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Pharmacol Res ; 163: 105215, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007421


Cholesterol homeostasis is a highly regulated process in human body because of its several functions underlying the biology of cell membranes, the synthesis of all steroid hormones and bile acids and the need of trafficking lipids destined to cell metabolism. In particular, it has been recognized that peripheral and central nervous system cholesterol metabolism are separated by the blood brain barrier and are regulated independently; indeed, peripherally, it depends on the balance between dietary intake and hepatic synthesis on one hand and its degradation on the other, whereas in central nervous system it is synthetized de novo to ensure brain physiology. In view of this complex metabolism and its relevant functions in mammalian, impaired levels of cholesterol can induce severe cellular dysfunction leading to metabolic, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this review is to clarify the role of cholesterol homeostasis in health and disease highlighting new intriguing aspects of the cross talk between its central and peripheral metabolism.

Int J Mol Sci ; 21(20)2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050121


Clinical management of diabetic cardiomyopathy represents an unmet need owing to insufficient knowledge about the molecular mechanisms underlying the dysfunctional heart. The aim of this work is to better clarify the role of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) isoforms and of translocator protein (TSPO)/voltage-dependent anion-selective channel 1 (VDAC1) modulation in the development of hyperglycaemia-induced myocardial injury. Hyperglycaemia was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats through a streptozocin injection (35 mg/Kg, i.p.). After 60 days, cardiac function was analysed by echocardiography. Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate NADPH oxidase and TSPO expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. MMP-2 activity was detected by zymography. Superoxide anion production was estimated by MitoSOX™ staining. Voltage-dependent anion-selective channel 1 (VDAC-1), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and cytochrome C expression was assessed by Western blot. Hyperglycaemic rats displayed cardiac dysfunction; this response was characterized by an overexpression of NADPH oxidase, accompanied by an increase of superoxide anion production. Under hyperglycaemia, increased expression of TSPO and VDAC1 was detected. MMP-2 downregulated activity occurred under hyperglycemia and this profile of activation was accompanied by the translocation of intracellular N-terminal truncated isoform of MMP-2 (NT-MMP-2) from mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM) into mitochondria. In the onset of diabetic cardiomyopathy, mitochondrial impairment in cardiomyocytes is characterized by the dysregulation of the different MMP-2 isoforms. This can imply the generation of a "frail" myocardial tissue unable to adapt itself to stress.

Cardiomiopatias/etiologia , Cardiomiopatias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Receptores de GABA-A/genética , Canal de Ânion 1 Dependente de Voltagem/genética , Animais , Biomarcadores , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Isoenzimas , Modelos Biológicos , Contração Miocárdica , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Transporte Proteico , Ratos , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Disfunção Ventricular/etiologia , Disfunção Ventricular/metabolismo , Disfunção Ventricular/fisiopatologia , Canal de Ânion 1 Dependente de Voltagem/metabolismo
Biomedicines ; 8(9)2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854210


Polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids with 18, 20 or 22 carbon atoms, which have been found able to counteract cardiovascular diseases. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in particular, have been found to produce both vaso- and cardio-protective response via modulation of membrane phospholipids thereby improving cardiac mitochondrial functions and energy production. However, antioxidant properties of n-3 PUFAs, along with their anti-inflammatory effect in both blood vessels and cardiac cells, seem to exert beneficial effects in cardiovascular impairment. In fact, dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFAs has been demonstrated to reduce oxidative stress-related mitochondrial dysfunction and endothelial cell apoptosis, an effect occurring via an increased activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. On the other hand, n-3 PUFAs have been shown to counteract the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in both vascular tissues and in the myocardium, thereby restoring vascular reactivity and myocardial performance. Here we summarize the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of n-3 PUFAs in vascular and cardiac tissues and their implication in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease.