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1.
JAMA ; 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219386

RESUMO

Importance: Additional treatments are needed for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors may be an effective treatment for patients with HFrEF, even those without diabetes. Objective: To evaluate the effects of dapagliflozin in patients with HFrEF with and without diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Exploratory analysis of a phase 3 randomized trial conducted at 410 sites in 20 countries. Patients with New York Heart Association classification II to IV with an ejection fraction less than or equal to 40% and elevated plasma N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide were enrolled between February 15, 2017, and August 17, 2018, with final follow-up on June 6, 2019. Interventions: Addition of once-daily 10 mg of dapagliflozin or placebo to recommended therapy. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the composite of an episode of worsening heart failure or cardiovascular death. This outcome was analyzed by baseline diabetes status and, in patients without diabetes, by glycated hemoglobin level less than 5.7% vs greater than or equal to 5.7%. Results: Among 4744 patients randomized (mean age, 66 years; 1109 [23%] women; 2605 [55%] without diabetes), 4742 completed the trial. Among participants without diabetes, the primary outcome occurred in 171 of 1298 (13.2%) in the dapagliflozin group and 231 of 1307 (17.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.60-0.88]). In patients with diabetes, the primary outcome occurred in 215 of 1075 (20.0%) in the dapagliflozin group and 271 of 1064 (25.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.63-0.90]) (P value for interaction = .80). Among patients without diabetes and a glycated hemoglobin level less than 5.7%, the primary outcome occurred in 53 of 438 patients (12.1%) in the dapagliflozin group and 71 of 419 (16.9%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.47-0.96]). In patients with a glycated hemoglobin of at least 5.7%, the primary outcome occurred in 118 of 860 patients (13.7%) in the dapagliflozin group and 160 of 888 (18.0%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.59-0.94]) (P value for interaction = .72). Volume depletion was reported as an adverse event in 7.3% of patients in the dapagliflozin group and 6.1% in the placebo group among patients without diabetes and in 7.8% of patients in the dapagliflozin group and 7.8% in the placebo group among patients with diabetes. A kidney adverse event was reported in 4.8% of patients in the dapagliflozin group and 6.0% in the placebo group among patients without diabetes and in 8.5% of patients in the dapagliflozin group and 8.7% in the placebo group among patients with diabetes. Conclusions and Relevance: In this exploratory analysis of a randomized trial of patients with HFrEF, dapagliflozin compared with placebo, when added to recommended therapy, significantly reduced the risk of worsening heart failure or cardiovascular death independently of diabetes status. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03036124.

2.
Int J Cardiol ; 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence is lacking on long-term outcomes in unselected patients surviving the first year following myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS AND RESULTS: The TIGRIS (long-Term rIsk, clinical manaGement and healthcare Resource utilization of stable coronary artery dISease in post-myocardial infarction patients) prospective registry enrolled 9176 eligible patients aged ≥50 years, 1-3 years post-MI, from 25 countries. All had ≥1 risk factor: age ≥ 65 years, diabetes mellitus, second prior MI, multivessel coronary artery disease, chronic kidney disease (CKD). Primary outcome was a composite of MI, unstable angina with urgent revascularization, stroke, or all-cause death at 2-year follow-up. Bleeding requiring hospitalization was also recorded. 9027 patients (98.4%) provided follow-up data: the primary outcome occurred in 621 (7.0%), all-cause mortality in 295 (3.3%), and bleeding in 109 (1.2%) patients. Events accrued linearly over time. In multivariable analyses, qualifying risk factors were associated with increased risk of primary outcome (incidence rate ratio [RR] per 100 patient-years [95% confidence interval]): CKD 2.06 (1.66, 2.55), second prior MI 1.71 (1.38, 2.10), diabetes mellitus 1.63 (1.39, 1.92), age ≥ 65 years 1.53 (1.28, 1.83), and multivessel disease 1.24 (1.05, 1.48). Risk of bleeding events was greater in older patients (vs <65 years) 65-74 years 2.68 (1.53, 4.70), ≥75 years 4.62 (2.57, 8.28), and those with CKD 1.99 (1.18, 3.35). CONCLUSION: In stable patients recruited 1-3 years post-MI, recurrent cardiovascular and bleeding events accrued linearly over 2 years. Factors independently predictive of ischemic and bleeding events were identified, providing a context for deciding on treatment options.

