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1.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 113(4): 768-774, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691759

RESUMO

Huge variations exist in cardiology training programs across the world. In developing (middle-income) countries, such as Brazil, to find the right balance between training improvements and social and economic conditions of the country may be a difficult task. Adding more training years or different mandatory rotations, for instance, may be costly and not have an immediate direct impact on enhancing patient care or public health. In this text, we compare the Brazilian cardiology training system with other proposals implemented in developed countries from North America and Europe, aiming to point out issues worth of future discussion. Factors such as training rotations and competencies, and program duration and distribution across the countries are presented. The number of first year cardiology trainees per inhabitants is similar between Brazil and the United States (0.24 medical residents/100,000 inhabitants in Brazil and 0.26 medical residents/100,000 inhabitants in the USA). These numbers should be analyzed considering the inequality in training program distribution across Brazil, since most centers are located in the Southeast and South regions. Having more residency programs in distant areas could improve cardiovascular care in these areas. Duration of cardiology Residency Training is shorter in Brazil (two years) in comparison with developed countries (> 3 years). Brazilian residency programs give less emphasis to scientific research and diagnostic methods. Unifying minimum training requirements across the globe would facilitate the development of international learning opportunities and even professional exchange around the world.

2.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 74: e1222, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576918

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Ischemic stroke (IS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA) history is present in 4-17% of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This subgroup of patients is at high risk for both ischemic and bleeding events. The aim of this study was to determine the role of platelet aggregability, coagulation and endogenous fibrinolysis in patients with CAD and previous IS or TIA. METHODS: A prospective case-control study that included 140 stable CAD patients divided into two groups: the CASE group (those with a previous IS/TIA, n=70) and the CONTROL group (those without a previous IS/TIA, n=70). Platelet aggregability (VerifyNow Aspirin® and VerifyNow P2Y12®), coagulation (fibrinogen and thromboelastography by Reorox®) and endogenous fibrinolysis (D dimer and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) were evaluated. RESULTS: Patients in the CASE group presented significantly higher systolic blood pressure levels (135.84±16.09 vs 123.68±16.11, p<0.01), significantly more previous CABG (25.71% vs 10%, p=0.015) and significantly higher calcium channel blocker usage (42.86% vs 24.29%, p=0.02) than those in the control group. In the adjusted models, low triglyceride values, low hemoglobin values and higher systolic blood pressure were significantly associated with previous IS/TIA (CASE group). Most importantly, platelet aggregability, coagulation and fibrinolysis tests were not independently associated with previous cerebrovascular ischemic events (CASE group). CONCLUSION: Platelet aggregability, coagulation and endogenous fibrinolysis showed similar results among CAD patients with and without previous IS/TIA. Therefore, it remains necessary to identify other targets to explain the higher bleeding risk presented by these patients.

3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(3): 357-363, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1038556

RESUMO

Abstract Background: High platelet reactivity (HPR) during therapy with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is a poor prognostic factor in acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The prevalence of HPR during ACS is greater than that reported in stable diseases. However, it is unclear whether this prevalence of HPR is a transient phenomenon or a characteristic of this high-risk population. Objective: The main objective is to compare the effects of ASA on platelet function in the initial and late phases of ACS in a single population. Secondary objectives are: correlation between the tests between themselves and the relationship between the tests and the variation of the inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and interleukin-6). Methods: Seventy patients with non-ST segment elevation (NSTE) ACS in use of 100-200 mg of ASA per day for at least 7 days were prospectively studied. Platelet function was assessed in the first 48 hours and subsequently after 3 months using four methods: VerifyNow™ (VFN), whole blood platelet aggregation (WBPA) with arachidonic acid (AA) and collagen as agonists, and platelet function analyzer (PFA). The level of statistical significance considered was < 0.05. Results: According to the more specific methods (WBPA with AA and VFN), the incidence of HPR was significantly higher in the early phase than in the late phase: WBPA with AA: 31% versus 13%, p = 0.015; VFN: 32% versus 16%, p = 0.049. The other methods tested, which were less specific for ASA, did not show significant differences between phases. The correlation between the methods was weak or moderate (r ranging from 0.3 to 0.5, p < 0.05), and there were no significant associations between HPR and inflammatory markers. Conclusion: The prevalence of HPR during AAS therapy, assessed by specific methods for cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1), is higher during the acute phase than in the late phase of NSTE ACS.


