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2.
Lancet Respir Med ; 7(6): 509-522, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood-onset and adult-onset asthma differ with respect to severity and comorbidities. Whether they also differ with respect to genetic risk factors has not been previously investigated in large samples. The goals of this study were to identify shared and distinct genetic risk loci for childhood-onset and adult-onset asthma, and to identify the genes that might mediate the effects of associated variation. METHODS: We did genome-wide and transcriptome-wide studies, using data from the UK Biobank, in individuals with asthma, including adults with childhood-onset asthma (onset before 12 years of age), adults with adult-onset asthma (onset between 26 and 65 years of age), and adults without asthma (controls; aged older than 38 years). We did genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for childhood-onset asthma and adult-onset asthma each compared with shared controls, and for age of asthma onset in all asthma cases, with a genome-wide significance threshold of p<5 × 10-8. Enrichment studies determined the tissues in which genes at GWAS loci were most highly expressed, and PrediXcan, a transcriptome-wide gene-based test, was used to identify candidate risk genes. FINDINGS: Of 376 358 British white individuals from the UK Biobank, we included 37 846 with self-reports of doctor-diagnosed asthma: 9433 adults with childhood-onset asthma; 21 564 adults with adult-onset asthma; and an additional 6849 young adults with asthma with onset between 12 and 25 years of age. For the first and second GWAS analyses, 318 237 individuals older than 38 years without asthma were used as controls. We detected 61 independent asthma loci: 23 were childhood-onset specific, one was adult-onset specific, and 37 were shared. 19 loci were associated with age of asthma onset. The most significant asthma-associated locus was at 17q12 (odds ratio 1·406, 95% CI 1·365-1·448; p=1·45 × 10-111) in the childhood-onset GWAS. Genes at the childhood onset-specific loci were most highly expressed in skin, blood, and small intestine; genes at the adult onset-specific loci were most highly expressed in lung, blood, small intestine, and spleen. PrediXcan identified 113 unique candidate genes at 22 of the 61 GWAS loci. Single-nucleotide polymorphism-based heritability estimates were more than three times larger for childhood-onset asthma (0·327) than for adult-onset disease (0·098). The onset of disease in childhood was associated with additional genes with relatively large effect sizes, with the largest odds ratio observed at the FLG locus at 1q21.3 (1·970, 95% CI 1·823-2·129). INTERPRETATION: Genetic risk factors for adult-onset asthma are largely a subset of the genetic risk for childhood-onset asthma but with overall smaller effects, suggesting a greater role for non-genetic risk factors in adult-onset asthma. Combined with gene expression and tissue enrichment patterns, we suggest that the establishment of disease in children is driven more by dysregulated allergy and epithelial barrier function genes, whereas the cause of adult-onset asthma is more lung-centred and environmentally determined, but with immune-mediated mechanisms driving disease progression in both children and adults. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 880, 2019 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787307

RESUMO

Asthma is a complex disease with striking disparities across racial and ethnic groups. Despite its relatively high burden, representation of individuals of African ancestry in asthma genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has been inadequate, and true associations in these underrepresented minority groups have been inconclusive. We report the results of a genome-wide meta-analysis from the Consortium on Asthma among African Ancestry Populations (CAAPA; 7009 asthma cases, 7645 controls). We find strong evidence for association at four previously reported asthma loci whose discovery was driven largely by non-African populations, including the chromosome 17q12-q21 locus and the chr12q13 region, a novel (and not previously replicated) asthma locus recently identified by the Trans-National Asthma Genetic Consortium (TAGC). An additional seven loci reported by TAGC show marginal evidence for association in CAAPA. We also identify two novel loci (8p23 and 8q24) that may be specific to asthma risk in African ancestry populations.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Asma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Asma/epidemiologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 12/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
PLoS Genet ; 15(1): e1007889, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668570