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(3): 289-300, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31976867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mechanistic studies have shown that morphine blunts the antiplatelet effects of oral adenosine diphosphate receptor blockers. However, the clinical relevance of this interaction is controversial. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to explore the association between morphine and ischemic events in 5,438 patients treated with concomitant clopidogrel presenting with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTEACS) in the EARLY ACS (Early Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibition in Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome) trial. Patients not treated with clopidogrel (n = 3,462) were used as negative controls. METHODS: Endpoints were the composite of death, myocardial infarction (MI), recurrent ischemia, or thrombotic bailout at 96 h (4-way endpoint) and the composite of death or MI at 30 days. RESULTS: In patients treated with clopidogrel, morphine use was associated with higher rates of the 4-way endpoint at 96 h (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04 to 1.87; p = 0.026). There was a trend for higher rates of death or MI at 30 days (adjusted OR: 1.29; 95% CI: 0.98 to 1.70; p = 0.072), driven by events in the first 48 h (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.07 to 2.23; p = 0.021). In patients not treated with clopidogrel, morphine was not associated with either the 4-way endpoint at 96 h (adjusted OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 0.74 to 1.49; p = 0.79; pinteraction = 0.36 ) or death or MI at 30 days (adjusted OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.77 to 1.48; p = 0.70; pinteraction = 0.46). CONCLUSIONS: When used concomitantly with clopidogrel pre-treatment, morphine was associated with higher rates of ischemic events in patients with NSTEACS. (EARLY ACS: Early Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibition in Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome; NCT00089895).

4.
Circulation ; 141(2): 100-111, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The DAPA-HF trial (Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse-Outcomes in Heart Failure) showed that dapagliflozin added to other guideline-recommended therapies reduced the risk of mortality and heart failure hospitalization and improved symptoms in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. We examined the effects of dapagliflozin according to age, given potential concerns about the efficacy and safety of therapies in the elderly. METHODS: Patients in New York Heart Association functional class II or greater with a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40% and a modest elevation of NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) were eligible. Key exclusion criteria included systolic blood pressure <95 mm Hg and estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2. The primary outcome was the composite of an episode of worsening heart failure (heart failure hospitalization or urgent heart failure visit) or cardiovascular death, whichever occurred first. RESULTS: A total of 4744 patients 22 to 94 years of age (mean age, 66.3 [SD 10.9] years) were randomized: 636 patients (13.4%) were <55 years of age, 1242 (26.2%) were 55 to 64 years of age, 1717 (36.2%) were 65 to 74 years of age, and 1149 (24.2%) were ≥75 years of age. The rate of the primary outcome (per 100 person-years, placebo arm) in each age group was 13.6 (95% CI, 10.4-17.9), 15.7 (95% CI, 13.2-18.7), 15.1 (95% CI, 13.1-17.5), and 18.0 (95% CI, 15.2-21.4) with corresponding dapagliflozin/placebo hazard ratios of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.60-1.28), 0.71 (95% CI, 0.55-0.93), 0.76 (95% CI, 0.61-0.95), and 0.68 (95% CI, 0.53-0.88; P for interaction=0.76). Consistent benefits were observed for the components of the primary outcome, all-cause mortality, and symptoms. Although adverse events and study drug discontinuation increased with age, neither was significantly more common with dapagliflozin in any age group. CONCLUSIONS: Dapagliflozin reduced the risk of death and worsening heart failure and improved symptoms across the broad spectrum of age studied in DAPA-HF. There was no significant imbalance in tolerability or safety events between dapagliflozin and placebo, even in elderly individuals. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03036124.

5.
Circulation ; 141(2): 90-99, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Goals of management in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction include reducing death and hospitalizations, and improving health status (symptoms, physical function, and quality of life). In the DAPA-HF trial (Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse-Outcomes in Heart Failure), sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, dapagliflozin, reduced death and hospitalizations, and improved symptoms in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. In this analysis, we examine the effects of dapagliflozin on a broad range of health status outcomes, using the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ). METHODS: KCCQ was evaluated at randomization, 4 and 8 months. Patients were divided by baseline KCCQ total symptom score (TSS); Cox proportional hazards models examined the effects of dapagliflozin on clinical events across these subgroups. We also evaluated the effects of dapagliflozin on KCCQ-TSS, clinical summary score, and overall summary score. Responder analyses were performed to compare proportions of dapagliflozin versus placebo-treated patients with clinically meaningful changes in KCCQ at 8 months. RESULTS: A total of 4443 patients had available KCCQ at baseline (median KCCQ-TSS, 77.1 [interquartile range, 58.3-91.7]). The effects of dapagliflozin vs placebo on reducing cardiovascular death or worsening heart failure were consistent across the range of KCCQ-TSS (lowest to highest tertile: hazard ratio, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.57-0.86]; hazard ratio, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.61-0.98]; hazard ratio, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.46-0.83]; P for heterogeneity=0.52). Patients treated with dapagliflozin had greater improvement in mean KCCQ-TSS, clinical summary score, and overall summary score at 8 months (2.8, 2.5 and 2.3 points higher versus placebo; P<0.0001 for all). Fewer patients treated with dapagliflozin had a deterioration in KCCQ-TSS (odds ratio, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.78-0.90]; P<0.0001); and more patients had at least small, moderate, and large improvements (odds ratio, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.08-1.23]; odds ratio, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.08-1.22]; odds ratio, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.07-1.22]; number needed to treat=14, 15, and 18, respectively; P<0.0001 for all; results consistent for KCCQ clinical summary score and overall summary score). CONCLUSIONS: Dapagliflozin reduced cardiovascular death and worsening heart failure across the range of baseline KCCQ, and improved symptoms, physical function, and quality of life in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. Furthermore, dapagliflozin increased the proportion of patients experiencing at least small, moderate, and large improvements in health status; these effects were clinically important. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03036124.

