been established to develop a consensus battery of outcomes for FND: a "core outcome set." In this perspective article, the authors reviewed the process of outcome measure development and selection before considering the specific features of FND affecting the development of a core outcome set, as well as a research agenda to optimize outcome measurement in this complex neuropsychiatric disorder.

8.
Seizure ; 71: 56-59, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207393

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We compared various clinical characteristics of pediatric-onset psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) between patients from five countries. The purpose of this study was to advance our understanding of pediatric-onset PNES cross-culturally. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we compared consecutive patients with PNES with an age at onset of 16 years and younger from epilepsy monitoring units in Iran, Brazil, the USA, Canada, and Venezuela. Age, gender, age at seizure onset, seizure semiology, predisposing factors, and video-EEG recordings of all patients were extracted. Pearson Chi-Square, one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni correction tests were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: Two hundred twenty-nine patients were studied (83 from Iran, 50 from Brazil, 39 from Canada, 30 from the USA, and 27 from Venezuela). Mean age at the onset of seizures was 12.1 ±â€¯3.2 years (range: 4-16 years). The sex ratio of the patients was 1.83: 1 (148 females and 81 males). Clinical characteristics of pediatric-onset PNES showed some significant differences among the nations. However, factors associated with pediatric-onset PNES in these five nations were similar. CONCLUSION: This study underscores how international cross-cultural studies can make important contributions to our understanding of PNES. Patients with pediatric-onset PNES from different countries were similar on many risk factors associated with PNES. This suggests universality in many features of PNES. However, intriguing differences were also noted with regard to seizure semiology, which might be the result of cultural factors.

9.
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 31(4): 361-367, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117907

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Functional movement and seizure disorders are still widely misunderstood and receive little public and academic attention. This is in stark contrast to their high prevalence and levels of associated disability. In an exploratory observational study, the authors examined whether the relative lack of media coverage of functional neurological disorders is in part due to misidentification in "human interest" news stories. METHODS: Thirteen recent news stories from high-impact English-language media outlets that portrayed patients with complex symptoms either attributed to other diagnoses or presented as medical mysteries were identified using online keyword searches. All selected news stories contained video or still images displaying relevant symptoms. Cases were categorized into movement disorders or seizure disorders and were then independently assessed by 10 respective expert raters. For each category, one story of a patient whose symptoms were due to a well-recognized neurological disease was also included. Both the diagnostic category and the respective confidence level were reported by each rater for each case. The interrater agreement was calculated for each group of disorders. RESULTS: The raters confirmed almost unanimously that all presented news stories except the negative control cases portrayed misidentified functional movement or seizure disorders. The interrater agreement and average diagnostic confidence were high. CONCLUSIONS: Functional neurological disorders are often wrongly considered a rare medical curiosity of the past. However, these findings suggest that, while they are largely absent from public discourse, they often appear in the news incognito, hiding in plain sight.

10.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 90(6): 704-711, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455406

RESUMO

Functional neurological disorder (FND) is a common and highly disabling disorder, but its aetiology remains enigmatic. Conceptually, there has been reduced emphasis on the role of psychosocial stressors in recent years, with a corresponding increase in neurobiological explanations. However, a wealth of evidence supports the role of psychosocial adversities (eg, stressful life events, interpersonal difficulties) as important risk factors for FND. Therefore, there is a need to integrate psychosocial (environmental) and neurobiological factors (eg, sensorimotor and cognitive functions) in contemporary models of FND. Altered emotional processing may represent a key link between psychosocial risk factors and core features of FND. Here, we summarise and critically appraise experimental studies of emotional processing in FND using behavioural, psychophysiological and/or neuroimaging measures in conjunction with affective processing tasks. We propose that enhanced preconscious (implicit) processing of emotionally salient stimuli, associated with elevated limbic reactivity (eg, amygdala), may contribute to the initiation of basic affective/defensive responses via hypothalamic and brainstem pathways (eg, periaqueductal grey). In parallel, affect-related brain areas may simultaneously exert a disruptive influence on neurocircuits involved in voluntary motor control, awareness and emotional regulation (eg, sensorimotor, salience, central executive networks). Limbic-paralimbic disturbances in patients with FND may represent one of several neurobiological adaptations linked to early, severe and/or prolonged psychosocial adversity. This perspective integrates neurobiological and psychosocial factors in FND and proposes a research agenda, highlighting the need for replication of existing findings, multimodal sampling across emotional response domains and further examination of emotional influences on sensorimotor and cognitive functions in FND populations.