RESUMO

Integration of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies is needed to improve our understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying GWAS hits, and our ability to identify therapeutic targets. Gene-level association methods such as PrediXcan can prioritize candidate targets. However, limited eQTL sample sizes and absence of relevant developmental and disease context restrict our ability to detect associations. Here we propose an efficient statistical method (MultiXcan) that leverages the substantial sharing of eQTLs across tissues and contexts to improve our ability to identify potential target genes. MultiXcan integrates evidence across multiple panels using multivariate regression, which naturally takes into account the correlation structure. We apply our method to simulated and real traits from the UK Biobank and show that, in realistic settings, we can detect a larger set of significantly associated genes than using each panel separately. To improve applicability, we developed a summary result-based extension called S-MultiXcan, which we show yields highly concordant results with the individual level version when LD is well matched. Our multivariate model-based approach allowed us to use the individual level results as a gold standard to calibrate and develop a robust implementation of the summary-based extension. Results from our analysis as well as software and necessary resources to apply our method are publicly available.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Software/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Nat Genet ; 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455414

RESUMO

We used a deeply sequenced dataset of 910 individuals, all of African descent, to construct a set of DNA sequences that is present in these individuals but missing from the reference human genome. We aligned 1.19 trillion reads from the 910 individuals to the reference genome (GRCh38), collected all reads that failed to align, and assembled these reads into contiguous sequences (contigs). We then compared all contigs to one another to identify a set of unique sequences representing regions of the African pan-genome missing from the reference genome. Our analysis revealed 296,485,284 bp in 125,715 distinct contigs present in the populations of African descent, demonstrating that the African pan-genome contains ~10% more DNA than the current human reference genome. Although the functional significance of nearly all of this sequence is unknown, 387 of the novel contigs fall within 315 distinct protein-coding genes, and the rest appear to be intergenic.

7.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 26(12): 1938-1948, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30358166

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Asthmatic children who develop obesity through adolescence have poorer disease outcomes compared with those who do not. This study aimed to characterize the biology of childhood asthma complicated by adult obesity. METHODS: Gene expression networks are powerful statistical tools for characterizing human disease that leverage the putative coregulatory relationships of genes to infer relevant biological pathways. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis of gene expression data was performed in whole blood from 514 adult asthmatic subjects. Then, module preservation and association replication analyses were performed in 418 subjects from two independent asthma cohorts (one pediatric and one adult). RESULTS: A multivariate model was identified in which three gene coexpression network modules were associated with incident obesity in the discovery cohort (each P < 0.05). Two module memberships were enriched for genes in pathways related to platelets, integrins, extracellular matrix, smooth muscle, NF-κB signaling, and Hedgehog signaling. The network structures of each of the obesity modules were significantly preserved in both replication cohorts (permutation P = 9.999E-05). The corresponding module gene sets were significantly enriched for differential expression in subjects with obesity in both replication cohorts (each P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The gene coexpression network profiles thus implicate multiple interrelated pathways in the biology of an important endotype of asthma with obesity.

8.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0203906, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30204804

RESUMO

Genomic imprinting is the phenomena that leads to silencing of one copy of a gene inherited from a specific parent. Mutations in imprinted regions have been involved in diseases showing parent of origin effects. Identifying genes with evidence of parent of origin expression patterns in family studies allows the detection of more subtle imprinting. Here, we use allele specific expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines from 306 Hutterites related in a single pedigree to provide formal evidence for parent of origin effects. We take advantage of phased genotype data to assign parent of origin to RNA-seq reads in individuals with gene expression data. Our approach identified known imprinted genes, two putative novel imprinted genes, PXDC1 and PWAR6, and 14 genes with asymmetrical parent of origin gene expression. We used gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) to validate our findings, and then confirmed imprinting control regions (ICRs) using DNA methylation levels in the PBLs.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common but complex disease with racial/ethnic differences in prevalence, morbidity, and response to therapies. OBJECTIVE: We sought to perform an analysis of genetic ancestry to identify new loci that contribute to asthma susceptibility. METHODS: We leveraged the mixed ancestry of 3902 Latinos and performed an admixture mapping meta-analysis for asthma susceptibility. We replicated associations in an independent study of 3774 Latinos, performed targeted sequencing for fine mapping, and tested for disease correlations with gene expression in the whole blood of more than 500 subjects from 3 racial/ethnic groups. RESULTS: We identified a genome-wide significant admixture mapping peak at 18q21 in Latinos (P = 6.8 × 10-6), where Native American ancestry was associated with increased risk of asthma (odds ratio [OR], 1.20; 95% CI, 1.07-1.34; P = .002) and European ancestry was associated with protection (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.77-0.96; P = .008). Our findings were replicated in an independent childhood asthma study in Latinos (P = 5.3 × 10-3, combined P = 2.6 × 10-7). Fine mapping of 18q21 in 1978 Latinos identified a significant association with multiple variants 5' of SMAD family member 2 (SMAD2) in Mexicans, whereas a single rare variant in the same window was the top association in Puerto Ricans. Low versus high SMAD2 blood expression was correlated with case status (13.4% lower expression; OR, 3.93; 95% CI, 2.12-7.28; P < .001). In addition, lower expression of SMAD2 was associated with more frequent exacerbations among Puerto Ricans with asthma. CONCLUSION: Ancestry at 18q21 was significantly associated with asthma in Latinos and implicated multiple ancestry-informative noncoding variants upstream of SMAD2 with asthma susceptibility. Furthermore, decreased SMAD2 expression in blood was strongly associated with increased asthma risk and increased exacerbations.

