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1.
Langmuir ; 35(36): 11859-11871, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453695

RESUMO

The surface chemistry of gold nanoparticles produced by the pulsed laser ablation in liquids method is investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The presence of surface oxide expected on these systems is investigated using synchrotron radiation in conditions close to their original state in solvent but free from substrate or solvent effects which could affect the interpretation of spectroscopic observations. For that purpose we performed the experiment on a controlled free-standing nanoparticle beam produced by combination of an atomizer and an aerodynamic lens system. These results are compared with those obtained by the standard situation of deposited nanoparticles on silicon substrate. An accurate analysis based on Bayesian statistics concludes that the existence of oxide in the free-standing conditions cannot be solely confirmed by the recorded core-level 4f spectra. If present, our data indicate an upper limit of 2.15 ± 0.68% of oxide. However, a higher credence to the hypothesis of its existence is brought by the structureless valence profile of the free-standing beam. Moreover, the cross-comparison with the deposited nanoparticles case clearly evidences an important misleading substrate effect. Experiment with free-standing nanoparticles is then demonstrated to be the right way to further investigate oxidation states on Au nanoparticles.

2.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(11): 3153-3158, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117676

RESUMO

Hot-electron-induced reactions are more and more recognized as a critical and ubiquitous reaction in heterogeneous catalysis. However, the kinetics of these reactions is still poorly understood, which is also due to the complexity of plasmonic nanostructures. We determined the reaction rates of the hot-electron-mediated reaction of 4-nitrothiophenol (NTP) on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using fractal kinetics as a function of the laser wavelength and compared them with the plasmonic enhancement of the system. The reaction rates can be only partially explained by the plasmonic response of the NPs. Hence, synchrotron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements of isolated NTP-capped AuNP clusters have been performed for the first time. In this way, it was possible to determine the work function and the accessible valence band states of the NP systems. The results show that besides the plasmonic enhancement, the reaction rates are strongly influenced by the local density of the available electronic states of the system.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2186, 2019 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097703

RESUMO

The increasing availability of X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) has catalyzed the development of single-object structural determination and of structural dynamics tracking in real-time. Disentangling the molecular-level reactions triggered by the interaction with an XFEL pulse is a fundamental step towards developing such applications. Here we report real-time observations of XFEL-induced electronic decay via short-lived transient electronic states in the diiodomethane molecule, using a femtosecond near-infrared probe laser. We determine the lifetimes of the transient states populated during the XFEL-induced Auger cascades and find that multiply charged iodine ions are issued from short-lived (∼20 fs) transient states, whereas the singly charged ones originate from significantly longer-lived states (∼100 fs). We identify the mechanisms behind these different time scales: contrary to the short-lived transient states which relax by molecular Auger decay, the long-lived ones decay by an interatomic Coulombic decay between two iodine atoms, during the molecular fragmentation.