Resumo Fundamento: A alta atividade plaquetária (AAP) durante a terapia com ácido acetilsalicílico (AAS) é fator de mau prognóstico nas síndromes coronarianas agudas (SCA). A prevalência de AAP durante a SCA é maior do que a relatada na doença estável. No entanto, não está claro se esta prevalência de AAP é um fenômeno transitório ou característica dessa população de alto risco. Objetivo: O objetivo principal é comparar, em uma mesma população, os efeitos do AAS sobre a função plaquetária nas fases inicial e tardia da SCA. Os objetivos secundários são: correlação entre os testes entre si e a relação entre os testes e a variação dos marcadores inflamatórios (proteína C reativa e interleucina-6). Métodos: Foram estudados prospectivamente 70 pacientes com SCA sem elevação de ST (SCSST) em uso de 100 a 200 mg de AAS por dia por pelo menos 7 dias. A função plaquetária foi avaliada nas primeiras 48 horas e 3 meses após por quatro métodos: VerifyNow™ (VFN), agregometria de sangue total (AST) com ácido araquidônico (AA) e colágeno como agonistas, e analisador de função plaquetária (PFA). O nível de significância estatístico considerado foi < 0,05. Resultados: A média de idade foi de 65 ±9,7 anos e 54% da população eram do sexo feminino. De acordo com os métodos mais específicos (AST com AA e VFN), a incidência de AAP foi significativamente maior na fase inicial, em relação à tardia: AST com AA 31% versus 13%, p = 0,015; VFN 32% versus 16%, p = 0,049. Os outros métodos testados, menos específicos para o AAS, não mostraram diferenças significativas entre as fases. A correlação entre os métodos foi fraca ou moderada (r variando de 0,3 a 0,5, p < 0,05), e não houve associações significativas entre AAP e marcadores inflamatórios. Conclusão: A prevalência de AAP durante a terapia com AAS, avaliada por métodos específicos para cicloxigenase 1 (COX-1), é maior durante a fase aguda do que na tardia da SCASST.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400191

RESUMO

AIMS: Diagnostic and therapeutic tools have a significant impact on morbidity and mortality associated with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Data about ACS performance measures are scarce in Brazil, and improving its collection is an objective of the Brazilian Registry in Acute Coronary syndromEs (BRACE). METHODS AND RESULTS: BRACE is a cross-sectional, observational epidemiological registry of ACS patients. Stratified "cluster sampling" methodology was adopted to obtain a representative picture of ACS. A performance score (PS) varying from 0 to 100 was developed to compare studied parameters. Performance measures alone and the PS were compared between institutions, and the relationship between the PS and outcomes was evaluated. 1,150 patients, median age 63 years, 64% male, from 72 hospitals were included in the registry. The mean PS for the overall population was 65.9% ± 20.1%. Teaching institutions had a significantly higher PS (71.4% ± 16.9%) compared to non-teaching hospitals (63.4% ± 21%; p <0.001). Overall in-hospital mortality was 5.2%, and the variables that correlated independently with in-hospital mortality included: PS - per point increase (OR=0.97, 95% CI 0.95-0.98, p<0.001), age - per year (OR=1.06, 95% CI 1.03-1.09, p<0.001), chronic kidney disease (OR=3.12, 95% CI 1.08-9.00, p=0.036), and prior angioplasty (OR=0.25, 95% CI 0.07-0.84, p=0.025). CONCLUSION: In BRACE, adoption of evidence-based therapies for ACS, as measured by the performance score, was independently associated with lower in-hospital mortality. The use of diagnostic tools and therapeutic approaches for the management of ACS is less than ideal in Brazil, with high variability especially among different regions of the country.

