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1.
Food Chem ; 305: 125433, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499293

RESUMO

Native high methoxy citrus pectin (NP) was de-esterified by pectin methyl esterase to produce modified pectins [MP (42, 37, and 33)] having different degrees of esterification. Complex coacervation between a pea protein isolate (PPI) and each pectin was investigated as a function of pH (8.0-1.5) and mixing ratio (1:1-30:1, PPI-pectin). Complex formation was found to be optimal for biopolymer-mixing ratios of 8:1, 8:1, 25:1 and 25:1 for PPI complexed with NP, MP42, MP37 and MP33, respectively, at pHs 3.6, 3.5, 3.9 and 3.9. And, the critical pHs associated with complex formation (accessed by turbidity) was found to shift significantly to higher pHs as the degree of esterification of the pectin decreased, whereas the shift in the pH corresponding to their initial interactions was minimal with degree of esterification. Complexation of PPI with NP and MP42 greatly improved the protein solubility.

2.
Food Res Int ; 126: 108652, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732081

RESUMO

The electrostatic interaction between lentil protein isolate (LPI) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) of different molar mass (MM; 90 and 250 kDa) and degree of substitution (DS; 0.7, 0.9 and 1.2%) was examined during a turbidimetric pH acid-titration over a pH (8.0-1.5) and mixing ratio (LPI: CMC; 1:1-10:1) rang. For LPI-CMC (0.7% DS, 250 kDa) at a 1:1 ratio, pHs linked soluble (pHc) and insoluble complexes (pHϕ1) being formed, maximum coacervation (pHopt) and the dissolution of complexes (pHϕ2) occurred at pHs of 6.8, 2.6, 2.1 and 1.7, respectively. As the mixing ratio increased, pHc and pHϕ2 remained unchanged; however, pHϕ1 and pHopt shifted to higher pHs until plateauing at a 4:1 mixing ratio. Molecular mass and DS had no significant effect on critical pHs but did have an impact on the size and number of complexes formed. The maximum optical density at pHopt was found to decrease from 0.495 to 0.406 as the DS increased from 0.7% to 1.2% on the CMC (constant at 250 kDa), suggesting that complexes were likely smaller as they scattered less light. As the MM of CMC decreased from 250 to 90 kDa (at 0.7% DS), maximum optical density increased from 0.495 to 0.527, respectively. Confocal laser scanning microscopy preformed at pHopt showed an increasing number of aggregates as the DS or MM of CMC decreased. From isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), larger enthalpy values in LPI-CMC with increased DS and MM were observed.

3.
Food Sci Technol Int ; : 1082013219887635, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726873

RESUMO

The effect of barrel temperature (120 and 150 ℃, held constant in zones 4-6) and feed moisture (20 and 24%) on the protein quality of Kabuli chickpea, sorghum, and maize flours were examined, which included amino acid profile, in vitro protein digestibility and in vitro protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (IV-PDCAAS). It was found that the limiting amino acid of chickpea changed from threonine to valine after extrusion, whereas both sorghum and maize were limiting in lysine before and after extrusion. The in vitro protein digestibility increased from 77 to 81% for chickpea and 73 to 76% for maize; values for sorghum remained at 74% after extrusion. However, the IV-PDCAAS for the extruded flours generally remained at the same level, 69% for chickpea, 22% for sorghum, and ∼35% for maize. The effect of extrusion temperature, moisture and their interaction was significant on protein quality of sorghum and maize, but in the case of chickpea, only the extrusion temperature was significant. Only chickpea extruded at 150 ℃ (regardless of the moisture) met the protein quality (PDCAAS > 70%) requirement to be used in food assistance products.