11.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 90(7): 813-821, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409887

RESUMO

At the interface between mind and body, psychiatry and neurology, functional neurological disorder (FND) remains poorly understood. Formerly dominant stress-related aetiological models have been increasingly challenged, in part due to cases without any history of past or recent trauma. In this perspective article, we review current evidence for such models, and how research into the role of traumatic stress in other disorders and the neurobiology of the stress response can inform our mechanistic understanding of FND. First, we discuss the association between stress and the onset or exacerbation of a variety of physical and mental health problems. Second, we review the role of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction in the neurobiology of ill-health, alongside evidence for similar mechanisms in FND. Third, we advocate a stress-diathesis model, in which biological susceptibility interacts with early life adversity, where FND can be precipitated by traumatic events later in life and maintained by psychological responses. We hypothesise that greater biological susceptibility to FND is associated with less severe remote and recent stress, and that FND precipitated by more severe stress is associated with lower biological vulnerability. This would explain clinical experience of variable exposure to historical and recent traumatic stress among people with FND and requires empirical investigation. A testable, evidence-based stress-diathesis model can inform nuanced understanding of how biological and psychological factors interact at the individual level, with potential to inform personalised treatment pathways. Much-needed research to establish the aetiology of FND will enhance clinical care and communication, facilitate effective treatment and inform prevention strategies.

12.
BMJ ; 359: j5621, 2017 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29222085
13.
Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 71(10): 678-689, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28573688

RESUMO

Antibodies to the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) have been reported in some cases of psychosis. We conducted the first systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate their prevalence in people with psychosis and report a case series of VGKC-complex antibodies in refractory psychosis. Only five studies presenting prevalence rates of VGKC seropositivity in psychosis were identified, in addition to our case series, with an overall prevalence of 1.5% (25/1720) compared to 0.7% in healthy controls (12/1753). Meta-analysis established that the pooled prevalence of GAD65 autoantibodies was 5.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0-15.6%; I2 = 91%; nine studies) in psychotic disorders, with a prevalence of 4.6% (95%CI: 1.2-15.9%; nine studies; I2 = 89%) and 6.2% (95%CI: 1.2-27.0%; two studies; I2 = 69%) in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, respectively. People with psychosis were more likely to have GAD65 antibodies than controls (odds ratio [OR], 2.24; 95%CI: 1.28-3.92%; P = 0.005; eight studies; I2 = 0%). Among 21 participants with treatment-resistant psychosis, none had VGKC antibodies. The prevalence of VGKC antibodies is low in psychosis. Our preliminary meta-analysis suggests that GAD autoantibodies are more common in people with psychosis than in controls, although few studies accounted for the possibility of co-existing type 1 diabetes mellitus and the clinical significance of reported GAD titers remains unclear. The paucity of studies reporting thresholds for defining GAD abnormality and rates of comorbid type 1 diabetes mellitus precludes interpretations regarding the influence of GAD antibodies on the development of psychotic disorders and may have led to an overestimate of the prevalence of GAD. Our case series fails to support the hypothesis that VGKC antibodies are linked to treatment resistance in psychosis, but the literature to date is remarkably sparse.


Assuntos
Glutamato Descarboxilase/imunologia , Canais de Potássio de Abertura Dependente da Tensão da Membrana/imunologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Humanos , Transtornos Psicóticos/sangue
15.
BMJ Case Rep ; 20162016 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26929223

RESUMO

Meprobamate, a benzodiazepine-like drug, was commonly prescribed for anxiety in the 1960s and 1970s, but fell out of favour, at least in part, due to the risk of dependence, for which there is little published evidence to guide clinical management. We discuss a 70-year-old man with a 45-year history of meprobamate dependency and multiple failed previous withdrawal attempts who was successfully withdrawn from meprobamate using diazepam during a 2-week inpatient stay on a specialist Addictions ward. An appropriate diazepam dose was established using the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment scale for benzodiazepines (CIWA-B). This dose was then slowly reduced over 12 days. Multidisciplinary input, especially psychological therapy tackling his underlying anxiety disorder during his admission, was thought to be particularly helpful.