10.
Nat Genet ; 50(7): 956-967, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29955180

RESUMO

We apply integrative approaches to expression quantitative loci (eQTLs) from 44 tissues from the Genotype-Tissue Expression project and genome-wide association study data. About 60% of known trait-associated loci are in linkage disequilibrium with a cis-eQTL, over half of which were not found in previous large-scale whole blood studies. Applying polygenic analyses to metabolic, cardiovascular, anthropometric, autoimmune, and neurodegenerative traits, we find that eQTLs are significantly enriched for trait associations in relevant pathogenic tissues and explain a substantial proportion of the heritability (40-80%). For most traits, tissue-shared eQTLs underlie a greater proportion of trait associations, although tissue-specific eQTLs have a greater contribution to some traits, such as blood pressure. By integrating information from biological pathways with eQTL target genes and applying a gene-based approach, we validate previously implicated causal genes and pathways, and propose new variant and gene associations for several complex traits, which we replicate in the UK BioBank and BioVU.

11.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1825, 2018 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29739930

RESUMO

Scalable, integrative methods to understand mechanisms that link genetic variants with phenotypes are needed. Here we derive a mathematical expression to compute PrediXcan (a gene mapping approach) results using summary data (S-PrediXcan) and show its accuracy and general robustness to misspecified reference sets. We apply this framework to 44 GTEx tissues and 100+ phenotypes from GWAS and meta-analysis studies, creating a growing public catalog of associations that seeks to capture the effects of gene expression variation on human phenotypes. Replication in an independent cohort is shown. Most of the associations are tissue specific, suggesting context specificity of the trait etiology. Colocalized significant associations in unexpected tissues underscore the need for an agnostic scanning of multiple contexts to improve our ability to detect causal regulatory mechanisms. Monogenic disease genes are enriched among significant associations for related traits, suggesting that smaller alterations of these genes may cause a spectrum of milder phenotypes.

13.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 16415, 2017 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29180722

RESUMO

Founder populations are ideally suited for studies on the clinical effects of alleles that are rare in general populations but occur at higher frequencies in these isolated populations. Whole genome sequencing in 98 Hutterites, a founder population of European descent, and subsequent imputation revealed 660,238 single nucleotide polymorphisms that are rare (<1%) or absent in European populations, but occur at frequencies >1% in the Hutterites. We examined the effects of these rare in European variants on plasma lipid levels in 828 Hutterites and applied a Bayesian hierarchical framework to prioritize potentially causal variants based on functional annotations. We identified two novel non-coding rare variants associated with LDL cholesterol (rs17242388 in LDLR) and HDL cholesterol (rs189679427 between GOT2 and APOOP5), and replicated previous associations of a splice variant in APOC3 (rs138326449) with triglycerides and HDL-C. All three variants are at well-replicated loci in GWAS but are independent from and have larger effect sizes than the known common variation in these regions. Candidate eQTL analyses in in LCLs in the Hutterites suggest that these rare non-coding variants are likely to mediate their effects on lipid traits by regulating gene expression.

