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1.
J Sports Sci ; 39(sup1): 73-80, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092197

RESUMO

This study examined the reliability of instrumented trunk assessment methods across two experiments to develop and improve evidence-based classification in Para swimming. Trunk coordination, range of motion (ROM), and strength were assessed in 38 non-disabled participants. Each test battery was completed on two occasions to determine inter-session reliability. Intra-session reliability was also determined in Experiment Two. Absolute agreement of two-way mixed intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 3,1) was calculated to assess reliability. Standard errors of measurement (SEMs) were also reported to facilitate comparisons between different outcomes. Trunk coordination measures had low-to-moderate reliability (inter-session ICCs = 0.00-0.60; intra-session ICCs = 0.14-0.65) and variable SEMs (5-60%). Trunk ROM demonstrated moderate-to-excellent reliability (inter-session ICCs = 0.61-0.93; intra-session ICCs = 0.87-0.95) and good SEMs (<10%). Trunk strength measures demonstrated good-to-excellent reliability (ICCs = 0.87-0.98) and good SEMs (<10%). The strength values obtained for the load cell and hand-held dynamometer (HHD) were significantly different from each other with the HHD underestimating strength. Modifications provided in Experiment Two improved the reliability of strength and ROM assessments but did not improve coordination measures. Further research involving para swimmers is required to establish the validity of the methods.


Assuntos
Força Muscular/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Tronco/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Dinamômetro de Força Muscular , Paratletas/classificação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Postura Sentada , Coluna Vertebral , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/classificação , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Natação/classificação , Adulto Jovem
2.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 31(4): 925-935, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345411

RESUMO

This study is the first to provide information on the age-related trajectories of performance in Para swimmers with physical, vision and intellectual impairment. Race times from long-course swim meets between 2009 and 2019 were obtained for Para swimmers with an eligible impairment. A subset of 10 661 times from 411 Para swimmers were included in linear mixed effects modelling to establish the relationship between age and performance expressed relative to personal best time and world record time. The main findings were: (a) age has the most noticeable influence on performance between the ages of 12-20 years before performances stabilize and peak in the early to late twenties, (b) women have faster times relative to personal best and world record time than men during early adolescence and their performances stabilize, peak and decline at younger ages, and (c) Para swimmers from different sport classes show varying age-related trajectories in performance after maturation and when training-related factors are more likely to explain competitive swim performance. The results of this study can guide talent identification and development of Para swimmers at various stages of their career and help to inform decision-making on the allocation of sport class and sport class status in Para swimming classification.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Comportamento Competitivo , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência , Natação , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Physiother ; 65(4): 200-207, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521556

RESUMO

QUESTION: Does motor imagery training improve measures of balance, mobility and falls in older adults without a neurological condition? DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged at least 60 years and without a neurological condition. INTERVENTION: Three or more sessions of motor imagery training. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcomes were balance measures (such as single leg stance and Berg Balance scale) and mobility measures (such as gait speed and the Timed Up and Go test). Falls were a secondary outcome measure. Risk of bias was evaluated using the PEDro Scale, and overall quality of evidence was assessed using the Grades of Research, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. RESULTS: Twelve trials including 356 participants were included in the systematic review and 10 trials (316 participants) were included in the meta-analyses. All trials included either apparently healthy participants or older adults after orthopaedic surgery. There was evidence that motor imagery training can significantly improve balance (SMD 1.03, 95% CI 0.25 to 1.82), gait speed (MD 0.13 m/s, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.22) and Timed Up and Go (MD 1.64 seconds, 95% CI 0.79 to 2.49) in older adults; however, the quality of evidence was very low to low. No data regarding falls were identified. CONCLUSION: Motor imagery training improves balance and mobility in older adults who do not have a neurological condition. These results suggest that motor imagery training could be an adjunct to standard physiotherapy care in older adults, although it is unclear whether or not the effects are clinically worthwhile. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42017069954.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Marcha , Imagens, Psicoterapia/métodos , Equilíbrio Postural , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
J Sci Med Sport ; 22(5): 526-531, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503355

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The International Paralympic Committee has mandated that International Sport Federations develop sport-specific classification systems that are evidence-based. This study examined the predictive and convergent validity of instrumented tapping tasks to classify motor coordination impairments in Para swimming. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: Thirty non-disabled participants and twenty-one Para swimmers with brain injury completed several instrumented tapping tasks as an assessment of upper and lower limb motor coordination. Para swimmers also completed a maximal freestyle swim to obtain a performance measure. The predictive and convergent validity of instrumented tapping tasks was examined by establishing differences in test measures between participants with and without brain injury and defining the strength of association between test measures and maximal freestyle swim speed in Para swimmers, respectively. RESULTS: Random forest successfully classified 96% of participants with and without brain injury using test measures derived from instrumented tapping tasks. Most test measures had moderate to high correlations (r=0.54 to 0.72; p<0.01) with maximal freestyle swim speed and collectively explained up to 72% of the variance in maximal freestyle swim performance in Para swimmers with brain injury. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study evidence the predictive and convergent validity of instrumented tapping tasks to classify motor coordination impairments in Para swimmers with brain injury. These tests can be included in revised Para swimming classification to improve the objectivity and transparency in determining athlete eligibility and sport class for these Para athletes.


