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1.
Can Assoc Radiol J ; : 846537120913875, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32391715

RESUMO

Traumatic lower urinary tract injuries are uncommon and mainly occur in patients with severe trauma and multiple abdominopelvic injuries. In the presence of other substantial injuries, bladder and urethral injuries may be overlooked and cause significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it is important that radiologists are familiar with mechanisms and injuries that are high risk for bladder and urethral trauma. We review the imaging findings associated with these injuries and the appropriate modalities and techniques to further evaluate the patient and accurately diagnose these injuries. Computed tomography cystography and conventional retrograde urethrography are effective tools in identifying injuries to the lower urinary tract and play a crucial role in patient care and prognosis.

2.
Can Assoc Radiol J ; : 846537120916419, 2020 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233876

RESUMO

Emergency trauma radiology, although a relatively new subspecialty of radiology, plays a critical role in both the diagnosis/triage of acutely ill patients, but even more important in providing leadership and taking the lead in the preparedness of imaging departments in dealing with novel highly infectious communicable diseases and mass casualties. This has become even more apparent in dealing with COVID-19, the disease caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, first emerged in late 2019. We review the symptoms, epidemiology, and testing for this disease. We discuss characteristic imaging findings of COVID-19 in relation to other modern coronavirus diseases including SARS and MERS. We discuss roles that community radiology clinics, outpatient radiology departments, and emergency radiology departments can play in the diagnosis of this disease. We review practical methods to reduce spread of infections within radiology departments.

3.
Can Assoc Radiol J ; : 846537120918338, 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32309989

RESUMO

Emergency and trauma radiologists, emergency department's physicians and nurses, researchers, departmental leaders, and health policymakers have attempted to discover efficient approaches to enhance the provision of quality patient care. There are increasing expectations for radiology practices to deliver a dedicated emergency radiology service providing 24/7/365 on-site attending radiologist coverage. Emergency radiologists (ERs) are pressed to meet the demand of increased imaging volume, provide accurate reports, maintain a lower proportion of discrepancy rate, and with a rapid report turnaround time of finalized reports. Thus, rendering the radiologists overburdened. The demand for an increased efficiency in providing quality care to acute patients has led to the emergence of artificial intelligence (AI) in the field. AI can be used to assist emergency and trauma radiologists deal with the ever-increasing imaging volume and workload, as AI methods have typically demonstrated a variety of applications in medical image analysis and interpretation, albeit most programs are in a training or validation phase. This article aims to offer an evidence-based discourse about the evolving role of artificial intelligence in assisting the imaging pathway in an emergency and trauma radiology department. We hope to generate a multidisciplinary discourse that addresses the technical processes, the challenges in the labour-intensive process of training, validation and testing of an algorithm, the need for emphasis on ethics, and how an emergency radiologist's role is pivotal in the execution of AI-guided systems within the context of an emergency and trauma radiology department. This exploratory narrative serves the present-day health leadership's information needs by proposing an AI supported and radiologist centered framework depicting the work flow within a department. It is suspected that the use of such a framework, if efficacious, could provide considerable benefits for patient safety and quality of care provided. Additionally, alleviating radiologist burnout and decreasing healthcare costs over time.

4.
Diagn Interv Radiol ; 26(3): 236-240, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229433

RESUMO

As we face an explosion of COVID-19 cases and deal with an unprecedented set of circumstances all over the world, healthcare personnel are at the forefront, dealing with this emerging scenario. Certain subspecialties like interventional radiology entails a greater risk of acquiring and transmitting infection due to the close patient contact and invasive patient care the service provides. This makes it imperative to develop and set guidelines in place to limit transmission and utilize resources in an optimal fashion. A multi-tiered approach needs to be devised and monitored at the administrative level, taking into account the various staff and patient contact points. Based on these factors, work site and health force rearrangements need to be in place while enforcing segregation and disinfection parameters. We are putting forth an all-encompassing review of infection control measures that cover the dynamics of patient care and staff protocols that such a situation demands of an interventional department.

6.
Can Assoc Radiol J ; : 846537120914247, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268772

RESUMO

Modern advances in the medical imaging layered onto sophisticated trauma resuscitation strategies in highly organized regionalized trauma systems have created a paradigm shift in the management of severely injured patients. Although immediate exploratory surgery to identify and control life-threatening injuries still has its place, accelerated image acquisition and interpretation procedures now make it rare for trauma surgeons in major centers to venture into damage control surgery unaided by computed tomography (CT) or other imaging, particularly in cases of blunt trauma. Indeed, because of the high incidence of clinically occult injuries associated with major mechanism trauma, and even lower energy trauma in frail or elderly patients, CT imaging has become as invaluable as physical examination, if not more so, in critical decision-making in support of optimal outcomes. In particular, whole-body computed tomography (WBCT) completed promptly after initial assessment of a major trauma provides a quick, comprehensive survey of injuries that enables better surgical planning, obviates the need for multiple subsequent studies, and permits specialized reconstructions when needed. For those at risk for problematic occult injury after modest trauma, WBCT facilitates safer discharge planning and simplified follow-up. Through standardized guidelines, streamlined protocols, synoptic reporting, accessible web-based platforms, and active collaboration with clinicians, radiologists dedicated to trauma and emergency imaging enable clearer understanding of complex injuries in high-risk patients which leads to superior clinical decision-making. Whereas dated dogma has long warned that the CT scanner is the last place to take a challenging trauma patient, modern practice suggests that, more often than not, early comprehensive imaging can be done safely and efficiently and is in the patient's best interest. This article outlines how the role of diagnostic imaging for major trauma has evolved considerably in recent years.

7.
Can Assoc Radiol J ; : 846537120913031, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radiology trainees frequently use the Internet to research potential fellowship programs across all subspecialties. For a field like nuclear medicine, which has multiple training pathways, program websites can be an essential resource for potential applicants. This study aimed to analyze the online content of Canadian and American Nuclear Medicine fellowship websites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The content of all active Canadian and American Nuclear Medicine fellowship websites was evaluated using 26 criteria in the following subdivisions: application, recruitment, education, research, clinical work, and incentives. Fellowships without websites were excluded from the study. Scores were summed per program and compared by geographic region and ranking. RESULTS: A total of 42 active Canadian and American Nuclear Medicine fellowship programs were identified, of which 39 fellowships had dedicated fellowship websites available for the analysis. On average, fellowship websites contained 34.4% (9 ± 3.3) of the 26 criteria. Programs did not score differently on the criteria by geographical distribution (P = .08) nor by ranking (P = .18). CONCLUSION: Most Canadian and American Nuclear Medicine fellowship websites are lacking content relevant to prospective fellows. Addressing inadequacies in online content may support programs to inform and recruit residents into fellowship programs.

8.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305422

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate gender and racial profiles of US academic radiology faculty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of the American Association of Medical College database of radiology faculty members from 2006 to 2017 by academic rank, chair position, race or ethnicity, and gender. The data were described with annual proportions and average annual counts and fit to a Poisson regression model. Comparison data were taken from American Association of Medical College on matriculants at US medical schools and from ACGME on radiology residents. RESULTS: Women increased significantly in the ranks of professor by 4.5%, associate professor by 4.8%, and assistant professor by 4.8% (P < .05). Asian and multiple race non-Hispanic radiologists increased in the rank of professor by 5.9% and 3.1%, respectively (P < .05). Among department chairs, only women and Asian faculty increased by 6.4% and 7.5%, respectively (P < .05). The proportion of women chairs increased from 10.0% (19 of 191) in 2006 to 17.4% (39 of 224) in 2017. Black and Hispanic chairs collectively represented less than 10% of the total chairs every year. DISCUSSION: The significant percent annual increase in women faculty in academic ranks and chair positions suggests that the radiology faculty is becoming more diverse. However, the decreasing proportion of women with increasing academic ranks within each year of the study period suggests attrition or lack of promotion of women radiology faculty. The disparity in black and Hispanic faculty members and chairs suggests that emphasis should continue to be placed on tailored recruitment.

