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1.
Int J Clin Pract ; : e13481, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985868

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To derive and validate a prognostic score to predict 1-year mortality using vital signs, mobility and other variables that are readily available at the bedside at no additional cost. METHODS: Post hoc analysis of two independent prospective observational studies in two emergency departments, one in Denmark and the other in Switzerland. PARTICIPANTS: Alert and calm emergency department patients. MEASUREMENTS: The prediction of mortality from presentation to 365 days by vital signs, mobility and other variables that are readily available at the bedside at no additional cost. RESULTS: One thousand six hundred and eighteen alert and calm patients were in the Danish cohort and 1331 in the Swiss cohort. Logistic regression identified age >68 years, abnormal vital signs, impaired mobility and the decision to admit as significant predictors of 365-day mortality. A simple prognostic score awarded one point to each of these predictors. Less than two of these predictors were present in 45.6% of patients, and only 0.4% of these patients died within a year. If two or more of these predictors were present, 365-day mortality increased exponentially. CONCLUSION: Age >68 years, the decision for hospital admission, any vital sign abnormality at presentation and impaired mobility at presentation are equally powerful predictors of 1-year mortality in alert and calm emergency department patients. If validated by others these predictors could be used to discharge patients with confidence since nearly half of these patients had less than two predictors and none of them died within 30 days. However, when two or more predictors were present 365-day mortality increased exponentially.

2.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 149: w20155, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute pain is the most common complaint of patients presenting to emergency departments (EDs). Effective pain management is a core ED mission, but numerous studies have pointed to insufficient pain treatment or oligoanalgesia. According to a 1997 national survey in Swiss EDs, a validated pain scale was used in only 14%, an analgesia protocol in <5%, and 1.1% had a nurse-initiated pain protocol. Since then, numerous societal and health care factors have led to improved ED pain care. The aim of this study was to assess the state of ED pain management in Switzerland. METHODS: Hospital-based Swiss EDs open 24 hours a day and 7 days a week in 2013 were surveyed using a questionnaire. Data from 2013 were collected. Questions queried the pain management process by nurses and physicians in each ED. RESULTS: The response rate was 115 of 137 eligible EDs (84%). Pain intensity was assessed with a validated instrument in 71% of waiting rooms and in 99% of treatment areas. A nurse-initiated analgesia protocol was available in 56% of waiting rooms and in 70% of treatment areas. Physician pain protocols were available in 75%, and analgesia-sedation protocols in 51%. CONCLUSION: The pain management processes in Swiss EDs have improved over the last 17 years, and are now equivalent to other western countries. Our study did not, however, assess if these improvements resulted in better analgesia at the bedside, an important topic that will require further study.

3.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 149: w20141, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656038

RESUMO

As a result of the ever-increasing use of imaging and clinical chemistry, symptom-oriented research has lost ground in many areas of clinical medicine. In emergency medicine, the importance of symptom-oriented research is obvious, as the three major tasks (triage, work-up and disposition) are still under-investigated. Scientific progress is closely linked to the analysis of readily available information, such as the patients’ symptoms. A decade ago, there were more questions than answers. Therefore, we describe the state of the evidence and the importance of symptoms for decisions at triage, during work-up and for disposition. Recent advances in each field focusing on symptoms as predictors of outcome and/or diagnosis are shown. Finally, future directions of research regarding novel triage tools, efficient work-up and evidence-based disposition are discussed. Symptom-oriented research has been a driver for medical progress for centuries, and re-focusing on patient-centred clinical research will strengthen this field in the future in order to support smarter medicine.

4.
J Emerg Med ; 57(4): 453-460.e2, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early recognition of sepsis remains a major challenge. The clinical utility of the Quick Sepsis-Related Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) score is still undefined. Several studies have tested its prognostic value. However, its ability to diagnose sepsis is still unknown. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to compare the performance of qSOFA, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria, National Early Warning Score (NEWS), and formal triage with the Emergency Severity Index (ESI) algorithm to identify patients with sepsis and predict adverse outcomes on arrival in an emergency department (ED) all-comer cohort. METHODS: We included all patients presenting consecutively to the ED during a 3-week period. We used vital signs recorded at triage to calculate the study scores. Two independent assessors retrospectively assigned the primary outcome of sepsis according to Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock criteria in a chart review process. RESULTS: There were 2523 cases included in the analysis and 39 (1.6%) had the primary outcome of sepsis. The area under the curve for sepsis was 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71-0.86) for qSOFA, 0.81 (95% CI 0.73-0.87) for SIRS, 0.85 (95% CI 0.77-0.92) for NEWS, and 0.77 (95% CI 0.70-0.83) for ESI. CONCLUSIONS: qSOFA offered high specificity for the prediction of sepsis and adverse outcomes. However, its low sensitivity does not support widespread use as a screening tool for sepsis. NEWS outperformed qSOFA for prediction of adverse outcomes and screening for sepsis.