6.
Clin Cardiol ; 43(1): 24-32, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk prediction tools are lacking for patients with stable disease some years after myocardial infarction (MI). HYPOTHESIS: A practical long-term cardiovascular risk index can be developed. METHODS: The long-Term rIsk, Clinical manaGement and healthcare Resource utilization of stable coronary artery dISease in post-myocardial infarction patients prospective global registry enrolled patients 1 to 3 years post-MI (369 centers; 25 countries), all with ≥1 risk factor (age ≥65 years, diabetes mellitus requiring medication, second prior MI, multivessel coronary artery disease, or chronic non-end-stage kidney disease [CKD]). Self-reported health was assessed with EuroQoL-5 dimensions. Multivariable Poisson regression models were used to determine key predictors of the primary composite outcome (MI, unstable angina with urgent revascularization [UA], stroke, or all-cause death) over 2 years. RESULTS: The primary outcome occurred in 621 (6.9%) of 9027 eligible patients: death 295 (3.3%), MI 195 (2.2%), UA 103 (1.1%), and stroke 58 (0.6%). All events accrued linearly. In a multivariable model, 11 significant predictors of primary outcome (age ≥65 years, diabetes, second prior MI, CKD, history of major bleed, peripheral arterial disease, heart failure, cardiovascular hospitalization (prior 6 months), medical management (index MI), on diuretic, and poor self-reported health) were identified and combined into a user-friendly risk index. Compared with lowest-risk patients, those in the top 16% had a rate ratio of 6.9 for the primary composite, and 18.7 for all-cause death (overall c-statistic; 0.686, and 0.768, respectively). External validation was performed using the Australian Cooperative National Registry of Acute Coronary Care, Guideline Adherence and Clinical Events registry (c-statistic; 0.748, and 0.849, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In patients >1-year post-MI, recurrent cardiovascular events and deaths accrue linearly. A simple risk index can stratify patients, potentially helping to guide management.

7.
Adv Ther ; 37(1): 420-430, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758517

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The interaction between anticoagulants and platelet function is complex. Previous publications showed mixed results regarding the role of heparins in platelet aggregation. On the other hand, the direct thrombin inhibitor (DTI) dabigatran might enhance the risk of myocardial infarction in patients with atrial fibrillation, which could be related to increased platelet aggregability. METHODS: This was a prospective, interventional study of patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD) taking low-dose aspirin. The objective of the current study was to compare the effects of dabigatran versus enoxaparin on platelet aggregability. Subjects initially were on orally administered dabigatran for 5 days followed by subcutaneously administered enoxaparin after a 30-day washout period. Platelet function was assessed at baseline and after each intervention by multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA-ASPI) (primary endpoint), serum thromboxane B2 (TXB2), VerifyNow Aspirin™, and coagulation tests (secondary endpoints). RESULTS: Compared to baseline MEA-ASPI values, dabigatran increased platelet aggregation while enoxaparin decreased platelet aggregation (+ 5 U ± 24.1 vs - 6 U ± 22.2, respectively, p = 0.012). The TXB2 assay showed the same pattern (+ 2 pg/ml for dabigatran vs - 13 pg/ml for enoxaparin, p = 0.011). None of the additional tests showed significant differences between the groups. Individually, compared to baseline TXB2 results, enoxaparin significantly decreased platelet activation [33 (16.5-95) pg/mL vs 20 (10-52) pg/mL, respectively, p = 0.026], but no significant differences were observed with dabigatran. CONCLUSIONS: DTI and anti-Xa drugs exert opposite effects on platelet function. A significant decrease in platelet activation through COX1 (also known as prostaglandin G/H synthase 1) was observed with enoxaparin, but no significant differences in platelet function were observed with dabigatran. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT02389582.