4.
J Texture Stud ; 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323133

RESUMO

In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the effect of extrusion conditions on physical properties of chickpea:barley extrudates (60:40), and the resulting protein quality of their flours. Barrel temperature (150-170°C) and moisture content (16-20%) were chosen as independent variables to generate a central composite design. Hardness, expansion index, bulk density, and protein quality were analyzed as responses parameters. Expansion was found to be higher at lower temperatures and higher moisture for the 60:40 chickpea:barley blend; bulk density became reduced with increased moisture; and hardness was found to increase at higher temperatures and lower moistures. The protein quality of their resulting flours was found to be greater at moisture contents higher than 16%. The composition, protein quality, and functional attributes were also examined for raw and precooked flours of chickpea, barley, and their blend at the center point of the RSM design (18% moisture, 160°C). Extrusion also leads to improved water hydration capacities and reduced viscosities for precooked individual and blended flours relative to the raw. Moreover, extrusion also led to improved protein quality in the chickpea and chickpea-barley blend, but not the individual barley flour.

5.
Food Chem ; 298: 125023, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260964

RESUMO

This research investigated the effect of pH on forming electrostatic complexes between lentil protein isolate (LPI) and a range of anionic polysaccharides [carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), gum Arabic (GA), alginate (AL), and ι-carrageenan (CAR)] at 4:1 LPI-polysaccharide mixing ratio, and their resulting emulsifying abilities. Maximum optical densities were found to be 0.486, 0.716, 0.310, and 0.190 for LPI-CMC, LPI-GA, LPI-AL, and LPI-CAR, respectively indicating the level of aggregate size and growth. LPI-CAR emulsion displayed the highest emulsion stability (ES) because of its higher continuous phase and emulsion viscosities, lower mean droplet sizes, and negatively charged droplets. They also formed much smaller complexes within solution due to their high negative charge. All other LPI-polysaccharide systems formed less stable emulsions than LPI alone due to the larger sizes of both complexes and oil droplets.


Assuntos
Ânions/química , Lens (Planta)/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Alginatos/química , Carboximetilcelulose Sódica/química , Carragenina/química , Emulsões , Goma Arábica/química
6.
Food Res Int ; 122: 263-272, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229080

RESUMO

In the present study, yellow pea (CDC Amarillo) and faba bean (CDC Snowdrop) seeds were soaked overnight and then germinated in the dark at ambient temperature for 24, 48 and 72 h. During the short-term germination, germination percentages higher than 96.6% were achieved and progressive growth of radicles was observed for both varieties. The soaked and germinated seeds were dried at 55 °C and milled into flours, and their chemical compositions, physicochemical properties and in vitro starch and protein digestibility were systematically examined. Overall, soaking and germination did not noticeably alter the chemical compositions of each flour. The most obvious changes in the physicochemical properties were found in the pasting, emulsifying and foaming properties of the pulse flours. Soaking and 24-h germination greatly enhanced the pasting viscosities of the flours; as the germination proceeded, their viscosities gradually decreased, resulting from the degradation of starch by endogenous amylase(s) during pasting. Germination progressively improved the emulsion activity and stability, foaming capacity and foam stability of both pulse flours. In addition, germination enhanced the in vitro digestibility of starch and protein of the flours; however, the treatment did not improve their in vitro protein digestibility corrected amino acid scores (IV-PDCAAS). Short-term germination of 24-72 h has been demonstrated to be an effective approach to generating pulse flours possessing diverse functional properties and enhanced digestibility of macronutrients.

7.
J Texture Stud ; 50(6): 539-546, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228258

RESUMO

The overall goal of this research was to examine the mechanical, water vapor barrier properties and opacity of films prepared using legume protein concentrates (faba bean, pea, lupin, lentil, and soy) as a function of glycerol concentration (50, 75, or 100% [wt/wt]-relative to the protein weight). Overall, tensile strength (TS) decreased with increasing glycerol concentration, whereas tensile elongation (TE) and water vapor permeability (WVP) increased with increasing glycerol concentration. Film opacity was independent of glycerol concentration. The effect of protein-type varied considerably depending on the functional property of the film being measured; TS was greatest with faba bean and lowest with lupin, whereas TE was highest for pea, and lowest for soy. Lentil protein films had considerably higher WVP, at the 100% glycerol concentration, as compared to the other protein concentrates. Findings from this study indicate that legume protein concentrates are capable of forming biodegradable, edible films. Overall, pea protein concentrate films showed the most promise for application in terms of strength, elongation, and moisture barrier properties.