10.
Can Assoc Radiol J ; : 846537120908069, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166970

RESUMO

This review aims to examine the challenges facing radiologists interpreting trauma computed tomography (CT) images in this era of a changing approach to management of solid organ trauma. After reviewing the pearls and pitfalls of CT imaging protocols for detection of traumatic solid organ injuries, we describe the key changes in the 2018 American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Organ Injury Scales for liver, spleen, and kidney and their implications for management strategies. We then focus on the important imaging findings in observed in patients who undergo nonoperative management and patients who are imaged post damage control surgery.

11.
Can Assoc Radiol J ; : 846537120905301, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157893

RESUMO

Abdominal trauma, one of the leading causes of death under the age of 45, can be broadly classified into blunt and penetrating trauma, based on the mechanism of injury. Blunt abdominal trauma usually results from motor vehicle collisions, fall from heights, assaults, and sports and is more common than penetrating abdominal trauma, which is usually seen in firearm injuries and stab wounds. In both blunt and penetrating abdominal trauma, an optimized imaging approach is mandatory to exclude life-threatening injuries. Easy availability of the portable ultrasound in the emergency department and trauma bay makes it one of the most commonly used screening imaging modalities in the abdominal trauma, especially to exclude hemoperitoneum. Evaluation of the visceral and vascular injuries in a hemodynamically stable patient, however, warrants intravenous contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography scan. Dual-energy computed tomography with its postprocessing applications such as iodine selective imaging and virtual monoenergetic imaging can reliably depict the conspicuity of traumatic solid and hollow visceral and vascular injuries.

12.
Can Assoc Radiol J ; : 846537120905133, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157897

RESUMO

Traumatic diaphragmatic injury (TDI) is an underdiagnosed condition that has recently increased in prevalence due to its association with automobile collisions. The initial injury is often obscured by concurrent thoracic and abdominal injuries. Traumatic diaphragmatic injury itself is rarely lethal at initial presentation, however associated injuries and complications of untreated TDI such as herniation and strangulation of abdominal viscera have serious clinical consequences. There are 2 primary mechanisms of TDIs: penetrating TDI which tend to be smaller, more difficult to detect, and result in fewer complications; and blunt TDIs which are larger and have higher overall mortality due to associated injuries or delayed complications. The anatomy of thoracic and abdominal cavities distinguishes the epidemiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, treatment, and prognosis of right versus left TDI. Although there is no definitive radiologic sign for diagnosing TDI, many signs have been introduced in the literature and the concurrent presence of multiple signs increases the sensitivity of TDI detection. Conservative versus surgical management depends on mechanism of TDI, side, and most importantly the associated injuries.

13.
Can Assoc Radiol J ; : 846537120902046, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157902

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To offer an evidence-based account of the effect of 24/7/365 attending radiologist coverage on the turnaround time (TAT) of trauma-related radiographs finalized within 48 hours of exam completion, drawing data from an emergency radiology department of a tertiary care hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review, where TATs of imaging studies for a sample of trauma patients, who had visited the emergency department of the Vancouver General Hospital between two time periods, January 1 to September 30, 2013, and January 1 to September 30, 2017, were noted. RESULTS: In models adjusted for patient's age, sex, and seasonality, the 24/7/365 attending radiologist coverage was associated with an average of 19.1 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.7-19.4) hours of reduction in time from exam completion to report finalization by an attending radiologist. Approximately 11.3 (95% CI: 18.7-19.4) hours was due to reduction in time from exam completion to preliminary diagnosis of reports. When the impact of the increased number of radiology staff in 2017 was removed in the analysis, the overall TAT was reduced by 13.3 (95% CI: 13.0-13.6) hours and the time from exam completion to preliminary report was reduced by 7.8 (95% CI: 7.6-8.1) hours. LIMITATION: Since we have used a simple random sample (SRS) for this research, this study does not describe the burden of reports that are finalized in the emergency and trauma radiology department during the given time periods. CONCLUSION: Our pilot study demonstrates that the implementation of 24/7/365 attending radiology coverage significantly reduces TAT for finalized radiology reports of all modalities of trauma imaging studies in an emergency and trauma radiology department. POLICY IMPLICATION: This research serves the contemporary health-care administration, policymaking information needs by providing the evidence for significantly reduced TAT of finalized radiology reports from a Canadian perspective.