8.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811715

RESUMO

AIMS: PEGASUS-TIMI 54 demonstrated that long-term dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and ticagrelor reduced the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), with an acceptable increase in bleeding, in patients with prior myocardial infarction (MI). While much of the discussion around prolonged DAPT has been focused on stented patients, patients with prior MI without prior coronary stenting comprise a clinically important subgroup. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a pre-specified analysis from PEGASUS-TIMI 54, which randomized 21 162 patients with prior MI (1-3 years) and additional high-risk features to ticagrelor 60 mg, 90 mg, or placebo twice daily in addition to aspirin. A total of 4199 patients had no history of coronary stenting at baseline. The primary efficacy outcome (MACE) was the composite of cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke. Patients without history of coronary stenting had higher baseline risk of MACE [13.2% vs. 8.0%, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.73, in the placebo arm]. The relative risk reduction in MACE with ticagrelor (pooled doses) was similar in patients without (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.68-0.99) and with prior stenting (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.75-0.96; P for interaction = 0.76). CONCLUSION: Long-term ticagrelor reduces thrombotic events in patients with prior MI regardless of whether they had prior coronary stenting. These data highlight the benefits of DAPT in prevention of spontaneous atherothrombotic events and indicate that long-term ticagrelor may be considered in high-risk patients with prior MI even if they have not been treated with stenting. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT01225562.

9.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(12): 1651-1658, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883356

RESUMO

AIMS: Iron deficiency (ID) is a common co-morbidity in heart failure (HF), associated with impaired functional capacity, poor quality of life and increased morbidity and mortality. Treatment with intravenous (i.v.) ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) has shown improvements in functional capacity, symptoms and quality of life in stable HF patients with reduced ejection fraction. The effect of i.v. iron supplementation on morbidity and mortality in patients hospitalised for acute HF (AHF) and who have ID has yet to be established. The objective of the present article is to present the rationale and design of the AFFIRM-AHF trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02937454) which will investigate the effect of i.v. FCM (vs. placebo) on recurrent HF hospitalisations and cardiovascular (CV) mortality in iron-deficient patients hospitalised for AHF. METHODS: AFFIRM-AHF is a multicentre, randomised (1:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled trial which recruited 1100 patients hospitalised for AHF and who had iron deficiency ID defined as serum ferritin <100 ng/mL or 100-299 ng/mL if transferrin saturation <20%. Eligible patients were randomised (1:1) to either i.v. FCM or placebo and received the first dose of study treatment just prior to discharge for the index hospitalisation. Patients will be followed for 52 weeks. The primary outcome is the composite of recurrent HF hospitalisations and CV mortality. The main secondary outcomes include the composite of recurrent CV hospitalisations and CV mortality, recurrent HF hospitalisations and safety-related outcomes. CONCLUSION: The AFFIRM-AHF trial will evaluate, compared to placebo, the effect of i.v. FCM on morbidity and mortality in iron-deficient patients hospitalised for AHF.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687762

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants represent a new option for prevention of embolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, little is known about the impact of non-cardiac comorbidities on the efficacy and safety profile of these drugs. METHODS: In a post-hoc analysis of the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 trial, we analyzed 21,105 patients with AF followed for an average of 2.8 years and randomized to either a higher-dose edoxaban regimen (HDER), a lower-dose edoxaban regimen (LDER), or warfarin. We used the Updated Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) to stratify the patients according to the burden of concomitant disease (CCI=0, 1, 2, 3 and ≥4). The treatment groups were then compared for safety, efficacy, and net clinical outcomes across CCI categories. RESULTS: There were 32.0%, 7.3%, 42.1%, 12.7%, and 6.0% of patients with CCI scores of 0, 1, 2, 3, and ≥4, respectively. A CCI score ≥4 was associated with significantly higher rates of thromboembolic events, bleeding, and death compared to CCI=0 (P < 0.05 for each). The annualized rates of the primary net clinical outcome (stroke/systemic embolism, major bleeding, or death) for CCI=0, 1, 2, 3 or ≥ 4 were 5.9%, 8.7%, 6.6%, 10.3% and 13.6% (Ptrend <0.001). There were no significant interactions between treatment with HDER vs warfarin and efficacy, safety, and net outcomes across the CCI groups (P-interaction >0.10 for each). CONCLUSIONS: Although increasing CCI scores are associated with worse outcomes, the efficacy, safety, and net clinical outcomes of edoxaban vs warfarin were independent of the degree of comorbidity present.