5.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 113(3): 357-363, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High platelet reactivity (HPR) during therapy with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is a poor prognostic factor in acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The prevalence of HPR during ACS is greater than that reported in stable diseases. However, it is unclear whether this prevalence of HPR is a transient phenomenon or a characteristic of this high-risk population. OBJECTIVE: The main objective is to compare the effects of ASA on platelet function in the initial and late phases of ACS in a single population. Secondary objectives are: correlation between the tests between themselves and the relationship between the tests and the variation of the inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and interleukin-6). METHODS: Seventy patients with non-ST segment elevation (NSTE) ACS in use of 100-200 mg of ASA per day for at least 7 days were prospectively studied. Platelet function was assessed in the first 48 hours and subsequently after 3 months using four methods: VerifyNow™ (VFN), whole blood platelet aggregation (WBPA) with arachidonic acid (AA) and collagen as agonists, and platelet function analyzer (PFA). The level of statistical significance considered was < 0.05. RESULTS: According to the more specific methods (WBPA with AA and VFN), the incidence of HPR was significantly higher in the early phase than in the late phase: WBPA with AA: 31% versus 13%, p = 0.015; VFN: 32% versus 16%, p = 0.049. The other methods tested, which were less specific for ASA, did not show significant differences between phases. The correlation between the methods was weak or moderate (r ranging from 0.3 to 0.5, p < 0.05), and there were no significant associations between HPR and inflammatory markers. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HPR during AAS therapy, assessed by specific methods for cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1), is higher during the acute phase than in the late phase of NSTE ACS.

6.
Clinics ; 74: e1222, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1039547

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Ischemic stroke (IS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA) history is present in 4-17% of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This subgroup of patients is at high risk for both ischemic and bleeding events. The aim of this study was to determine the role of platelet aggregability, coagulation and endogenous fibrinolysis in patients with CAD and previous IS or TIA. METHODS: A prospective case-control study that included 140 stable CAD patients divided into two groups: the CASE group (those with a previous IS/TIA, n=70) and the CONTROL group (those without a previous IS/TIA, n=70). Platelet aggregability (VerifyNow Aspirin® and VerifyNow P2Y12®), coagulation (fibrinogen and thromboelastography by Reorox®) and endogenous fibrinolysis (D dimer and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) were evaluated. RESULTS: Patients in the CASE group presented significantly higher systolic blood pressure levels (135.84±16.09 vs 123.68±16.11, p<0.01), significantly more previous CABG (25.71% vs 10%, p=0.015) and significantly higher calcium channel blocker usage (42.86% vs 24.29%, p=0.02) than those in the control group. In the adjusted models, low triglyceride values, low hemoglobin values and higher systolic blood pressure were significantly associated with previous IS/TIA (CASE group). Most importantly, platelet aggregability, coagulation and fibrinolysis tests were not independently associated with previous cerebrovascular ischemic events (CASE group). CONCLUSION: Platelet aggregability, coagulation and endogenous fibrinolysis showed similar results among CAD patients with and without previous IS/TIA. Therefore, it remains necessary to identify other targets to explain the higher bleeding risk presented by these patients.