4.
J Chem Phys ; 149(14): 144302, 2018 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30316287

RESUMO

Ionization of the I 3d, 4s, and 4p orbitals in methyl iodide (CH3I) has been studied by using synchrotron radiation to measure the total ion yield and by recording photoelectron spectra with linearly polarized radiation in two polarization orientations. The complete photoelectron spectrum of CH3I has been recorded at several photon energies, and bands due to the C 1s, I 3d, 4s, 4p, and 4d atomic-like orbitals, as well as the molecular orbitals, have been observed and assigned. In the vicinity of the I 3d5/2 and 3d3/2 ionization thresholds at 626.8 and 638.3 eV, respectively, the ion yield displays weak structure in the pre-edge region due to transitions into valence or Rydberg states, and, at higher energies, a shoulder and a broad maximum attributed to the I 3d5/2 → εf and the I 3d3/2 → εf shape resonances, respectively. The absorption spectrum calculated using time-dependent density functional theory, within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation, has allowed assignments to be proposed for the valence and Rydberg states. The Stieltjes imaging technique has been used to simulate the absorption spectrum above the ionization threshold and indicates that transitions into the f(l = 3) continuum channel dominate. This conclusion has been corroborated by a Continuum Multiple Scattering-Xα (CMS-Xα) calculation. The asymmetric broadening of the photoelectron bands associated with the I 3d orbital, due to post collision interaction, is taken into account in our experimental analysis. Experimentally derived photoelectron anisotropy parameters for the I 3d orbital are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions obtained with the CMS-Xα approach. The I 3d shake-up/shake-off photoelectron spectrum has been recorded, and assignments have been proposed for several of the satellites. The M4N45N45 and M5N45N45 Auger electron yields have been measured, and that for the M5N45N45 decay exhibits a maximum due to interchannel coupling between the 3d5/2 and 3d3/2 continua. The photoelectron band associated with the I 4p orbital has an unusual appearance. Based upon previous theoretical work for the analogous Xe 4p orbital, it appears that the initial I 4p-1 hole state decays rapidly through Coster-Kronig and super-Coster-Kronig transitions. This leads to a redistribution of the spectral intensity associated with the I 4p orbital and results in a photoelectron spectrum containing a single structured band together with an extended continuum. Another continuum is observed on the high binding energy side of the peak due to the 4s orbital, and we assign this to super-Coster-Kronig transitions into the 4p-14d-1 continuum.

5.
J Chem Phys ; 149(9): 094304, 2018 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30195315

RESUMO

Auger electron spectra following excitation or ionization of the I 3d level in CH3I have been recorded with horizontally or vertically plane polarized synchrotron radiation. These spectra have enabled the Auger electron angular distributions, as characterized by the ß parameter, to be determined. The I 3d photoionization partial cross section of CH3I has been calculated with the continuum multiple scattering approach, and the results show that in the photon energy range over which Auger spectra were measured, the I 3d cross section exhibits an atomic-like behavior and is dominated by transitions into the εf continuum channel. In this limit, the theoretical value of the alignment parameter (A20) characterizing the core ionized state in an atom becomes constant, independent of photon energy. This theoretical value has been used to obtain the Auger electron intrinsic anisotropy parameters (α2) from the ß parameters extracted from our normal (non-resonant) molecular Auger spectra. The resulting anisotropy parameters for the M45N45N45 transitions in CH3I have been compared to those calculated for the corresponding transitions in xenon, and the experimental and theoretical results are in good agreement. Anisotropy parameters have also been measured for the M45N1N45, M45N23N45, and M45N45O23 transitions. For the M45N1N45 and M45N23N45 Auger decays in CH3I, the experimentally derived angular distributions do not exhibit the strong dependence on the final ionic state that is predicted for these transitions in xenon. Resonantly excited Auger spectra have been recorded at 620.4 and 632.0 eV, coinciding with the I 3d5/2 → σ* and 3d3/2 → σ* transitions, respectively. The resulting Auger electron angular distributions for the M4N45N45 and M5N45N45 decays were found to exhibit a higher anisotropy than those for the normal process. This is due to the larger photo-induced alignment in the neutral core excited state. For a particular Auger transition, the Auger electron kinetic energy measured in the resonantly excited spectrum is higher than that in the normal spectrum. This shift, due to the screening provided by the electron excited into the σ* orbital, has been rationalized by calculating orbital ionization energies of I 3d excited and I 3d ionized states in CH3I.

6.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(15): 4457-4462, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30020787

RESUMO

X-ray absorption and Auger electron spectroscopies are demonstrated to be powerful tools to unravel the electronic structure of solvated ions. In this work for the first time, we use a combination of these methods in the tender X-ray regime. This allowed us to address electronic transitions from deep core levels, to probe environmental effects, specifically in the bulk of the solution since the created energetic Auger electrons possess large mean free paths, and moreover, to obtain dynamical information about the ultrafast delocalization of the core-excited electron. In the considered exemplary aqueous KCl solution, the solvated isoelectronic K+ and Cl- ions exhibit notably different Auger electron spectra as a function of the photon energy. Differences appear due to dipole-forbidden transitions in aqueous K+ whose occurrence, according to the performed ab initio calculations, becomes possible only in the presence of solvent water molecules.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 120(22): 223201, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29906148

RESUMO

We show that electron and ion spectroscopy reveals the details of the oligomer formation in Ar clusters exposed to an x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) pulse, i.e., chemical dynamics triggered by x rays. With guidance from a dedicated molecular dynamics simulation tool, we find that van der Waals bonding, the oligomer formation mechanism, and charge transfer among the cluster constituents significantly affect ionization dynamics induced by an XFEL pulse of moderate fluence. Our results clearly demonstrate that XFEL pulses can be used not only to "damage and destroy" molecular assemblies but also to modify and transform their molecular structure. The accuracy of the predictions obtained makes it possible to apply the cluster spectroscopy, in connection with the respective simulations, for estimation of the XFEL pulse fluence in the fluence regime below single-atom multiple-photon absorption, which is hardly accessible with other diagnostic tools.

8.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(13): 3604-3611, 2018 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29902010

RESUMO

We report an investigation of lead halide perovskite CH3NH3PbBr3 nanocrystals and associated ligand molecules by combining several different state-of-the-art experimental techniques, including synchrotron radiation-based XPS and VUV PES of free-standing nanocrystals isolated in vacuum. By using this novel approach for perovskite materials, we could directly obtain complete band alignment to vacuum of both CH3NH3PbBr3 nanocrystals and the ligands widely used in their preparation. We discuss the possible influence of the ligand molecules to apparent perovskite properties, and we compare the electronic properties of nanocrystals to those of bulk material. The experimental results were supported by DFT calculations.

9.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 2898, 2017 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28588192

RESUMO

In non-resonant Auger electron spectroscopies, multi core-ionized states lead to numerous energetically close-lying electronic transitions in Auger spectra, this hampering the assignment and interpretation of the experimental results. Here we reveal a new method to overcome this intrinsic limitation of non-resonant inner-shell spectroscopies. In a proof-of-principle experiment performed for the O2 molecule, most of the Auger final states are dissociative, and we measure in coincidence the kinetic energy of the photoelectron and the kinetic energy release of the (O+, O+) ion pairs produced after the Auger decay of the O 1s-1 core-ionized states. The Auger final states are assigned using energy conservation. We fully separate the contributions from the 4Σ- and 2Σ- intermediate ionic states and conclusively demonstrate that the Auger decay probability can dramatically depend on the different O2 1s -1 intermediate multiplet states. In addition, a metastable Auger final state also exists, with lifetime longer than 3.8 µs, and clear changes are observed in both branching ratio and spectral profile of the O 1s photoelectron spectrum when they are recorded in coincidence with either [Formula: see text] or with other ionic species. These changes are attributed to the population of the metastable [Formula: see text] Auger final state via different intermediate states.

10.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(30): 19707-19721, 2017 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28530728

RESUMO

Coulomb explosion of diiodomethane CH2I2 molecules irradiated by ultrashort and intense X-ray pulses from SACLA, the Japanese X-ray free electron laser facility, was investigated by multi-ion coincidence measurements and self-consistent charge density-functional-based tight-binding (SCC-DFTB) simulations. The diiodomethane molecule, containing two heavy-atom X-ray absorbing sites, exhibits a rather different charge generation and nuclear motion dynamics compared to iodomethane CH3I with only a single heavy atom, as studied earlier. We focus on charge creation and distribution in CH2I2 in comparison to CH3I. The release of kinetic energy into atomic ion fragments is also studied by comparing SCC-DFTB simulations with the experiment. Compared to earlier simulations, several key enhancements are made, such as the introduction of a bond axis recoil model, where vibrational energy generated during charge creation processes induces only bond stretching or shrinking. We also propose an analytical Coulomb energy partition model to extract the essential mechanism of Coulomb explosion of molecules from the computed and the experimentally measured kinetic energies of fragment atomic ions by partitioning each pair Coulomb interaction energy into two ions of the pair under the constraint of momentum conservation. Effective internuclear distances assigned to individual fragment ions at the critical moment of the Coulomb explosion are then estimated from the average kinetic energies of the ions. We demonstrate, with good agreement between the experiment and the SCC-DFTB simulation, how the more heavily charged iodine fragments and their interplay define the characteristic features of the Coulomb explosion of CH2I2. The present study also confirms earlier findings concerning the magnitude of bond elongation in the ultrashort X-ray pulse duration, showing that structural damage to all but C-H bonds does not develop to a noticeable degree in the pulse length of ∼10 fs.

11.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 88(2): 023110, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28249490

RESUMO

In an energy-dispersive electron spectrometer, the electrons with the same kinetic energy but different polar angles fly along different paths and impinge upon the detector at different locations. This behavior materializes the spherical aberration of the electron optics, which deteriorates the focussing quality on the detector, and thus the energy resolution of the instrument. Here, we demonstrate that, in general, the electron time of flight changes monotonically as a function of the polar angle. Combining the impact position on the detector and the time of flight of electrons, the spherical aberration can be corrected and the energy resolution can be significantly improved, 1.5× in the case of our double toroidal analyser. This correction method has a general applicability and can be of interest to experimentalists willing to push further the performances of their electron spectrometers when the time of flight is available.

12.
Sci Rep ; 5: 15088, 2015 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26462615

RESUMO

We describe an experimental method to probe the adsorption of water at the surface of isolated, substrate-free TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) based on soft X-ray spectroscopy in the gas phase using synchrotron radiation. To understand the interfacial properties between water and TiO2 surface, a water shell was adsorbed at the surface of TiO2 NPs. We used two different ways to control the hydration level of the NPs: in the first scheme, initially solvated NPs were dried and in the second one, dry NPs generated thanks to a commercial aerosol generator were exposed to water vapor. XPS was used to identify the signature of the water layer shell on the surface of the free TiO2 NPs and made it possible to follow the evolution of their hydration state. The results obtained allow the establishment of a qualitative determination of isolated NPs' surface states, as well as to unravel water adsorption mechanisms. This method appears to be a unique approach to investigate the interface between an isolated nano-object and a solvent over-layer, paving the way towards new investigation methods in heterogeneous catalysis on nanomaterials.

13.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 6(15): 2944-9, 2015 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26267186

RESUMO

In recent years, free-electron lasers operating in the true X-ray regime have opened up access to the femtosecond-scale dynamics induced by deep inner-shell ionization. We have investigated charge creation and transfer dynamics in the context of molecular Coulomb explosion of a single molecule, exposed to sequential deep inner-shell ionization within an ultrashort (10 fs) X-ray pulse. The target molecule was CH3I, methane sensitized to X-rays by halogenization with a heavy element, iodine. Time-of-flight ion spectroscopy and coincident ion analysis was employed to investigate, via the properties of the atomic fragments, single-molecule charge states of up to +22. Experimental findings have been compared with a parametric model of simultaneous Coulomb explosion and charge transfer in the molecule. The study demonstrates that including realistic charge dynamics is imperative when molecular Coulomb explosion experiments using short-pulse facilities are performed.

14.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 6(9): 1568-72, 2015 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26263315

RESUMO

The vibrationally resolved X-ray photoelectron spectra of X2Σg+(3σg−1) and B2Σu+(2σu−1) states of N2+ were recorded for different photon energies and orientations of the polarization vector. Clear dependencies of the spectral line widths on the X-ray polarization as well as on the symmetry of the final electronic states are observed. Contrary to the translational Doppler, the rotational Doppler broadening is sensitive to the photoelectron emission anisotropy. On the basis of theoretical modeling, we suggest that the different rotational Doppler broadenings observed for gerade and ungerade final states result from a Young's double-slit interference phenomenon.

15.
Nat Commun ; 5: 3816, 2014 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24809410

RESUMO

Due to the generally delocalized nature of molecular valence orbitals, valence-shell spectroscopies do not usually allow to specifically target a selected atom in a molecule. However, in X-ray electron spectroscopy, the photoelectron momentum is large and the recoil angular momentum transferred to the molecule is larger when the photoelectron is ejected from a light atom compared with a heavy one. This confers an extreme sensitivity of the rotational excitation to the ionization site. Here we show that, indeed, the use of high-energy photons to photoionize valence-shell electrons of hydrogen chloride offers an unexpected way to decrypt the atomic composition of the molecular orbitals due to the rotational dependence of the photoionization profiles. The analysis of the site-specific rotational envelopes allows us to disentangle the effects of the two main mechanisms of rotational excitation, based on angular momentum exchange between the molecule and either the incoming photon or the emitted electron.

16.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 5(19): 3399-403, 2014 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26278452

RESUMO

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a very efficient and still progressing surface analysis technique. However, when applied to nano-objects, this technique faces drawbacks due to interactions with the substrate and sample charging effects. We present a new experimental approach to XPS based on coupling soft X-ray synchrotron radiation with an in-vacuum beam of free nanoparticles, focused by an aerodynamic lens system. The structure of the Si/SiO2 interface was probed without any substrate interaction or charging effects for silicon nanocrystals previously oxidized in ambient air. Complete characterization of the surface was obtained. The Si 2p core level spectrum reveals a nonabrupt interface.

17.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 84(11): 113105, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24289386

RESUMO

This paper describes the philosophy and design goals regarding the construction of a versatile sample environment: a source capable of producing beams of atoms, molecules, clusters, and nanoparticles in view of studying their interaction with short wavelength (vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray) synchrotron radiation. In the design, specific care has been taken of (a) the use standard components, (b) ensuring modularity, i.e., that swiftly switching between different experimental configurations was possible. To demonstrate the efficiency of the design, proof-of-principle experiments have been conducted by recording x-ray absorption and photoelectron spectra from isolated nanoparticles (SiO2) and free mixed clusters (Ar/Xe). The results from those experiments are showcased and briefly discussed.

18.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 15(25): 10112-7, 2013 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23702903

RESUMO

The Xe 5s photoelectron spectrum and 5p(4)nl correlation satellites have been studied in small Xe clusters of an average size of about 15 atoms. The satellite structures are interpreted with the help of the atomic Xe lines. Transition energy shifts between the atomic and the corner/edge/face/bulk components in clusters are divided into polarization screening and exchange interaction energy. Interestingly enough, the ratios between corner/edge/face/bulk polarization screening and exchange interaction energies are found to reflect the ratios of the coordination numbers of corner/edge/face/bulk atoms in these small icosahedral cluster structures.

19.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 84(3): 033105, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23556805

RESUMO

We report here on the method we developed to build a lens table for a four-element electrostatic transfer lens operated together with a double toroidal electron energy analyzer designed by one of us, and whose original design and further improvements are described in detail in Miron et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3728 (1997)] and Le Guen et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 3885 (2002)]. Both computer simulations and laboratory instrument tuning were performed in order to build this lens table. The obtained result was tested for a broad range of electron kinetic energies and analyzer pass energies. Based on this new lens table, allowing to easily computer control the spectrometer working conditions, we could routinely achieve an electron energy resolution ranging between 0.6% and 0.8% of the analyzer pass energy, while the electron count rate was also significantly improved. The establishment of such a lens table is of high importance to relieve experimentalists from the tedious laboring of the lens optimization, which was previously necessary prior to any measurement. The described method can be adapted to any type of electron/ion energy analyzer, and will thus be interesting for all experimentalists who own, or plan to build or improve their charged particle energy analyzers.

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