11.
N Engl J Med ; 381(21): 1995-2008, 2019 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with type 2 diabetes, inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) reduce the risk of a first hospitalization for heart failure, possibly through glucose-independent mechanisms. More data are needed regarding the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with established heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction, regardless of the presence or absence of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this phase 3, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 4744 patients with New York Heart Association class II, III, or IV heart failure and an ejection fraction of 40% or less to receive either dapagliflozin (at a dose of 10 mg once daily) or placebo, in addition to recommended therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of worsening heart failure (hospitalization or an urgent visit resulting in intravenous therapy for heart failure) or cardiovascular death. RESULTS: Over a median of 18.2 months, the primary outcome occurred in 386 of 2373 patients (16.3%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 502 of 2371 patients (21.2%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.85; P<0.001). A first worsening heart failure event occurred in 237 patients (10.0%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 326 patients (13.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.83). Death from cardiovascular causes occurred in 227 patients (9.6%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 273 patients (11.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.98); 276 patients (11.6%) and 329 patients (13.9%), respectively, died from any cause (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.97). Findings in patients with diabetes were similar to those in patients without diabetes. The frequency of adverse events related to volume depletion, renal dysfunction, and hypoglycemia did not differ between treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction, the risk of worsening heart failure or death from cardiovascular causes was lower among those who received dapagliflozin than among those who received placebo, regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. (Funded by AstraZeneca; DAPA-HF ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03036124.).


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Terapia Combinada , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Glucosídeos/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/complicações , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Clin Cardiol ; 42(11): 1100-1105, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and previous ischemic cerebrovascular events (ICVE, ischemic stroke, or transitory ischemic attack) constitute a high-risk subgroup for cardiovascular outcomes. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are correlated with cardiovascular events. Lipid transfer to HDL affects structure size and HDL subclass profile. Impairment of this transfer could influence ischemic risk seen in patients with CAD + ICVE. The objective was to evaluate the HDL ability to receive the lipids in patients with CAD with or without ICVE. METHODS: Patients with CAD + ICVE (n = 60) and patients with CAD only (n = 60) were matched by age, sex, acute coronary syndromes (ACS) event type, and time elapsed between the ACS event and inclusion in the study. Lipid transfer to HDL was evaluated by incubating donor lipid nanoparticles labeled with radioactive unesterified cholesterol (UC) and esterified cholesterol (EC), phospholipid (PL), and triglyceride (TG) with whole plasma. After the chemical precipitation of non-HDL fractions and nanoparticles, the supernatant was counted for HDL radioactivity. RESULTS: CAD + ICVE group presented with impaired lipid transfer to HDL for PL (CAD + ICVE: 21.14 ± 2.7% vs CAD: 21.67 ± 3.1%, P = .03), TG (CAD + ICVE: 4.88 ± 0.97% vs CAD: 5.63 ± 0.92%, P = .002), and UC (CAD + ICVE: 5.55 ± 1.19% vs CAD: 6.16 ± 1.14%, P = .009). Lipid transfer to HDL was similar in both groups for EC. Adjusted models showed similar results. CONCLUSION: Patients with CAD and ICVE have reduced lipid transfer to HDL compared to those with CAD only. Dysfunctional HDL may account for the higher incidence of ischemic outcomes observed in this population.

13.
N Engl J Med ; 381(14): 1309-1320, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with stable coronary artery disease and diabetes mellitus who have not had a myocardial infarction or stroke are at high risk for cardiovascular events. Whether adding ticagrelor to aspirin improves outcomes in this population is unclear. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind trial, we assigned patients who were 50 years of age or older and who had stable coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus to receive either ticagrelor plus aspirin or placebo plus aspirin. Patients with previous myocardial infarction or stroke were excluded. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. The primary safety outcome was major bleeding as defined by the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) criteria. RESULTS: A total of 19,220 patients underwent randomization. The median follow-up was 39.9 months. Permanent treatment discontinuation was more frequent with ticagrelor than placebo (34.5% vs. 25.4%). The incidence of ischemic cardiovascular events (the primary efficacy outcome) was lower in the ticagrelor group than in the placebo group (7.7% vs. 8.5%; hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81 to 0.99; P = 0.04), whereas the incidence of TIMI major bleeding was higher (2.2% vs. 1.0%; hazard ratio, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.82 to 2.94; P<0.001), as was the incidence of intracranial hemorrhage (0.7% vs. 0.5%; hazard ratio, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.18 to 2.48; P = 0.005). There was no significant difference in the incidence of fatal bleeding (0.2% vs. 0.1%; hazard ratio, 1.90; 95% CI, 0.87 to 4.15; P = 0.11). The incidence of an exploratory composite outcome of irreversible harm (death from any cause, myocardial infarction, stroke, fatal bleeding, or intracranial hemorrhage) was similar in the ticagrelor group and the placebo group (10.1% vs. 10.8%; hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.02). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with stable coronary artery disease and diabetes without a history of myocardial infarction or stroke, those who received ticagrelor plus aspirin had a lower incidence of ischemic cardiovascular events but a higher incidence of major bleeding than those who received placebo plus aspirin. (Funded by AstraZeneca; THEMIS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01991795.).