7.
Lancet ; 392(10161): 2269-2279, 2018 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30293771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a direct relationship between bodyweight and risk of diabetes. Lorcaserin, a selective serotonin 2C receptor agonist that suppresses appetite, has been shown to facilitate sustained weight loss in obese or overweight patients. We aimed to evaluate the long-term effects of lorcaserin on diabetes prevention and remission. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial done in eight countries, we recruited overweight or obese patients (body-mass index ≥27 kg/m2) with or at high risk for atherosclerotic vascular disease. Eligible patients were aged 40 years or older; patients at high risk for atherosclerotic vascular disease had to be aged 50 years or older with diabetes and at least one other risk factor. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either lorcaserin (10 mg twice daily) or matching placebo. Additionally, all patients had access to a standardised weight management programme based on lifestyle modification. The prespecified primary metabolic efficacy endpoint of time to incident diabetes was assessed in patients with prediabetes at baseline. The prespecified secondary outcomes for efficacy were incident diabetes in all patients without diabetes, achievement of normoglycaemia in patients with prediabetes, and change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in patients with diabetes. Hypoglycaemia was a prespecified safety outcome. Analysis was by intention to treat, using Cox proportional hazard models for time-to-event analyses. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02019264. FINDINGS: Between Feb 7, 2014, and Nov 20, 2015, 12 000 patients were randomly assigned to lorcaserin or placebo (6000 patients in each group) and followed up for a median of 3·3 years (IQR 3·0-3·5). At baseline, 6816 patients (56·8%) had diabetes, 3991 (33·3%) prediabetes, and 1193 (9·9%) normoglycaemia. At 1 year, patients treated with lorcaserin had a net weight loss beyond placebo of 2·6 kg (95% CI 2·3-2·9) for those with diabetes, 2·8 kg (2·5-3·2) for those with prediabetes, and 3·3 kg (2·6-4·0) for those with normoglycaemia (p<0·0001 for all analyses). Lorcaserin reduced the risk of incident diabetes by 19% in patients with prediabetes (172 [8·5%] of 2015 vs 204 [10·3%] of 1976; hazard ratio 0·81, 95% CI 0·66-0·99; p=0·038) and by 23% in patients without diabetes (174 [6·7%] of 2615 vs 215 [8·4%] of 2569; 0·77, 0·63-0·94; p=0·012). Lorcaserin resulted in a non-significant increase in the rate of achievement of normoglycaemia in patients with prediabetes (185 [9·2%] vs 151 [7·6%]; 1·20, 0·97-1·49; p=0·093). In patients with diabetes, lorcaserin resulted in a reduction of 0·33% (95% CI 0·29-0·38; p<0·0001) in HbA1c compared with placebo at 1 year from a mean baseline of 53 mmol/mol (7·0%). In patients with diabetes at baseline, severe hypoglycaemia with serious complications was rare, but more common with lorcaserin (12 [0·4%] vs four [0·1%] events; p=0·054). INTERPRETATION: Lorcaserin decreases risk for incident diabetes, induces remission of hyperglycaemia, and reduces the risk of microvascular complications in obese and overweight patients, supporting the role of lorcaserin as an adjunct to lifestyle modification for chronic management of weight and metabolic health. FUNDING: Eisai.