14.
Can Assoc Radiol J ; : 846537120906482, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157904

RESUMO

The use of diagnostic imaging studies in the emergency setting has increased dramatically over the past couple of decades. The emergency imaging of pregnant and lactating patients poses unique challenges and calls upon the crucial role of radiologists as consultants to the referring physician to guide appropriate use of imaging tests, minimize risk, ensure timely management, and occasionally alleviate unwarranted trepidation. A clear understanding of the risks and benefits involved with various imaging tests in this patient population is vital to achieve this. This review discusses the different safety and appropriateness issues that could arise with the use of ionizing radiation, iodinated-, and gadolinium-based contrast media and radiopharmaceuticals in pregnant and lactating patients. Special considerations such as trauma imaging, safety concerns with magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound, management of claustrophobia, contrast extravasation, and allergic reactions are also reviewed. The consent process for these examinations has also been described.

15.
Can Assoc Radiol J ; : 846537120909503, 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174147

RESUMO

As forensic radiology sees an exponential gain in popularity, postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) is increasingly being used in the appropriate setting, either as preautopsy guidance or as part of complementary virtual autopsy protocol. Many articles have expounded the value it adds to forensic pathology in the general setting and the appropriate technical parameters to be used for optimum benefit. We aim to put forth a concise review on the role of PMCT specifically in trauma and the pitfalls to be aware of. Reviews have shown that presumed cause of death in trauma have been proven by autopsy to be wrong in about 30% cases. Radiology applied to postmortem investigation in unnatural deaths and more specifically in trauma shares many semiotic features with emergency radiology. Therefore, in the near future, emergency radiologists might be required to integrate this type of imaging in their regular practice. Although the predominant drawbacks are time-dependent, PMCT also has some difficulty in differentiating antemortem and postmortem events. However, in many such scenarios, PMCT and autopsy play a complementary role in arriving at conclusions, and we believe understanding the benefits and role in trauma is imperative considering the expanding usage of PMCT.

16.
Can Assoc Radiol J ; : 846537120909468, 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174162

RESUMO

Traumatic injuries of the cervical carotid and vertebral arteries, collectively referred to as blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI), can result in significant patient morbidity and mortality, with one of the most feared outcomes being cerebrovascular ischemia. Systematic imaging-guided screening for BCVI aims for early detection to guide timely management. In particular, accurate detection of the severity and grade of BCVI is paramount in guiding initial management. Furthermore, follow-up imaging is required to decide the duration of antithrombotic therapy. In this article, classification of the grades of BCVI and associated imaging findings will be outlined and diagnostic pitfalls and mimickers that can confound diagnosis will be described. In addition, updates to existing screening guidelines and recent efforts of criteria modification to improve detection of BCVI cases will be reviewed. The advent of postprocessing tools applied to conventional computed tomography (CT) angiograms and new diagnostic tools in dual energy CT for improved detection will also be discussed.