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Can J Cardiol ; 35(8): 993-1001, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376910

RESUMO

The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is rising globally and in Canada. Besides being a risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease, DM is also a marker of poor prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), increasing the risks for ischemic and bleeding complications. Patients with DM have a high prevalence of multivessel coronary artery disease (MVD) and robust evidence has supported coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) as the optimal revascularization strategy in the setting of stable ischemic heart disease. In the acute scenario, particularly in patients with non-ST-segment elevation (NSTE) ACS (NSTE-ACS), there are many uncertainties regarding the best revascularization strategy. Most guidelines suggest an invasive and timely approach (that is, performing coronary catheterization within 72 hours after the onset of the NSTE-ACS) and make recommendations about choosing between percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or CABG on the basis of data for patients with stable ischemic heart disease. Recent observational and subgroup analyses suggest that CABG might be the preferential method of revascularization for patients with DM and MVD also in the NSTE-ACS setting; however, dedicated randomized clinical trials are lacking. Finally, in patients who present with an ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, the initial revascularization method of choice is generally PCI, instead of fibrinolysis or CABG, and DM status most often does not influence this decision. The management of residual MVD after primary PCI for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, however, remains controversial.

15.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(7): 680-684, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141104

RESUMO

Importance: Physician behavior in response to knowledge of a patient's CYP2C19 clopidogrel metabolizer status is unknown. Objective: To investigate the association of mandatory reporting of CYP2C19 pharmacogenomic testing, provided to investigators with no direct recommendations on how to use these results, with changes in P2Y12 inhibitor use, particularly clopidogrel, in the Randomized Trial to Compare the Safety of Rivaroxaban vs Aspirin in Addition to Either Clopidogrel or Ticagrelor in Acute Coronary Syndrome (GEMINI-ACS-1) clinical trial. Design, Setting, and Participants: The GEMINI-ACS-1 trial compared rivaroxaban, 2.5 mg twice daily, with aspirin, 100 mg daily, plus open-label clopidogrel or ticagrelor (provided), in patients with recent acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The trial included 371 clinical centers in 21 countries and 3037 patients with ACS. Data were analyzed between May 2017 and February 2019. Interventions: Investigators were required to prestipulate their planned response to CYP2C19 metabolizer status. In response to a regulatory mandate, results for all patients were reported to investigators approximately 1 week after randomization. Main Outcomes and Measures: Reasons for switching P2Y12 inhibitors and occurrence of bleeding and ischemic events were collected. Results: Of 3037 patients enrolled (mean [SD] age, 62.8 [9.0] years; 2275 men [74.9%], and 2824 white race/ethnicity [93.0%]), investigators initially treated 1704 (56.1%) with ticagrelor and 1333 (43.9%) with clopidogrel. Investigators prestipulated that they would use CYP2C19 metabolizer status to change P2Y12 inhibitor in 48.5% of genotyped clopidogrel-treated patients (n = 642 of 1324) and 5.5% of genotyped ticagrelor-treated patients (n = 93 of 1692). P2Y12 inhibitor switching for any reason occurred in 197 patients and was more common in patients treated with ticagrelor (146 of 1704 [8.6%]) compared with clopidogrel (51 of 1333 [3.8%]). Of patients initially treated with ticagrelor, only 1 (0.1% overall; 0.7% of all who switched) was switched based on CYP2C19 status. Of patients initially treated with clopidogrel, 23 (1.7% overall,;45.1% of all who switched) were switched owing to metabolizer status. Of 48 patients (3.6%) with reduced metabolizer status treated initially with clopidogrel, 15 (31.3%) were switched based on metabolizer status, including 48.1% (13 of 27) in which switching was prestipulated. Conclusions and Relevance: Physicians were evenly split on how to respond to knowledge of CYP2C19 metabolizer status in clopidogrel-treated patients. Mandatory provision of this information rarely prompted P2Y12 inhibitor switching overall, including a minority of patients with reduced metabolizer status. These findings highlight the clinical equipoise among physicians regarding use of this information and the reluctance to use information from routine genotyping in the absence of definitive clinical trial data demonstrating the efficacy of this approach. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02293395.