5.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 149: w20113, 2019 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476242

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Drug traffickers are increasingly making use of the human body for illegal drug transport. Three ways of intracorporeal drug transport are practiced, namely "body packing", "body stuffing" and "body pushing". Since police and border guards cannot accurately detect intracorporeal drug transport, authorities require medical professionals for examination and radiological imaging. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess outcomes in all presentations of suspected intracorporeal drug transport referred to the Emergency Department (ED) of the University Hospital of Basel. METHODS: We screened the electronic health records (EHRs) of all presentations to the ED between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2017 for combinations of keywords "body", "pack", "stuff" and "push" in the diagnosis and history of presenting complaints. All presentations with suspicion of intracorporeal drug transport were included. Patient characteristics, imaging modality and the results of imaging were assessed. Outcomes were length of stay, hospitalisation, admission to the intensive care unit, surgical intervention and mortality. The main outcome was the rate of surgical interventions during follow-up in hospital and in prison. RESULTS: We included 363 presentations in 347 patients. The median age was 35 years and 46 (12.7%) were female. Positive results of imaging were found in 81 of 353 (22.9%) presentations assessed by imaging. In four presentations (1.1%), the result of imaging was indeterminate; in 10 presentations, no imaging was obtained owing to lack of consent or pregnancy. We observed 36 instances of body packing, 10 of body stuffing and 15 of body pushing, and 20 mixed or indeterminate presentations. The number of suspected presentations has risen over the last decade, and the relative number of positive results has almost remained stable over the last six years. No severe or life-threatening complications, interventions, or deaths were observed. Among the presentations with positive imaging results, ten (12.3%) were observed in hospital, as compared with four (1.5%) of those with negative results. CONCLUSIONS: Presentations have increased over the last decade while no severe complications or deaths were observed. The consistently low complication rate supports outpatient observation. Considering the ongoing discussion in media and politics, we suggest validation of medical, legal, and ethical guidelines.

6.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e030913, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434783

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Urban transmission patterns of influenza viruses are complex and poorly understood, and multiple factors may play a critical role in modifying transmission. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) allows the description of patient-to-patient transmissions at highest resolution. The aim of this study is to explore urban transmission patterns of influenza viruses in high detail by combining geographical, epidemiological and immunological data with WGS data. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study is performed at the University Hospital Basel, University Children's Hospital Basel and a network of paediatricians and family doctors in the Canton of Basel-City, Switzerland. The retrospective study part includes an analysis of PCR-confirmed influenza cases from 2013 to 2018. The prospective study parts include (1) a household survey regarding influenza-like illness (ILI) and vaccination against influenza during the 2015/2016 season; (2) an analysis of influenza viruses collected during the 2016/2017 season using WGS-viral genomic sequences are compared with determine genetic relatedness and transmissions; and (3) measurement of influenza-specific antibody titres against all vaccinated and circulated strains during the 2016/2017 season from healthy individuals, allowing to monitor herd immunity across urban quarters. Survey data and PCR-confirmed cases are linked to data from the Statistics Office of the Canton Basel-City and visualised using geo-information system mapping. WGS data will be analysed in the context of patient epidemiological data using phylodynamic analyses, and the obtained herd immunity for each quarter. Profound knowledge on the key geographical, epidemiological and immunological factors influencing urban influenza transmission will help to develop effective counter measurements. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study is registered and approved by the regional ethics committee as an observational study (EKNZ project ID 2015-363 and 2016-01735). It is planned to present the results at conferences and publish the data in scientific journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03010007.

7.
Eur J Intern Med ; 67: e13-e15, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351762

RESUMO

If scores or algorithms were developed that quickly identified patients who are bound to have 100% survival, if even only for a few days, more patients could be safely discharged from emergency department, this eliminating the risks of hospitalization for many patients. This hypothesis proposes that it is possible to develop a "Universal Safe to Discharge Score", and suggests how it might be developed and validated.