8.
J Texture Stud ; 50(4): 350-358, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861117

RESUMO

The effects of transglutaminase (TG) and glucose oxidase (GO) on the handling properties of model bread dough were examined at both normal (2% wt. by flour) and reduced (1% wt.) sodium chloride (NaCl) levels using two Canada Western Red Spring (CWRS) cultivars; Pembina and Harvest. The reduction of NaCl level had negative effects on dough rheology and stickiness, however, the inclusion of GO (0.001 and 0.01% by flour weight) or TG (only at the 0.5% by flour weight inclusion) was able to improve dough strength and reduce stickiness. GO appeared to be more effective than TG (at 0.01%) at equivalent concentrations for improving dough-handling properties. Flour cultivar had significant effects; Harvest flour (weaker) was more impacted by salt reduction and enzyme inclusion compared to Pembina flour (stronger). Crosslinking assays showed significant differences in glutenin macropolymer (GMP) content in dough prepared with GO, and dough prepared with different flours. Additionally, significantly fewer free thiol groups were found in dough produced with GO compared to dough without any enzymes and those with TG. GO appears to have potential for use as a bread improver to reduce stickiness and improve the strength of bread dough produced at lower salt concentrations, especially for dough prepared with weaker flour cultivars.

9.
Food Chem ; 284: 227-235, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744850

RESUMO

High methoxy citrus pectin (UM88) was saponified to produce modified pectin [M(72, 42, and 9)], with different levels of degree of esterification (DE), to investigate the complex coacervation of pea protein isolate (PPI) with pectin [UM88 and M(72, 42, and 9)]. Regardless of the DE value of pectin, the critical pH corresponding to when insoluble complexes form shifted to higher pH as the mixing ratio increased. The maximum amount of coacervates formed at a biopolymer-mixing ratio of 8:1, 8:1, 10:1 and 15:1 for PPI with UM88, M72, M42, and M9, respectively. Maximum interactions for the protein-pectin admixtures occurred between pH 3.70 and 3.85. PPI complexed with modified pectin displayed greater interactions under their optimal mixing conditions compared to the unmodified pectin. The de-esterification of pectin resulted in more rigid and stiffer pectin, which enhanced its interaction with PPI by shifting the critical parameters to a higher value.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ervilha/química , Pectinas/química , Citrus/química , Esterificação , Ácidos Hexurônicos/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
10.
Food Technol Biotechnol ; 56(3): 411-420, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30510484

RESUMO

The effect of Lactobacillus plantarum fermentation on the functional and physicochemical properties of pea protein-enriched flour (PPF) was investigated. Over the course of the fermentation the extent of hydrolysis increased continuously until reaching a maximum degree of hydrolysis of 13.5% after 11 h. The resulting fermented flour was then adjusted to either pH=4 or 7 prior to measuring the surface and functional attributes as a function of fermentation time. At pH=4 surface charge, as measured by zeta potential, initially increased from +14 to +27 mV after 1 h of fermentation, and then decreased to +10 mV after 11 h; whereas at pH=7 the charge gradually increased from -37 to -27 mV over the entire fermentation time. Surface hydrophobicity significantly increased at pH=4 as a function of fermentation time, whereas at pH=7 fermentation induced only a slight decrease in PPF surface hydrophobicity. Foam capacity was highest at pH=4 using PPF fermented for 5 h whereas foam stability was low at both pH values for all samples. Emulsifying activity sharply decreased after 5 h of fermentation at pH=4. Emulsion stability improved at pH=7 after 5 h of fermentation as compared to the control. Oil-holding capacity improved from 1.8 g/g at time 0 to 3.5 g/g by the end of 11 h of fermentation, whereas water hydration capacity decreased after 5 h, then increased after 9 h of fermentation. These results indicate that the fermentation of PPF can modify its properties, which can lead towards its utilization as a functional food ingredient.