16.
Int J Cardiol ; 291: 36-41, 2019 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The STICH trial showed superiority of coronary artery bypass plus medical treatment (CABG) over medical treatment alone (MED) in patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤35%. In previous publications, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) prior to CABG was associated with worse prognosis. OBJECTIVES: The main purpose of this study was to analyse if prior PCI influenced outcomes in STICH. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients in the STICH trial (n = 1212), followed for a median time of 9.8 years, were included in the present analyses. In the total population, 156 had a prior PCI (74 and 82, respectively, in the MED and CABG groups). In those with vs. without prior PCI, the adjusted hazard-ratios (aHRs) were 0.92 (95% CI = 0.74-1.15) for all-cause mortality, 0.85 (95% CI = 0.64-1.11) for CV mortality, and 1.43 (95% CI = 1.15-1.77) for CV hospitalization. In the group randomized to CABG without prior PCI, the aHRs were 0.82 (95% CI = 0.70-0.95) for all-cause mortality, 0.75 (95% CI = 0.62-0.90) for CV mortality and 0.67 (95% CI = 0.56-0.80) for CV hospitalization. In the group randomized to CABG with prior PCI, the aHRs were 0.76 (95% CI = 0.50-1.15) for all-cause mortality, 0.81 (95% CI = 0.49-1.36) for CV mortality and 0.61 (95% CI = 0.41-0.90) for CV hospitalization. There was no evidence of interaction between randomized treatment and prior PCI for any endpoint (all adjusted p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: In the STICH trial, prior PCI did not affect the outcomes of patients whether they were treated medically or surgically, and the superiority of CABG over MED remained unchanged regardless of prior PCI. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov; Identifier: NCT00023595.

17.
Circulation ; 139(22): 2516-2527, 2019 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sodium glucose transporter-2 inhibitors reduce the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Because of their baseline risk, patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI) may derive even greater benefit from sodium glucose transporter-2 inhibitor therapy. METHODS: DECLARE-TIMI 58 (Dapagliflozin Effect on Cardiovascular Events-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 58) randomized 17 160 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and either established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (n=6974) or multiple risk factors (n=10 186) to dapagliflozin versus placebo. The 2 primary end points were composite of MACE (cardiovascular death, MI, or ischemic stroke) and the composite of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure. Those with previous MI (n=3584) made up a prespecified subgroup of interest. RESULTS: In patients with previous MI (n=3584), dapagliflozin reduced the relative risk of MACE by 16% and the absolute risk by 2.6% (15.2% versus 17.8%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.84; 95% CI, 0.72-0.99; P=0.039), whereas there was no effect in patients without previous MI (7.1% versus 7.1%; HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.88-1.13; P=0.97; P for interaction for relative difference=0.11; P for interaction for absolute risk difference=0.048), including in patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease but no history of MI (12.6% versus 12.8%; HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.81-1.19). There seemed to be a greater benefit for MACE within 2 years after the last acute event ( P for interaction trend=0.007). The relative risk reductions in cardiovascular death/hospitalization for heart failure were more similar, but the absolute risk reductions tended to be greater: 1.9% (8.6% versus 10.5%; HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.65-1.00; P=0.046) and 0.6% (3.9% versus 4.5%; HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.72-1.00; P=0.055) in patients with and without previous MI, respectively ( P interaction for relative difference=0.69; P interaction for absolute risk difference=0.010). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and previous MI are at high risk of MACE and cardiovascular death/hospitalization for heart failure. Dapagliflozin appears to robustly reduce the risk of both composite outcomes in these patients. Future studies should aim to confirm the large clinical benefits with sodium glucose transporter-2 inhibitors we observed in patients with previous MI. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01730534.