Assuntos
Diazepam/administração & dosagem , Meprobamato/administração & dosagem , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Diazepam/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Meprobamato/efeitos adversos , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
PLoS One ; 10(4): e0123273, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25859660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the neural correlates of implicit processing of negative emotions in motor conversion disorder (CD) patients. METHODS: An event related fMRI task was completed by 12 motor CD patients and 14 matched healthy controls using standardised stimuli of faces with fearful and sad emotional expressions in comparison to faces with neutral expressions. Temporal changes in the sensitivity to stimuli were also modelled and tested in the two groups. RESULTS: We found increased amygdala activation to negative emotions in CD compared to healthy controls in region of interest analyses, which persisted over time consistent with previous findings using emotional paradigms. Furthermore during whole brain analyses we found significantly increased activation in CD patients in areas involved in the 'freeze response' to fear (periaqueductal grey matter), and areas involved in self-awareness and motor control (cingulate gyrus and supplementary motor area). CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to healthy controls, CD patients exhibited increased response amplitude to fearful stimuli over time, suggesting abnormal emotional regulation (failure of habituation / sensitization). Patients with CD also activated midbrain and frontal structures that could reflect an abnormal behavioral-motor response to negative including threatening stimuli. This suggests a mechanism linking emotions to motor dysfunction in CD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Conversivo/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Conversivo/psicologia , Emoções , Movimento (Física) , Desempenho Psicomotor , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtorno Conversivo/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Eur Urol ; 68(3): 523-9, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25913391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urethral strictures can be difficult to diagnose at an early stage because the urinary flow rate does not diminish until the urethral calibre is ≤3mm. In the past, posturethral surgery follow-up has relied upon flow rates and contrast imaging. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of flexible urethroscopy in the follow-up of patients undergoing urethroplasty. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective flexible urethroscopy follow-up of 144 male patients who underwent urethroplasty by a single surgeon over a 10-yr period at a tertiary referral centre. INTERVENTION: Flexible urethroscopy at 3, 6, and 12 mo postoperatively, and annually thereafter. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Type of recurrence, based on urethroscopy findings, and further interventions were measured. Actuarial analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier curves and a log-rank test. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: All 144 patients underwent flexible urethroscopy follow-up over a median postoperative follow-up of 22 mo (range: 1-96 mo). No further intervention was required for 117 patients (81.25%); 27 (18.75%) developed recurrences that required further treatment. Recurrences included diaphragms (13 patients) or significant restenosis (14 patients). Diaphragms were treated by urethrotomy, gentle dilatation, or a short course of intermittent self-dilatation. Restenosis required repeated simple procedures or surgical revision. Most recurrences (26 of 27, 96%) were detected within the first year. Urinary peak flow-rate data were available for 11 of 27 of these recurrences; 7 patients had flow rates >15ml/s. Anastomotic procedures had greater success than augmentation urethroplasty (p=0.0136); there was no significant difference in outcomes between redo and non-redo surgery (p=0.2093) CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic follow-up of patients after urethroplasty enables earlier identification and treatment of recurrences compared to the use of urinary flow rates alone. It also enables the identification of two different morphologic recurrence patterns that require different types of intervention. PATIENT SUMMARY: Endoscopy detects most stricture recurrences within 1 yr after urethroplasty and is more sensitive than using urinary flow rates alone.


Assuntos
Cistoscopia/métodos , Uretra/cirurgia , Estreitamento Uretral/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Dilatação , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Recidiva , Reoperação , Estreitamento Uretral/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 85(2): 236-8, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23236016

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To detect anatomical differences in areas related to motor processing between patients with motor conversion disorder (CD) and controls. METHODS: T1-weighted 3T brain MRI data of 15 patients suffering from motor CD (nine with hemiparesis and six with paraparesis) and 25 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers were compared using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and voxel-based cortical thickness (VBCT) analysis. RESULTS: We report significant cortical thickness (VBCT) increases in the bilateral premotor cortex of hemiparetic patients relative to controls and a trend towards increased grey matter volume (VBM) in the same region. Regression analyses showed a non-significant positive correlation between cortical thickness changes and symptom severity as well as illness duration in CD patients. CONCLUSIONS: Cortical thickness increases in premotor cortical areas of patients with hemiparetic CD provide evidence for altered brain structure in a condition with presumed normal brain anatomy. These may either represent premorbid vulnerability or a plasticity phenomenon related to the disease with the trends towards correlations with clinical variables supporting the latter.


Assuntos
Transtorno Conversivo/patologia , Córtex Motor/patologia , Fibras Nervosas Amielínicas/patologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Transtorno Conversivo/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertrofia/patologia , Masculino , Neuroimagem
20.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 85(2): 191-7, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23303960

RESUMO

Functional (conversion) neurological symptoms (FNS) are commonly encountered in neurological and psychiatric clinical settings and represent a considerable burden on healthcare systems. There is a conspicuous paucity of evidence-based treatments for FNS. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) offers a safe, non-invasive method of probing changes in cortical excitability and/or connectivity. It has already had some success in demonstrating abnormalities of cortical excitability in patients with FNS, particularly when the functional symptom in question relates to movement. We reviewed the literature for studies in which TMS has been used in the treatment of FNS. All patients in the identified studies had motor symptoms (either weakness or movement disorder). There was considerable heterogeneity in terms of study quality, population sampled, study design, TMS parameters and outcome measures. No studies were placebo controlled. Despite the majority of studies claiming success for the technique, there is insufficient good quality evidence to establish TMS as an effective treatment modality for FNS. We outline the methodological considerations that should be taken into account in future studies of the efficacy of TMS in treating FNS and discuss mechanisms by which TMS, if efficacious, may exert a therapeutic effect, including: (a) via genuine neuromodulation, (b) via non-specific placebo effects and (c) by demonstrating, through its immediate effects on the motor system (eg, movement in a 'paretic' limb), that symptom improvement is possible, thus directly changing higher level beliefs that may be responsible for the maintenance of the disorder.


Assuntos
Transtornos dos Movimentos/terapia , Debilidade Muscular/terapia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa
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