Assuntos
Ataxia/diagnóstico , Lesões Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Pessoas com Deficiência , Natação , Adolescente , Adulto , Ataxia/fisiopatologia , Atletas , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Sports Sci ; 37(4): 404-413, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30058953

RESUMO

This study examined the validity of isometric strength tests for evidence-based classification in Para swimming. Thirty non-disabled participants and forty-two Para swimmers with physical impairment completed an isometric strength test battery designed to explain activity limitation in the freestyle discipline. Measures pertaining to dominant and non-dominant limb strength and symmetry were derived from four strength tests that were found to be reliable in a cohort of non-disabled participants (ICC = 0.85-0.97; CV = 6.4-9.1%). Para swimmers had lower scores in strength tests compared with non-disabled participants (d = 0.14-1.00) and the strength test battery successfully classified 95% of Para swimmers with physical impairment using random forest algorithm. Most of the strength measures had low to moderate correlations (r = 0.32 to 0.53; p ≤ 0.05) with maximal freestyle swim speed in Para swimmers. Although, fewer correlations were found when Para swimmers with hypertonia or impaired muscle power were analysed independently, highlighting the impairment-specific nature of activity limitation in Para swimming. Collectively, the strength test battery has utility in Para swimming classification to infer loss of strength in Para swimmers, guide minimum eligibility criteria, and to define the impact that strength impairment has on Para swimming performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Teste de Esforço , Força Muscular , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Adulto , Atletas/classificação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
6.
Clin Interv Aging ; 13: 713-722, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29720876

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the influence of a single session of locomotor-based motor imagery training on motor learning and physical performance. Patients and methods: Thirty independent adults aged >65 years took part in the randomized controlled trial. The study was conducted within an exercise science laboratory. Participants were randomly divided into three groups following baseline locomotor testing: motor imagery training, physical training, and control groups. The motor imagery training group completed 20 imagined repetitions of a locomotor task, the physical training group completed 20 physical repetitions of a locomotor task, and the control group spent 25 minutes playing mentally stimulating games on an iPad. Imagined and physical performance times were measured for each training repetition. Gait speed (preferred and fast), timed-up-and-go, gait variability and the time to complete an obstacle course were completed before and after the single training session. Results: Motor learning occurred in both the motor imagery training and physical training groups. Motor imagery training led to refinements in motor planning resulting in imagined movements better matching the physically performed movement at the end of training. Motor imagery and physical training also promoted improvements in some locomotion outcomes as demonstrated by medium to large effect size improvements after training for fast gait speed and timed-up-and-go. There were no training effects on gait variability. Conclusion: A single session of motor imagery training promoted motor learning of locomotion in independent older adults. Motor imagery training of a specific locomotor task also had a positive transfer effect on related physical locomotor performance outcomes.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Imagens, Psicoterapia/métodos , Aprendizagem , Locomoção , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Teste de Esforço , Marcha , Humanos , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
7.
Phys Ther Sport ; 32: 34-41, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29730533

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the reliability of swimming-specific range of movement tests developed in order to permit evidenced-based classification in the sport of para swimming. DESIGN: Test-retest intra- and inter-examiner reliability. SETTING: International Swimming training camps and university exercise science departments. PARTICIPANTS: 42 non-disabled participants (mean age 23.2 years) and 24 Para swimmers (mean age 28.5 years). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Intra- and inter-examiner reliability of a battery of novel active range of motion tests. RESULTS: Good to excellent intra-examiner reliability was found for the majority (32/34) of tests in non-disabled participants (ICC = 0.85-0.98). SEM values ranged from 1.18° to 6.11°. Similarly, good to excellent inter-examiner reliability was found for the majority (35/42) of tests in non-disabled participants (ICC = 0.85-0.98). SEM values range from 0.73° to 6.52°. Para swimmers exhibited significantly reduced range of motion compared to non-disabled participants. CONCLUSIONS: The large majority of ROM tests included in this novel battery were reliable both within and between examiners in non-disabled participants. The tests were found to differentiate between non-disabled participants and Para swimmers with hypertonia or impaired muscle power.