11.
Food Chem ; 266: 524-533, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30381221

RESUMO

Oxidative deterioration is a major issue limiting the utilization of flaxseed oil (FSO). Present study explored the effects of hydrophilic (tannic acid), hydrophobic (alpha-tocopherol), and intermediate polarity (ascorbyl palmitate) natural antioxidants, which displayed highest DPPH radical scavenging and iron chelating abilities among several others, on the oxidative stability of FSO. A synthetic antioxidant (TBHQ) was also used as a control. FSO oxidation was examined by peroxide and p-anisidine values during 30-day storage at 25, 40 and 60 °C, and by accelerated oxidation using a rancimat at 110 °C. On mass concentration basis, all natural antioxidants were less effective than TBHQ. Irrespective of the polarity, all natural antioxidants, except alpha tocopherol, delayed primary and secondary oxidation, and increased the oxidative stability index. The alpha-tocopherol displayed pro-oxidant effect at all concentrations. Rather than polarity, antioxidant capacities, and their ability to replace minor components from the oil-water interface were crucial for the protection of FSO.

12.
Food Technol Biotechnol ; 56(2): 257-264, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30228800

RESUMO

In order to determine the impact of fermentation on protein quality, pea protein concentrate (PPC) was fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum for 11 h and total phenol and tannin contents, protease inhibitor activity, amino acid composition and in vitro protein digestibility were analyzed. Phenol levels, expressed as catechin equivalents (CE), increased on dry mass basis from 2.5 at 0 h to 4.9 mg CE per 1 g of PPC at 11 h. Tannin content rose from 0.14 at 0 h to a maximum of 0.96 mg CE per 1 g of PPC after 5 h, and thereafter declined to 0.79 mg/g after 11 h. After 9 h of fermentation trypsin inhibitor activity decreased, however, at all other fermentation times similar levels to the PPC at time 0 h were produced. Chymotrypsin inhibitor activity decreased from 3.7 to 1.1 chymotrypsin inhibitory units (CIU) per mg following 11 h of fermentation. Protein digestibility reached a maximum (87.4%) after 5 h of fermentation, however, the sulfur amino acid score was reduced from 0.84 at 0 h to 0.66 at 11 h. This reduction in sulfur content altered the in vitro protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score from 67.0% at 0 h to 54.6% at 11 h. These data suggest that while fermentation is a viable method of reducing certain non-nutritive compounds in pea protein concentrate, selection of an alternative bacterium which metabolises sulfur amino acids to a lesser extent than L. plantarum should be considered.

13.
J Food Sci Technol ; 55(8): 2850-2861, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30065394

RESUMO

With an increased awareness of the link between the consumption of omega 3-6-9 fatty acid-rich oils and health, the food industry has been developing innovative strategies for raising their levels within the diet. Microencapsulation is one approach used to protect those oils from oxidative deterioration and to improve their ingredient properties (e.g., handling and sensory). Spray drying is the most commonly used technique to develop microcapsules. The preparation of protein-stabilized emulsions is a fundamental step in the process in order to produce microcapsules with good physical properties, effective protection and controlled release behaviors. This review describes types of emulsions prepared by animal and plant proteins, discusses the relationship between emulsion properties and microcapsule properties, and identifies key parameters to evaluate physical properties (e.g., moisture content, water activity, particle size, surface oil and entrapment efficiency), oxidative stability and release behavior of spray-dried microcapsules for industrial application.