14.
Microbiome ; 5(1): 16, 2017 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28143570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The degree to which host genetic variation can modulate microbial communities in humans remains an open question. Here, we performed a genetic mapping study of the microbiome in two accessible upper airway sites, the nasopharynx and the nasal vestibule, during two seasons in 144 adult members of a founder population of European decent. RESULTS: We estimated the relative abundances (RAs) of genus level bacteria from 16S rRNA gene sequences and examined associations with 148,653 genetic variants (linkage disequilibrium [LD] r 2 < 0.5) selected from among all common variants discovered in genome sequences in this population. We identified 37 microbiome quantitative trait loci (mbQTLs) that showed evidence of association with the RAs of 22 genera (q < 0.05) and were enriched for genes in mucosal immunity pathways. The most significant association was between the RA of Dermacoccus (phylum Actinobacteria) and a variant 8 kb upstream of TINCR (rs117042385; p = 1.61 × 10-8; q = 0.002), a long non-coding RNA that binds to peptidoglycan recognition protein 3 (PGLYRP3) mRNA, a gene encoding a known antimicrobial protein. A second association was between a missense variant in PGLYRP4 (rs3006458) and the RA of an unclassified genus of family Micrococcaceae (phylum Actinobacteria) (p = 5.10 × 10-7; q = 0.032). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence of host genetic influences on upper airway microbial composition in humans and implicate mucosal immunity genes in this relationship.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/classificação , Actinobacteria/genética , Imunidade nas Mucosas/genética , Microbiota/genética , Nasofaringe/microbiologia , Nariz/microbiologia , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos , Imunidade nas Mucosas/imunologia , Masculino , Microbiota/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Adulto Jovem
15.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 195(2): 179-188, 2017 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27494826

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Maintaining optimal symptom control remains the primary objective of asthma treatment. Better understanding of the biologic underpinnings of asthma control may lead to the development of improved clinical and pharmaceutical approaches. OBJECTIVES: To identify molecular pathways and interrelated genes whose differential expression was associated with asthma control. METHODS: We performed gene set enrichment analyses of asthma control in 1,170 adults with asthma, each with gene expression data derived from either whole blood (WB) or unstimulated CD4+ T lymphocytes (CD4), and a self-reported asthma control score representing either the preceding 6 months (chronic) or 7 days (acute). Our study comprised a discovery WB cohort (n = 245, chronic) and three independent, nonoverlapping replication cohorts: a second WB set (n = 448, acute) and two CD4 sets (n = 300, chronic; n = 77, acute). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In the WB discovery cohort, we found significant overrepresentation of genes associated with asthma control in 1,106 gene sets from the Molecular Signatures Database (false discovery rate, <5%). Of these, 583 (53%) replicated in at least one replication cohort (false discovery rate, <25%). Suboptimal control was associated with signatures of eosinophilic and granulocytic inflammatory signals, whereas optimal control signatures were enriched for immature lymphocytic patterns. These signatures included two related biologic processes related to activation by TREM-1 (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1) and lipopolysaccharide. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these results demonstrate the existence of specific, reproducible transcriptomic components in blood that vary with degree of asthma control and implicate a novel biologic target (TREM-1).


Assuntos
Asma/sangue , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Adulto , Asma/genética , Asma/metabolismo , Asma/terapia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Transcriptoma , Adulto Jovem
16.
JCI Insight ; 1(20): e90151, 2016 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27942592

RESUMO

The epigenome provides a substrate through which environmental exposures can exert their effects on gene expression and disease risk, but the relative importance of epigenetic variation on human disease onset and progression is poorly characterized. Asthma is a heterogeneous disease of the airways, for which both onset and clinical course result from interactions between host genotype and environmental exposures, yet little is known about the molecular mechanisms for these interactions. We assessed genome-wide DNA methylation using the Infinium Human Methylation 450K Bead Chip and characterized the transcriptome by RNA sequencing in primary airway epithelial cells from 74 asthmatic and 41 nonasthmatic adults. Asthma status was based on doctor's diagnosis and current medication use. Genotyping was performed using various Illumina platforms. Our study revealed a regulatory locus on chromosome 17q12-21 associated with asthma risk and epigenetic signatures of specific asthma endotypes and molecular networks. Overall, these data support a central role for DNA methylation in lung cells, which promotes distinct molecular pathways of asthma pathogenesis and modulates the effects of genetic variation on disease risk and clinical heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Pulmão/citologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Transcriptoma
17.
PLoS Genet ; 12(11): e1006423, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27835642