Assuntos
Artrometria Articular , Pessoas com Deficiência , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Natação/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Natação/classificação , Adulto Jovem
8.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 96(6): 490-9, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25772806

RESUMO

This study determined the effect of 6 months of low-load very high-repetition resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in nonosteoporotic middle-aged and older women. Fifty healthy, active community-dwelling women aged 56-75 years took part in the two-group, repeated-measures randomized controlled trial. Participants either undertook 6 months of low-load very high-repetition resistance training in the form of BodyPump™ or served as control participants. Outcome measures included BMD at the lumbar spine, hip, and total body; total fat mass; fat-free soft tissue mass and maximal isotonic strength. Significant group-by-time interactions were found for lumbar spine BMD and maximal strength in favor of the BodyPump™ group. No favorable effects were found for hip BMD, total body BMD, total fat mass, or fat-free soft tissue mass. Three participants withdrew from the intervention group due to injury or fear of injury associated with training. Under the conditions used in this research, low-load very high-repetition resistance training is effective at attenuating losses in lumbar spine BMD compared to controls in healthy, active women aged over 55 years but did not influence hip and total body BMD or fat mass and fat-free soft tissue mass.


Assuntos
Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/prevenção & controle , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Idoso , Composição Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Feminino , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
J Sci Med Sport ; 18(5): 596-600, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25154701

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of 26 weeks of low-load high-repetition resistance training (BodyPump™) on maximal strength, gait speed, balance and self-reported health status in healthy, active middle-aged and older adults. DESIGN: Two-group randomised control trial. METHODS: Sixty-eight apparently healthy, active adults aged over 55 years completed either 26 weeks of BodyPump™ training (PUMP) or served as control participants (CON). The BodyPump™ group (n = 32, age = 66 ± 4 years) trained twice per week for 26 weeks while the control group (n = 36, age = 66 ± 5 years) continued with their normal activities. Leg-press and Smith-machine bench-press one repetition maximum (1RM), gait speed, balance, and self-reported health status were all assessed at baseline and follow-up. RESULTS: Significant group-by-time interactions in favour of the BodyPump™ group were found for leg-press 1RM (PUMP + 13%, CON + 3%, p = 0.007, partial eta(2) = 0.11), Smith-machine bench-press 1RM (PUMP + 14%, CON +5%, p = 0.001, partial eta(2) = 0.18), normal gait speed (PUMP + 23%, CON +9 %, p = 0.028, partial eta(2) = 0.08) and single leg balance right (PUMP + 24%, CON - 7%, p = 0.006, partial eta(2) = 0.12). There were no group-by-time interactions for health status measures. Three participants in the BodyPump™ group withdrew from training due to injury or fear of injury related to training. CONCLUSIONS: Low-load high-repetition resistance training in the form of BodyPump™ is effective at improving maximal strength, gait speed and some aspects of standing balance in adults over 55 years. The training was well tolerated by the majority of participants.


Assuntos
Marcha/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Caminhada/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Autorrelato
10.
J Aging Phys Act ; 23(1): 153-8, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24589631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of unsupervised Nintendo Wii Fit balance training in older adults. METHODS: Forty-one older adults were recruited from local retirement villages and educational settings to participate in a six-week two-group repeated measures study. The Wii group (n = 19, 75 ± 6 years) undertook 30 min of unsupervised Wii balance gaming three times per week in their retirement village while the comparison group (n = 22, 74 ± 5 years) continued with their usual exercise program. Participants' balance abilities were assessed pre- and postintervention. RESULTS: The Wii Fit group demonstrated significant improvements (P < .05) in timed up-and-go, left single-leg balance, lateral reach (left and right), and gait speed compared with the comparison group. Reported levels of enjoyment following game play increased during the study. CONCLUSION: Six weeks of unsupervised Wii balance training is an effective modality for improving balance in independent older adults.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Jogos de Vídeo , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Clin Interv Aging ; 9: 1895-904, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25395844

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of BodyBalance(®) training on balance, functional task performance, fear of falling, and health-related quality of life in adults aged over 55 years. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: A total of 28 healthy, active adults aged 66±5 years completed the randomized controlled trial. Balance, functional task performance, fear of falling, and self-reported quality of life were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Participants either undertook two sessions of BodyBalance per week for 12 weeks (n=15) or continued with their normal activities (n=13). RESULTS: Significant group-by-time interactions were found for the timed up and go (P=0.038), 30-second chair stand (P=0.037), and mediolateral center-of-pressure range in narrow stance with eyes closed (P=0.017). There were no significant effects on fear of falling or self-reported quality of life. CONCLUSION: Twelve weeks of BodyBalance training is effective at improving certain balance and functional based tasks in healthy older adults.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Terapia Ocupacional
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