17.
Eur Radiol ; 30(5): 2712-2721, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025830

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the scan acquisition time, radiation dose, subjective and objective image quality of two dual-source CT scanners (DSCT) for detection of acute pulmonary embolism. METHODS: Two hundred twenty-one scans performed on the 2nd-generation DSCT and 354 scans on the 3rd-generation DSCT were included in this large retrospective study. In a randomized blinded design, two radiologists independently reviewed the scans using a 5-point Likert scale. Radiation dose and objective image quality parameters were calculated. RESULTS: Mean acquisition time was significantly lower in the 3rd-generation DSCT (2.81 s ± 0.1 in comparison with 9.7 s ± 0.15 [mean ± SD] respectively; p < 0.0001) with the 3rd generation 3.4 times faster. The mean subjective image quality score was 4.33/5 and 4/5 for the 3rd- and 2nd-generation DSCT respectively (p < 0.0001) with strong interobserver reliability agreement. DLP, CTDIvol, and ED were significantly lower in the 3rd than the 2nd generation (175.6 ± 63.7 mGy cm; 5.3 ± 1.9 mGy and 2.8 ± 1.2 mSv in comparison with 266 ± 255 mGy.cm; 7.8 ± 2.2 mGy and 3.8 ± 4.3 mSv). Noise was significantly lower in the 3rd generation (p < 0.01). Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and figure of merit (FOM), a dose-insensitive index for CNR, were significantly higher in the 3rd-generation DSCT (33.5 ± 23.4; 29.0 ± 21.3 and 543.7 ± 1037 in comparison with 23.4 ± 17.7; 19.4 ± 16.0 and 170.5 ± 284.3). CONCLUSION: Objective and subjective image quality are significantly higher on the 3rd-generation DSCT with significantly lower mean acquisition time and radiation dose. KEY POINTS: • The 3rd-generation DSCT scanner provides an improved image quality, less perceived artifacts, and lower radiation dose in comparison with the 2nd-generation DSCT, when operating in dual-energy (DE) mode. • The 3.4-times-faster 3rd-generation DSCT scanner can be of particular value in patients with chronic lung diseases or breathing difficulties that prevent adequate breathhold.

18.
Can Assoc Radiol J ; : 846537119899268, 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063052

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the pattern of result communication that occurs between radiologists and referring physicians in the emergency department setting. METHODS: An institutional review board-approved prospective study was performed at a large academic medical center with 24/7 emergency radiology cover. Emergency radiologists logged information regarding all result-reporting communication events that occurred over a 168-hour period. RESULTS: A total of 286 independent result communication events occurred during the study period, the vast majority of which occurred via telephone (232/286). Emergency radiologists spent 10% of their working time communicating results. Similar amounts of time were spent discussing negative and positive cross-sectional imaging examinations. In a small minority of communication events, additional information was gathered through communication that resulted in a change of interpretation from a normal to an abnormal study. CONCLUSIONS: Effective and efficient result communication is critical to care delivery in the emergency department setting. Discussion regarding abnormal cases, both in person and over the phone, is encouraged. However, in the emergency setting, time spent on routine direct communication of negative examination results in advance of the final report may lead to increased disruptions, longer turnaround times, and negatively impact patient care. In very few instances, does the additional information gained from the communication event result in a change of interpretation?

19.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080763
20.
Can Assoc Radiol J ; : 846537120902067, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090593

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study is an evaluation of the emergency department (ED) satisfaction with the current radiologic reporting system used at a major Northeastern academic medical center. The radiology reports are the main form of communication and usually the final product of any radiological investigation delivered to clinicians. The aim of this study was to improve current radiology reporting practices and to better tailor reports to match the needs and expectations of ED clinicians. METHODS: A 9-question online survey was sent to ED residents, fellows, faculty, and nurse practitioners/advanced practice providers at a major Northeastern academic medical center in the United States. For the open-ended section, coding and emergent theme categorization was conducted for quantification of responses. The survey was designed to evaluate the attitudes toward the structure, style, form, and wording used in reports. RESULTS: The response rate was 48.6% (68/140). The ED respondents were generally satisfied with radiology reports, their language, vocabulary, and clarity. They preferred the impression section to be before the findings in simple examinations and to stratify the reports according to emergency status for complex examinations. They did not like extended differential, hedge terms, and delayed reporting. Additionally, ED respondents recommended focused, fast reporting with considerable changes toward a more standardized report. CONCLUSIONS: This evaluation delivered a list of actionable recommendations. The top recommendation is to standardize reporting structure, style, and lexicon, in addition to being focused, timely, and brief.

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