18.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(22): 2832-2842, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have demonstrated that high mechanical index (MI) impulses from a diagnostic ultrasound transducer during an intravenous microbubble infusion (sonothrombolysis) can restore epicardial and microvascular flow in acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). OBJECTIVES: This study tested the clinical effectiveness of sonothrombolysis in patients with STEMI. METHODS: Patients with their first STEMI were prospectively randomized to either diagnostic ultrasound-guided high MI impulses during an intravenous Definity (Lantheus Medical Imaging, North Billerica, Massachusetts) infusion before, and following, emergent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), or to a control group that received PCI only (n = 50 in each group). A reference first STEMI group (n = 203) who arrived outside the randomization window was also analyzed. Angiographic recanalization before PCI, ST-segment resolution, infarct size by magnetic resonance imaging, and systolic function (LVEF) at 6 months were compared. RESULTS: ST-segment resolution occurred in 16 (32%) high MI PCI versus 2 (4%) PCI-only patients before PCI, and angiographic recanalization was 48% in high MI/PCI versus 20% in PCI only and 21% in the reference group (p < 0.001). Infarct size was reduced (29 ± 22 g high MI/PCI vs. 40 ± 20 g PCI only; p = 0.026). LVEF was not different between groups before treatment (44 ± 11% vs. 43 ± 10%), but increased immediately after PCI in the high MI/PCI group (p = 0.03), and remained higher at 6 months (p = 0.015). Need for implantable defibrillator (LVEF ≤30%) was reduced in the high MI/PCI group (5% vs. 18% PCI only; p = 0.045). CONCLUSIONS: Sonothrombolysis added to PCI improves recanalization rates and reduces infarct size, resulting in sustained improvements in systolic function after STEMI. (Therapeutic Use of Ultrasound in Acute Coronary Artery Disease; NCT02410330).

19.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 48(2): 217-224, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879169

RESUMO

Recent reports have suggested that aspirin effect might be influenced by bodyweight, with decreased efficacy in heavier individuals. We investigated the influence of bodyweight on aspirin pharmacodynamics in two independent datasets of patients taking non-enteric coated aspirin 100 mg QD for coronary artery disease (CAD). In the first dataset, 368 patients had their platelet aggregation assessed using VerifyNow Aspirin and measured in Aspirin Reaction Units (ARU). In the second dataset, 70 patients had serum thromboxane B2 (TXB2) dosage assessed by an ELISA assay and measured in pg/mL. Platelet aggregation was independently associated with bodyweight, with 8.41 (95% CI 1.86-14.97; adjusted p-value = 0.012) increase in ARU for every 10 kg. Furthermore, the rate of non-response to aspirin (defined as ARU ≥ 550) was significantly associated with increased bodyweight (adjusted p-value = 0.007), with OR = 1.23 (95% CI 1.06-1.42) for every 10 kg. Similar results were found considering body mass index (in kg/m2), with 15.5 (95% CI 5.0 to 25.9; adjusted p-value = 0.004) increase in ARU for every 10 kg and non-response OR = 1.43 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.81, adjusted p-value = 0.003) for every 5 kg/m2. Moreover, serum TXB2 was higher in patients weighting more than 70 kg (222.6 ± 62.9 versus 194.9 ± 61.9 pg/mL; adjusted p-value = 0.018). In two different datasets of patients with CAD on non-enteric coated aspirin 100 mg QD, increased bodyweight was independently associated with impaired response to aspirin.


Assuntos
Aspirina/farmacocinética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Bases de Dados Factuais , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Agregação Plaquetária/fisiologia , Tromboxano B2/administração & dosagem
20.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(22): 2819-2828, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of ticagrelor in the long-term post-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with fibrinolytic therapy remains uncertain. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ticagrelor when compared with clopidogrel in STEMI patients treated with fibrinolytic therapy. METHODS: This international, multicenter, randomized, open-label with blinded endpoint adjudication trial enrolled 3,799 patients (age <75 years) with STEMI receiving fibrinolytic therapy. Patients were randomized to ticagrelor (180-mg loading dose, 90 mg twice daily thereafter) or clopidogrel (300- to 600-mg loading dose, 75 mg daily thereafter). The key outcomes were cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, or stroke, and the same composite outcome with the addition of severe recurrent ischemia, transient ischemic attack, or other arterial thrombotic events at 12 months. RESULTS: The combined outcome of cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, or stroke occurred in 129 of 1,913 patients (6.7%) receiving ticagrelor and in 137 of 1,886 patients (7.3%) receiving clopidogrel (hazard ratio: 0.93; 95% confidence interval: 0.73 to 1.18; p = 0.53). The composite of cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, severe recurrent ischemia, transient ischemic attack, or other arterial thrombotic events occurred in 153 of 1,913 patients (8.0%) treated with ticagrelor and in 171 of 1,886 patients (9.1%) receiving clopidogrel (hazard ratio: 0.88; 95% confidence interval: 0.71 to 1.09; p = 0.25). The rates of major, fatal, and intracranial bleeding were similar between the ticagrelor and clopidogrel groups. CONCLUSION: Among patients age <75 years with STEMI, administration of ticagrelor after fibrinolytic therapy did not significantly reduce the frequency of cardiovascular events when compared with clopidogrel. (Ticagrelor in Patients With ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Treated With Pharmacological Thrombolysis [TREAT]; NCT02298088).

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