8.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(4): 483-494, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) recommends the 0/1-h algorithm for rapid triage of patients with suspected non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI). However, its impact on patient management and safety when routinely applied is unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine these important real-world outcome data. METHODS: In a prospective international study enrolling patients presenting with acute chest discomfort to the emergency department (ED), the authors assessed the real-world performance of the ESC 0/1-h algorithm using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T embedded in routine clinical care and its associated 30-day rates of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) (the composite of cardiovascular death and MI). RESULTS: Among 2,296 patients, non-ST-segment elevation MI prevalence was 9.8%. In median, 1-h blood samples were collected 65 min after the 0-h blood draw. Overall, 94% of patients were managed without protocol violations, and 98% of patients triaged toward rule-out did not require additional cardiac investigations including high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T measurements at later time points or coronary computed tomography angiography in the ED. Median ED stay was 2 h and 30 min. The ESC 0/1-h algorithm triaged 62% of patients toward rule-out, and 71% of all patients underwent outpatient management. Proportion of patients with 30-day MACE were 0.2% (95% confidence interval: 03% to 0.5%) in the rule-out group and 0.1% (95% confidence interval: 0% to 0.2%) in outpatients. Very low MACE rates were confirmed in multiple subgroups, including early presenters. CONCLUSIONS: These real-world data document the excellent applicability, short time to ED discharge, and low rate of 30-day MACE associated with the routine clinical use of the ESC 0/1-h algorithm for the management of patients presenting with acute chest discomfort to the ED.

9.
West J Emerg Med ; 20(4): 633-640, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316703

RESUMO

Introduction: Older patients frequently present to the emergency department (ED) with nonspecific complaints (NSC), such as generalized weakness. They are at risk of adverse outcomes, and early risk stratification is crucial. Triage using Emergency Severity Index (ESI) is reliable and valid, but older patients are prone to undertriage, most often at decision point D. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive power of additional clinical parameters in NSC patients. Methods: Baseline demographics, vital signs, and deterioration of activity of daily living (ADL) in patients with NSC were prospectively assessed at four EDs. Physicians scored the coherence of history and their first impression. For prediction of 30-day mortality, we combined vital signs at decision point D (heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation) as "ESI vital," and added "ADL deterioration," "incoherence of history," or "first impression," using logistic regression models. Results: We included 948 patients with a median age of 81 years, 62% of whom were female. The baseline parameters at decision point D (ESI vital) showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.64 for predicting 30-day mortality in NSC patients. AUCs increased to 0.67 by adding ADL deterioration to 0.66 by adding incoherence of history, and to 0.71 by adding first impression. Maximal AUC was 0.73, combining all parameters. Conclusion: Adding the physicians' first impressions to vital signs at decision point D increases predictive power of 30-day mortality significantly. Therefore, a modified ESI could improve predictive power of triage in older patients presenting with NSCs.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Mortalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Triagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa Respiratória , Fatores Sexuais , Sinais Vitais
10.
Am J Emerg Med ; 37(9): 1754-1757, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262626

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Different scoring methods exist for the Month of the Year Backward Test (MBT), which is designed to detect inattention, the core feature of delirium. When used as a part of the modified Confusion Assessment Method for the Emergency Department (mCAM-ED), each error in the MBT scores one point. Because this scoring procedure is complex, we aimed to simplify the scoring method of the MBT. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a single center prospective validation study of the mCAM-ED comprising a sample of Emergency Department (ED) patients aged 65 or older presenting to our ED. DATA COLLECTION: Research assistants (RAs) who were trained nurses conducted the MBT. Geriatricians conducted the reference standard delirium assessment within 1 h of the RA. RESULTS: For the scoring method "number of errors", optimal performance according the Youden index was achieved when 8 or more errors were reached resulting in an overall sensitivity of 0.95 and overall specificity of 0.94. The scoring method "number of errors in combination with time needed" resulted in a comparable result with minimally lower positive likelihood ratios. For the scoring method "last month in correct order", optimal performance according the Youden index was achieved with the month of September resulting in an overall sensitivity of 0.90 and an overall specificity of 0.89. DISCUSSION: We suggest omitting the factor time and using a more practical scoring method with good performance: "last month in correct order" with the requirement to reach September to rule out delirium.