Assuntos
Depressores do Apetite/uso terapêutico , Benzazepinas/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/complicações , Idoso , Aterosclerose/complicações , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/complicações , Estado Pré-Diabético/complicações , Estado Pré-Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Pré-Diabético/prevenção & controle , Indução de Remissão , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 72(13): 1466-1475, 2018 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30236308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited information about the use of antithrombotic therapies and outcomes of Latin American (LatAm) subjects with atrial fibrillation. The global ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 (Effective Anticoagulation With Factor Xa Next Generation Atrial Fibrillation-Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction 48) trial compared the efficacy and safety of edoxaban versus warfarin over a median follow-up of 2.8 years. OBJECTIVES: The authors aimed to compare adjusted outcomes in Latin America versus outside Latin America and to compare outcomes stratified by anticoagulant treatment and region. METHODS: The authors analyzed clinical characteristics and outcomes, adjusted for baseline characteristics, the Human Development Index, and randomized treatment of 2,661 LatAm versus 18,444 non-Latin American subjects (nLAS). RESULTS: When compared with nLAS, LatAm subjects had a similar overall risk for stroke. After multivariate adjustment, the risks of stroke/systemic embolism (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.19; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.96 to 1.47; p = 0.11) and major bleeding (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.89 to 1.36; p = 0.39) were similar in LatAm and nLAS. LatAm subjects were at higher adjusted risk of death (HR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.30 to 1.69; p < 0.001) and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) (HR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.00 to 2.41; p = 0.049). In both regions, when compared with warfarin, edoxaban reduced stroke/systemic embolism (HR: 0.64 and 0.91 in LatAm and nLAS, respectively), major bleeding (HR: 0.71 and 0.82), and cardiovascular death (HR: 0.78 and 0.88), without evidence of regional heterogeneity (pint = 0.41, 0.50, and 0.70, respectively). There was a greater reduction in hemorrhagic stroke with edoxaban in LatAm (HR: 0.16) than in nLAS (HR: 0.64; pint = 0.037). CONCLUSIONS: After multivariable adjustment, LatAm subjects with atrial fibrillation had higher rates of intracranial hemorrhage and death than nLAS. Outcomes with higher-dose edoxaban versus warfarin were at least as favorable in LatAm subjects as in nLAS, with an even greater reduction in hemorrhagic stroke seen in LatAm.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Embolia/epidemiologia , Embolia/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , América Latina/epidemiologia , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
13.
PLoS One ; 12(2): e0173061, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28235084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gln27Glu (rs1042714) polymorphism of the ß2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) has been association with cardiovascular functionality in healthy subjects. However, it is unknown whether the presence of the ADRB2 Gln27Glu polymorphism influences neurovascular responses during exercise in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We tested the hypothesis that patients with ACS homozygous for the Gln allele would have increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) responses and decreased forearm vascular conductance (FVC) responses during exercise compared with patients carrying the Glu allele (Gln27Glu and Glu27Glu). In addition, exercise training would restore these responses in Gln27Gln patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-days after an ischemic event, 61 patients with ACS without ventricular dysfunction were divided into 2 groups: (1) Gln27Gln (n = 35, 53±1years) and (2) Gln27Glu+Glu27Glu (n = 26, 52±2years). MSNA was directly measured using the microneurography technique, blood pressure (BP) was measured with an automatic oscillometric device, and blood flow was measured using venous occlusion plethysmography. MSNA, mean BP, and FVC were evaluated at rest and during a 3-min handgrip exercise. The MSNA (P = 0.02) and mean BP (P = 0.04) responses during exercise were higher in the Gln27Gln patients compared with that in the Gln27Glu+Glu27Glu patients. No differences were found in FVC. Two months of exercise training significantly decreased the MSNA levels at baseline (P = 0.001) and in their response during exercise (P = 0.02) in Gln27Gln patients, but caused no changes in Gln27Glu+Glu27Glu patients. Exercise training increased FVC responses in Gln27Glu+Glu27Glu patients (P = 0.03), but not in Gln27Gln patients. CONCLUSION: The exaggerated MSNA and mean BP responses during exercise suggest an increased cardiovascular risk in patients with ACS and Gln27Gln polymorphism. Exercise training emerges as an important strategy for restoring this reflex control. Gln27Glu polymorphism of ADRB2 influences exercise-induced vascular adaptation in patients with ACS.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/genética , Antebraço/irrigação sanguínea , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/genética , Sistema Vasomotor , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Terapia por Exercício , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Força da Mão , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contração Muscular , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
14.
Thyroid ; 27(5): 738-745, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28095748