RESUMO

Understanding the genetic architecture of gene expression traits is key to elucidating the underlying mechanisms of complex traits. Here, for the first time, we perform a systematic survey of the heritability and the distribution of effect sizes across all representative tissues in the human body. We find that local h2 can be relatively well characterized with 59% of expressed genes showing significant h2 (FDR < 0.1) in the DGN whole blood cohort. However, current sample sizes (n ≤ 922) do not allow us to compute distal h2. Bayesian Sparse Linear Mixed Model (BSLMM) analysis provides strong evidence that the genetic contribution to local expression traits is dominated by a handful of genetic variants rather than by the collective contribution of a large number of variants each of modest size. In other words, the local architecture of gene expression traits is sparse rather than polygenic across all 40 tissues (from DGN and GTEx) examined. This result is confirmed by the sparsity of optimal performing gene expression predictors via elastic net modeling. To further explore the tissue context specificity, we decompose the expression traits into cross-tissue and tissue-specific components using a novel Orthogonal Tissue Decomposition (OTD) approach. Through a series of simulations we show that the cross-tissue and tissue-specific components are identifiable via OTD. Heritability and sparsity estimates of these derived expression phenotypes show similar characteristics to the original traits. Consistent properties relative to prior GTEx multi-tissue analysis results suggest that these traits reflect the expected biology. Finally, we apply this knowledge to develop prediction models of gene expression traits for all tissues. The prediction models, heritability, and prediction performance R2 for original and decomposed expression phenotypes are made publicly available (https://github.com/hakyimlab/PrediXcan).


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Teorema de Bayes , Genótipo , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Tamanho da Amostra
18.
Nat Commun ; 7: 12522, 2016 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27725671

RESUMO

The African Diaspora in the Western Hemisphere represents one of the largest forced migrations in history and had a profound impact on genetic diversity in modern populations. To date, the fine-scale population structure of descendants of the African Diaspora remains largely uncharacterized. Here we present genetic variation from deeply sequenced genomes of 642 individuals from North and South American, Caribbean and West African populations, substantially increasing the lexicon of human genomic variation and suggesting much variation remains to be discovered in African-admixed populations in the Americas. We summarize genetic variation in these populations, quantifying the postcolonial sex-biased European gene flow across multiple regions. Moreover, we refine estimates on the burden of deleterious variants carried across populations and how this varies with African ancestry. Our data are an important resource for empowering disease mapping studies in African-admixed individuals and will facilitate gene discovery for diseases disproportionately affecting individuals of African ancestry.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Genoma Humano , Migração Humana , Sequência de Bases , DNA Intergênico/genética , Feminino , Heterogeneidade Genética , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sexismo
19.
Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet ; 17: 117-30, 2016 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27147090

RESUMO

Over the past few years, interest in the identification of rare variants that influence human phenotype has led to the development of many statistical methods for testing for association between sets of rare variants and binary or quantitative traits. Here, I review some of the most important ideas that underlie these methods and the most relevant issues when choosing a method for analysis. In addition to the tests for association, I review crucial issues in performing a rare variant study, from experimental design to interpretation and validation. I also discuss the many challenges of these studies, some of their limitations, and future research directions.


Assuntos
Frequência do Gene/genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 98(4): 697-708, 2016 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27040689

RESUMO

Gene expression and its regulation can vary substantially across tissue types. In order to generate knowledge about gene expression in human tissues, the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) program has collected transcriptome data in a wide variety of tissue types from post-mortem donors. However, many tissue types are difficult to access and are not collected in every GTEx individual. Furthermore, in non-GTEx studies, the accessibility of certain tissue types greatly limits the feasibility and scale of studies of multi-tissue expression. In this work, we developed multi-tissue imputation methods to impute gene expression in uncollected or inaccessible tissues. Via simulation studies, we showed that the proposed methods outperform existing imputation methods in multi-tissue expression imputation and that incorporating imputed expression data can improve power to detect phenotype-expression correlations. By analyzing data from nine selected tissue types in the GTEx pilot project, we demonstrated that harnessing expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) and tissue-tissue expression-level correlations can aid imputation of transcriptome data from uncollected GTEx tissues. More importantly, we showed that by using GTEx data as a reference, one can impute expression levels in inaccessible tissues in non-GTEx expression studies.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Transcriptoma , Humanos , Fenótipo , Projetos Piloto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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