11.
Chest ; 156(2): 316-322, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A retrospective study has reported that impaired mobility on presentation (IMOP) enhanced the ability of vital signs to predict mortality in acutely ill patients. This study was designed to further examine the association between IMOP and in-hospital mortality. METHODS: Prospective observational study of three different cohorts of acutely ill patients admitted to hospitals in Esbjerg, Denmark (998 patients), Basel, Switzerland (743 patients), and Kitovu, Uganda (1,622 patients). RESULTS: There were significant differences in age, sex, length of stay, proportion of medical and surgical patients, and in-hospital mortality between the three cohorts. Yet in all three cohorts a National Early Warning Score (NEWS) ≥ 3 when first recorded and IMOP increased the risk of in-hospital mortality to approximately the same extent. IMOP and NEWS ≥ 3 when first recorded were, therefore, used for risk categorization: patients with a NEWS < 3 when first recorded and normal mobility on presentation had the lowest in-hospital mortality risk and those with NEWS ≥ 3 when first recorded and IMOP had the highest risk. The number of these low risk patients ranged from 26% in Kitovu to 42% in Esbjerg, and their in-hospital mortality rates did not significantly differ in all three cohorts, ranging from 0.2% in Esbjerg to 0.4% in Basel. CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective multicenter study IMOP enhanced the risk categorization of acutely ill patients from very different clinical settings. The combination normal mobility on presentation and first recorded NEWS identified a substantial proportion of patients in all cohorts with a low risk of dying while in hospital. TRIAL REGISTRY: The Esbjerg data were collected as part of a trial registered with the US National Library of Medicine (ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT03108807; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov).

14.
J Clin Med ; 8(3)2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870989

RESUMO

The predictive power of certain symptoms, such as dyspnoea, is well known. However, research is limited to the investigation of single chief complaints. This is in contrast to patients in the emergency department (ED) presenting usually more than one symptom. We aimed to identify the most common combinations of symptoms and to report their related outcomes: hospitalisation, admission to intensive care units, and mortality. This is a secondary analysis of a consecutive sample of all patients presenting to the ED of the University Hospital Basel over a total time course of 6 weeks. The presence of 35 predefined symptoms was systematically assessed upon presentation. A total of 3960 emergency patients (median age 51, 51.7% male) were included. Over 130 combinations of two, 80 combinations of three, and 10 combinations of four symptoms occurred 42 times or more during a total inclusion period of 42 days. Two combinations of two symptoms were predictive for in-hospital mortality: weakness and fatigue (Odds ratio (OR) = 2.45), and weakness and headache (OR = 3.01). Combinations of symptoms were frequent. Nonspecific complaints (NSCs), such as weakness and fatigue, are among the most frequently reported combinations of symptoms, and are associated with adverse outcomes. Systematically assessing symptoms may add valuable information for prognosis and may therefore influence triage, clinical work-up, and disposition.

17.
Euro Surveill ; 24(4)2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696527

RESUMO

IntroductionWater supply and air-conditioner cooling towers (ACCT) are potential sources of Legionella pneumophila infection in people. During outbreaks, traditional typing methods cannot sufficiently segregate L. pneumophila strains to reliably trace back transmissions to these artificial water systems. Moreover, because multiple L. pneumophila strains may be present within these systems, methods to adequately distinguish strains are needed. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) and core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST), with their higher resolution are helpful in this respect. In summer 2017, the health administration of the city of Basel detected an increase of L. pneumophila infections compared with previous months, signalling an outbreak.AimWe aimed to identify L. pneumophila strains populating suspected environmental sources of the outbreak, and to assess the relations between these strains and clinical outbreak strains.MethodsAn epidemiological and WGS-based microbiological investigation was performed, involving isolates from the local water supply and two ACCTs (n = 60), clinical outbreak and non-outbreak related isolates from 2017 (n = 8) and historic isolates from 2003-2016 (n = 26).ResultsIn both ACCTs, multiple strains were found. Phylogenetic analysis of the ACCT isolates showed a diversity of a few hundred allelic differences in cgMLST. Furthermore, two isolates from one ACCT showed no allelic differences to three clinical isolates from 2017. Five clinical isolates collected in the Basel area in the last decade were also identical in cgMLST to recent isolates from the two ACCTs.ConclusionCurrent outbreak-related and historic isolates were linked to ACCTs, which form a complex environmental habitat where strains are conserved over years.

19.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0207906, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30601812

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Validation of acute morbidity as a novel outcome in emergency medicine. METHODS: Construct validity of acute morbidity was established by comparison to other outcomes using linear and logistic regression models. RESULTS: Data of 4608 patients were analysed. 1869 patients (40.6%) fulfilled the criteria for acute morbidity. Using multivariate analyses, acute morbidity was associated with outcomes such as hospitalisation (OR: 11, 95%-CI 9-13), mortality (OR 15, 95%-CI 6-49), and ICU admission (OR: 46, 95%-CI 25-96). Reliability of the construct "acute morbidity" was estimated using Cohens Kappa, which was 0.96 for intra-rater and 0.94 for inter-rater reliability. CONCLUSION: Reliability of the framework for acute morbidity was high. Construct validity was shown by associations with hospitalisation, mortality, and ICU admission.


Assuntos
Emergências , Morbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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