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The human heart expresses the type 2 deiodinase (D2) that activates thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3). At the same time, the inactivating type 3 deiodinase (D3) has been found in a rat model of right ventricular hypertrophy. It is not known whether the human myocardium metabolizes thyroid hormone. This study examined myocardial thyroid hormone metabolism in patients with aortic valve stenosis (AS) undergoing aortic valve replacement and in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. METHODS: Myocardial thyroid hormone metabolism was assessed by analyzing the difference in serum thyroid hormone levels between the aortic root (incoming blood) and the coronary sinus (outgoing blood) of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. A total of 23 patients with AS and 35 patients with CAD were included. Patients received a pre-surgical echocardiogram, and pre-, during and post-surgical thyroid hormone serum levels were collected in the myocardial and peripheral circulations. RESULTS: Patients with AS exhibited the expected left ventricle (LV) hypertrophy (i.e., 20-30% increase in LV posterior wall and interventricular septum thickness and ∼10% increase in AS in LV diastolic diameter). Immediately before cardiopulmonary bypass, blood flowing through the AS myocardium exhibited a 4.6% reduction in T3 and 6.9% increase in rT3 levels, decreasing the serum T3/rT3 ratio by 9.6%. T4 and thyrotropin serum levels remained similar between the aortic root and coronary sinus. In contrast, no myocardial thyroid hormone metabolism was observed in CAD patients. Notably, the AS myocardium lost the ability to inactivate thyroid hormone after cardiopulmonary bypass, possibly due to myocardial stunning. CONCLUSIONS: There is accelerated thyroid hormone inactivation in the AS myocardium, which is likely the result of D3 expression. No evidence to suggest thyroid hormone activation in the myocardium was obtained in the present study.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue , Idoso , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/patologia
15.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 54(6): 726-737, 2016.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27819783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence of the clinical characteristics, treatment and outcomes among Latin American (LA) patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is scarce. METHODS: ACCESS, international prospective multicenter registry to evaluate risk stratification, management and outcomes in ACS (unstable angina or non-ST elevation myocardial infarction [UA/NSTEMI] or ST elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI]) in developing countries. Primary endpoint: all-cause death at 1 year; all-cause mortality within 30 days was also recorded, Patients with acute ischemic symptoms within 24 hours of symptoms onset and electrocardiographic evidence of ischemia were enrolled. Coronary artery disease was proved by positive invasive or non-invasive tests. RESULTS: Between 2007 and 2008, 4436 patients with ACS (2562 UA/NSTEMI and 2374 STEMI) from eight LA countries. On admission, acute symptoms were identified in 79 % and 90%, respectively. Both groups had a long delay from symptom onset to hospital arrival. Low access to pharmacological (29%) and mechanical reperfusion (32%) were observed. At admission, rates of evidence-based treatment were low in all groups. The most common in-hospital complications were heart failure (10% UA/NSTEMI and 20% STEMI) and recurrent ischemia (8% and 11%). Mortality at 30 days was 2% and 8% at 1 year. CONCLUSION: ACCESS registry provides contemporary information of patients with ACS in LA and their hospital management and subsequent clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , América Latina/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros
16.
Am J Cardiovasc Drugs ; 16(4): 275-284, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27289472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are often prescribed to patients receiving dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). However, this class of medication, especially omeprazole, has been associated with a reduction in clopidogrel efficacy, leading many clinicians to substitute omeprazole with ranitidine. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to compare the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel before and after the addition of omeprazole or ranitidine. METHODS: We measured platelet aggregability at baseline and after 1 week of clopidogrel 75 mg daily. Subjects were then randomized in a double-blinded, double-dummy fashion to omeprazole 20 mg twice daily (bid) or ranitidine 150 mg bid. We repeated aggregability tests after 1 additional week, using VerifyNow P2Y12™ (Accumetrics; San Diego, CA, USA), depicting aggregability as percent inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA). RESULTS: We enrolled 41 patients in the omeprazole group and 44 in the ranitidine group. IPA was significantly decreased after the addition of omeprazole to clopidogrel (from 26.3 ± 32.9 to 17.4 ± 33.1 %; p = 0.025), with no statistical significant changes observed in the ranitidine group (from 32.6 ± 28.9 to 30.1 ± 31.3 %; p = 0.310). The comparison of IPA in both groups at the end of the follow-up showed a trend toward significance (p = 0.07, 95 % confidence interval [CI] -1.19 to 26.59); after excluding homozygous patients for 2C19*2 genotype, the comparison of IPA between the groups reached statistical significance (32.7 ± 30.8 vs. 17.7 ± 33.4 %, respectively, for ranitidine and omeprazole groups; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Unlike omeprazole, ranitidine did not influence platelet aggregability response to clopidogrel. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01896557.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Interações de Medicamentos , Omeprazol/uso terapêutico , Ranitidina/uso terapêutico , Ticlopidina/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Clopidogrel , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Testes de Função Plaquetária/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Ticlopidina/uso terapêutico
17.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 26(2): 112-119, abr.-jun.2016. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-796515