14.
Can J Microbiol ; 64(10): 744-760, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29958098

RESUMO

The efficacy of two strains of Lactobacillus probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 and Lactobacillus helveticus R0052) immobilized in microcapsules composed of pea protein isolate (PPI) and alginate microcapsules was assessed using a mouse model of Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis. Accordingly, 4-week-old mice were fed diets supplemented with freeze-dried probiotics (group P), probiotic-containing microcapsules (group PE) (lyophilized PPI-alginate microcapsules containing probiotics), or PPI-alginate microcapsules containing no probiotics (group E). Half of the mice (controls, groups P, PE, and E) received C. rodentium by gavage 2 weeks after initiation of feeding. Daily monitoring of disease symptoms (abnormal behavior, diarrhea, etc.) and body weights was undertaken. Histopathological changes in colonic and cecal tissues, cytokine expression levels, and pathogen and probiotic densities in feces were examined, and the microbial communities of the distal colon mucosa were characterized by 16S rRNA sequencing. Infection with C. rodentium led to marked progression of infectious colitis, as revealed by symptomatic and histopathological data, changes in cytokine expression, and alteration of composition of mucosal communities. Probiotics led to changes in most of the disease markers but did not have a significant impact on cytokine profiles in infected animals. On the basis of cytokine expression analyses and histopathological data, it was evident that encapsulation materials (pea protein and calcium alginate) contributed to inflammation and worsened a set of symptoms in the cecum. These results suggest that even though food ingredients may be generally recognized as safe, they may in fact contribute to the development of an inflammatory response in certain animal disease models.


Assuntos
Alginatos/administração & dosagem , Citrobacter rodentium , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Ervilhas , Proteínas de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Ceco/imunologia , Ceco/microbiologia , Colite/imunologia , Colo/imunologia , Colo/microbiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/imunologia , Feminino , Ácido Glucurônico/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Hexurônicos/administração & dosagem , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
15.
Food Chem ; 264: 180-188, 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29853364

RESUMO

The complex coacervation of pea protein isolate (PPI) with commercial pectic polysaccharides [high methoxy citrus pectin (P90, 90 representing DE), apple pectin (P78) sugar beet pectin (P62), low methoxy citrus pectin (P29)] of different degrees of esterification (DE) [and galacturonic acid content (GalA)] and blockiness (DB), was investigated. The maximum amount of coacervates formed at a biopolymer weight mixing ratio of 4:1 for all PPI-pectin mixtures, with the exception of PPI-P29 where maximum coacervation occurred at the 10:1 mixing ratio. The pH at which maximum interactions occurred was pH 3.4-3.5 (PPI: P90/P78) and 3.7-3.8 (PPI: P62/P29). PPI complexed with pectins with high levels of DE (low levels of GalA) and DB displayed greater interactions at optimal mixing conditions compared to pectin having lower levels of esterification and blockiness. The addition of P78 to PPI greatly increased protein solubility at pH 4.5.


Assuntos
Ervilhas/química , Pectinas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Beta vulgaris/química , Citrus/química , Esterificação , Ácidos Hexurônicos/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Malus/química , Solubilidade
16.
J Sci Food Agric ; 98(15): 5559-5571, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29951999

RESUMO

Controlling the interactions between plant proteins and polysaccharides can lead to the development of novel electrostatic complexed structures that can give unique functionality. This in turn can broaden the diversity of applications that they may be suitable for. Overwhelmingly in the literature, work and reviews relating to coacervation have involved the use of animal proteins. However, with the increasing demand for plant-based protein alternatives by industry and consumers, a greater understanding of how they interact with polysaccharides is essential to control structure, functionality and applicability. This review discusses the factors governing the nature of protein-polysaccharide interactions, their functional attributes and industrial applications, with special attention given to plant proteins. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Animais , Humanos , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Eletricidade Estática
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 98(15): 5547-5558, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29797412

RESUMO

Eggs are an important source of macro and micronutrients within the diet, comprised of proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals. They are constituted by a shell, the white (containing 110 g kg-1 proteins: ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, ovomucoid, lysozyme and ovomucin), and the yolk (containing 150-170 g kg-1 proteins: lipovitellins, phosvitin, livetins, and low-density lipoproteins). Owing to their nutritional value and biological characteristics, both the egg white and yolk proteins are extensively fractionated using different techniques (e.g., liquid chromatography, ultrafiltration, electrophoresis, and chemical precipitation), in which liquid chromatography is the most commonly used technique to obtain individual proteins with high protein recovery and purity to develop novel food products. However, concerns over allergenic responses induced by certain egg proteins (e.g., ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, lysozyme, α-livetin, and lipoprotein YGP42) limit their widespread use. As such, processing technologies (e.g., thermal processing, enzymatic hydrolysis, and high-pressure treatment) are investigated to reduce the allergenicity by conformational changes. In addition, biological activities (e.g., antioxidant, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, and anticancer activities) associated with egg peptides have received more attention, in which enzyme hydrolysis is demonstrated as a promising way to break polypeptides sequences and produce bioactive peptides to provide nutritional and therapeutic benefits for human health. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Ovo/química , Proteínas do Ovo/imunologia , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas , Proteínas do Ovo/isolamento & purificação , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos
18.
Food Res Int ; 108: 430-439, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29735077