RESUMO

Desde os primeiros estudos com ácido acetilsalicílico (AAS), até publicações mais recentes com novos bloqueadores de ADP e bloqueadores do receptor de trombina, pode-se afirmar que o conhecimento sobre o tratamento antiplaquetário nas síndromes coronarianas agudas (SCA) evoluiu de forma exponencial. Atualmente, a dupla antiagregação (DAP) é parte essencial do tratamento das SCA em todas as suas formas de apresentação, sendorecomendada por no mínimo um ano em todos os pacientes, independentemente da estratégia de revascularização utilizada, desde que não haja contraindicações ao seu uso. Ao mesmo tempo que se demonstrava eficácia crescente com o uso de antitrombóticosde forma geral (incluindo-se os antiplaquetários), cada vez mais a comunidade científica se conscientizava da importância do sangramento que ocorria com o uso desses medicamentos e negava, ao menos parcialmente, os benefícios obtidos. Assim sendo, os maiores desafios nos tempos atuais em termos de terapêutica antitrombótica nas SCA voltam-se para o desenvolvimento de estratégias terapêuticas personalizadas individualmente, que possam ter o máximo possível de benefício emtermos de eventos isquêmicos, com o mínimo possível de sangramento. Isso inclui não apenas uma análise cuidadosa dos medicamentos a serem associados, mas também do tempo de sua utilização. Tais estratégias constituem o foco principal da presente revisão...


Since the first studies with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) up to more recent publications with new blockers of ADP and anti-thrombin receptor blockers, it is fair to say that knowledge about antiplatelet therapy in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) has grown exponentially. Currently, dual antiplatelet (DAP) therapy is an essential part of the treatment in all presentation forms of ACS, and it is recommended for at least one year for all patients, regardless of the revascularization strategy used, provided there are no contraindications to its use. Alongside the demonstration of increased efficacy of antithrombotics in general (including antiplatelet drugs), the scientific community became increasingly aware of the impactof bleeding that occurred with the use of these drugs, and that were undermining, at least partially, the benefits obtained.Thus, the main challenge today regarding anti-thrombotic treatment in ACS is the development of tailored therapeutic strategies that can produce the greatest possible benefit in terms of ischemic events, with minimal bleeding. This includes not only a careful analysisof the drugs to be associated, but also the duration of their use. Such strategies are the focus of the present review...


Assuntos
Humanos , Doença Aguda , Doença Crônica , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/administração & dosagem , Fibrinolíticos , Hemorragia/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 87(2): 222-9, 2016 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23592528

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate if statin therapy prior to elective coronary stent implantation (CSI) reduces the plasma levels of markers of inflammation and of myocardial necrosis in low-risk stable coronary artery disease patients (CAD). BACKGROUND: The elevation of markers of inflammation and of myocardial necrosis after percutaneous coronary intervention may interfere with clinical outcome. Among acute coronary syndrome patients, statins improve clinical outcomes when used before CSI-mostly due to reduction of CSI-related myocardial infarction. However, little is known concerning preprocedural statin therapy on the reduction of these markers in stable patients at low-risk. METHODS: In this prospective, observational study, 100 patients (n = 50 on statin therapy vs. n = 50 not on statin) with stable coronary artery disease underwent elective CSI. Inflammatory (C-reactive protein [CRP], interleukin [IL]-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and matrix metalloproteinase-9) and myocardial necrosis markers (troponin I and CK-MB) were determined before and 24 hr after CSI. RESULTS: All patients presented a significant increase of CRP and IL-6 after CSI. However, this increase was attenuated in patients on statin therapy prior to CSI than those without statin therapy: 75% vs. 150% (P < 0.001) and 192% vs. 300% (P < 0.01). The other pro-inflammatory markers were similar for both sets of patients. Troponin I and CK-MB did not change after CSI regardless of previous statin therapy or not. CONCLUSIONS: Pretreatment with statin attenuates procedural inflammation, denoted by markedly lower increases of CRP and IL-6 levels, in elective CSI within low-risk stable CAD patients. Periprocedural myocardial injury was irrelevant and was not affected by preprocedural statin therapy in this population.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/instrumentação , Stents , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Creatina Quinase Forma MB/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/patologia , Necrose , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Troponina I/sangue
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