RESUMO

The impact of infrared heating surface temperature and tempering moisture on the nutritional properties of desi chickpea, hull-less barley, and their blends were examined. Specifically, this included changes to the level of anti-nutritive factors (i.e., trypsin/chymotrypsin inhibitors, total phenolics and condensed tannins), amino acid composition and in vitro protein digestibility. Results indicated that both temperature and the tempering/temperature treatment caused a reduction in levels of all anti-nutritional factors for both flours, and the effect was more prominent in the tempering-temperature combination. The amino acid composition of both flours was not substantially changed with tempering or infrared heating. The amino acid scores (AAS) of chickpea and barley flours, as determined by the first limiting amino acid using the FAO/WHO reference pattern found in the case of barley to be limiting in lysine with an AAS of ~0.9, whereas for chickpea flour, threonine was limiting and had an AAS of ~0.6. The in vitro protein digestibility of chickpea samples was found to increase from 76% to 79% with the tempering-heat (135 °C) combination, whereas barley flour increased from 72% to 79% when directly heated to 135 °C (without tempering). In vitro protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (IV-PDCAAS) was found to increase from 65% to 71% for chickpea flour and 44% to 52% for barley flour, respectively with tempering-temperature (135 °C) combination indicating that tempering with infrared heating can improve the nutritional value of both flours. The addition of chickpea flour to the barley flour acted to improve the nutritional properties (IV-PDCAAS), to an extent depending on the concentration of chickpea flour present.

19.
J Food Sci Technol ; 54(4): 1014-1022, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28303052

RESUMO

The effects of processing (soaking and cooking) on enzyme inhibitors (α-amylase, trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors) in a range of pulses (4 peas, 9 lentils, 3 chickpeas, 2 faba beans and 4 beans) were investigated, using soybean as a control. Analysis of variance indicated that pulse type, treatment and their interaction had significant effects on levels of all enzyme inhibitors. Soybean contained the highest levels of trypsin inhibitory activity (TIA) and chymotrypsin inhibitory activity (CIA) among all seeds. α-Amylase inhibitory activity was absent from peas, lentils, chickpeas and faba beans, but was present in beans and soybean. TIA was found to be low in peas but high in beans. Beans contained relatively high CIA levels followed by chickpeas, lentils, peas and faba beans. Soaking markedly decreased the activity of enzyme inhibitors. Cooking of presoaked seeds was even more effective as greater reductions (78.7-100%) were observed for all pulses. The content of enzyme inhibitors in pulses varied widely, but levels of protease inhibitors were generally lower that those found in soybean. Processing, in particular heat treatments, drastically reduced these levels.

20.
Food Sci Biotechnol ; 26(1): 189-194, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30263527

RESUMO

Pea protein-alginate microcapsules with or without a chitosan coating and containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 and L. helveticus R0052 were produced by extrusion and tested for survivability during storage and in an in vitro gastrointestinal environment. Both microcapsule formulations provided significant protection for cells incubated in synthetic stomach juice at 37°C for 2 h, followed by 3 h in simulated intestinal fluid, relative to non-encapsulated bacteria. However, evaluation of cell viability during 9 weeks of storage at room temperature revealed that chitosan coating significantly improved microcapsule performance compared to non-coated microcapsules. Refrigerated storage had no negative impact on the microcapsule protection ability of both types of microcapsules. Notably, chitosan-containing microcapsules showed much higher bacterial survival counts during challenge tests even after storage. Moreover, the addition of chitosan to the microcapsule formulation did not increase the microcapsule size.

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