Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 51
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Biomaterials ; 239: 119833, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062479

RESUMO

Engineering a pro-regenerative immune response following scaffold implantation is integral to functional tissue regeneration. The immune response to implanted biomaterials is determined by multiple factors, including biophysical cues such as material stiffness, topography and particle size. In this study we developed an immune modulating scaffold for bone defect healing containing bone mimetic nano hydroxyapatite particles (BMnP). We first demonstrate that, in contrast to commercially available micron-sized hydroxyapatite particles, in-house generated BMnP preferentially polarize human macrophages towards an M2 phenotype, activate the transcription factor cMaf and specifically enhance production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. Furthermore, nano-particle treated macrophages enhance mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) osteogenesis in vitro and this occurs in an IL-10 dependent manner, demonstrating a direct pro-osteogenic role for this cytokine. BMnPs were also capable of driving pro-angiogenic responses in human macrophages and HUVECs. Characterization of immune cell subsets following incorporation of functionalized scaffolds into a rat femoral defect model revealed a similar profile, with micron-sized hydroxyapatite functionalized scaffolds eliciting pro-inflammatory responses characterized by infiltrating T cells and elevated expression of M1 macrophages markers compared to BMnP functionalized scaffolds which promoted M2 macrophage polarization, tissue vascularization and increased bone volume. Taken together these results demonstrate that nano-sized Hydroxyapatite has immunomodulatory potential and is capable of directing anti-inflammatory innate immune-mediated responses that are associated with tissue repair and regeneration.

2.
APL Bioeng ; 3(4): 041501, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650097

RESUMO

The human heart possesses minimal regenerative potential, which can often lead to chronic heart failure following myocardial infarction. Despite the successes of assistive support devices and pharmacological therapies, only a whole heart transplantation can sufficiently address heart failure. Engineered scaffolds, implantable patches, and injectable hydrogels are among the most promising solutions to restore cardiac function and coax regeneration; however, current biomaterials have yet to achieve ideal tissue regeneration and adequate integration due a mismatch of material physicochemical properties. Conductive fillers such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, metallic nanoparticles, and MXenes and conjugated polymers such as polyaniline, polypyrrole, and poly(3,4-ethylendioxythiophene) can possibly achieve optimal electrical conductivities for cardiac applications with appropriate suitability for tissue engineering approaches. Many studies have focused on the use of these materials in multiple fields, with promising effects on the regeneration of electrically active biological tissues such as orthopedic, neural, and cardiac tissue. In this review, we critically discuss the role of heart electrophysiology and the rationale toward the use of electroconductive biomaterials for cardiac tissue engineering. We present the emerging applications of these smart materials to create supportive platforms and discuss the crucial role that electrical stimulation has been shown to exert in maturation of cardiac progenitor cells.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11738, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409846

RESUMO

Considerable attention has been drawn to the lead halide perovskites (LHPs) because of their outstanding optoelectronic characteristics. LHP nanosheets (NSs) grown from single crystalline lead halide possess advantages in device applications as they provide the possibility for control over morphology, composition, and crystallinity. Here, free-standing lead bromide (PbBr2) single-crystalline NSs with sizes up to one centimeter are synthesized from solution. These NSs can be converted to LHP while maintaining the NS morphology. We demonstrate that these perovskite NSs can be processed directly for fabrication of photodetector and laser arrays on a large scale. This strategy will allow high-yield synthesis of large-size perovskite NSs for functional devices in an integrated photonics platform.

4.
Nanoscale ; 11(33): 15550-15560, 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393511

RESUMO

Liquid-phase exfoliation (LPE) has been shown to be capable of producing large quantities of high-quality dispersions suitable for processing into subsequent applications. LPE typically requires surfactants for aqueous dispersions or organic solvents with high boiling point. However, they have major drawbacks such as toxicity, aggregation during solvent evaporation or the presence of residues. Here, dispersions of molybdenum disulfide in acetone are prepared and show much higher concentration and stability than predicted by Hansen parameter analysis. Aiming to understand these enhanced properties, the nanosheets were characterised using UV-visible spectroscopy, zeta potential measurements, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning transmission microscopy combined with spatially-resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy. Also, the performance of the MoS2 nanosheets exfoliated in acetone was compared to that of those exfoliated in isopropanol as a catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction. The conclusion from the chemical characterisation was that MoS2 nanosheets exfoliated in acetone have an oxygen edge functionalisation, in the form of molybdenum oxides, changing its interaction with solvents and explaining the observed high-quality and stability of the resulting dispersion in a low boiling point solvent. Exfoliation in acetone could potentially be applied as a pretreatment to modify the solubility of MoS2 by edge functionalisation.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1933, 2019 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036866

RESUMO

One weakness of batteries is the rapid falloff in charge-storage capacity with increasing charge/discharge rate. Rate performance is related to the timescales associated with charge/ionic motion in both electrode and electrolyte. However, no general fittable model exists to link capacity-rate data to electrode/electrolyte properties. Here we demonstrate an equation which can fit capacity versus rate data, outputting three parameters which fully describe rate performance. Most important is the characteristic time associated with charge/discharge which can be linked by a second equation to physical electrode/electrolyte parameters via various rate-limiting processes. We fit these equations to ~200 data sets, deriving parameters such as diffusion coefficients or electrolyte conductivities. It is possible to show which rate-limiting processes are dominant in a given situation, facilitating rational design and cell optimisation. In addition, this model predicts the upper speed limit for lithium/sodium ion batteries, yielding a value that is consistent with the fastest electrodes in the literature.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1795, 2019 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996224

RESUMO

Direct printing of functional inks is critical for applications in diverse areas including electrochemical energy storage, smart electronics and healthcare. However, the available printable ink formulations are far from ideal. Either surfactants/additives are typically involved or the ink concentration is low, which add complexity to the manufacturing and compromises the printing resolution. Here, we demonstrate two types of two-dimensional titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx) MXene inks, aqueous and organic in the absence of any additive or binary-solvent systems, for extrusion printing and inkjet printing, respectively. We show examples of all-MXene-printed structures, such as micro-supercapacitors, conductive tracks and ohmic resistors on untreated plastic and paper substrates, with high printing resolution and spatial uniformity. The volumetric capacitance and energy density of the all-MXene-printed micro-supercapacitors are orders of magnitude greater than existing inkjet/extrusion-printed active materials. The versatile direct-ink-printing technique highlights the promise of additive-free MXene inks for scalable fabrication of easy-to-integrate components of printable electronics.

7.
Biomaterials ; 197: 405-416, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30708184

RESUMO

The bone infection osteomyelitis (typically by Staphylococcus aureus) usually requires a multistep procedure of surgical debridement, long-term systemic high-dose antibiotics, and - for larger defects - bone grafting. This, combined with the alarming rise in antibiotic resistance, necessitates development of alternative approaches. Herein, we describe a one-step treatment for osteomyelitis that combines local, controlled release of non-antibiotic antibacterials with a regenerative collagen-based scaffold. To maximise efficacy, we utilised bioactive glass, an established osteoconductive material with immense capacity for bone repair, as a delivery platform for copper ions (proven antibacterial, angiogenic, and osteogenic properties). Multifunctional collagen-copper-doped bioactive glass scaffolds (CuBG-CS) were fabricated with favourable microarchitectural and mechanical properties (up to 1.9-fold increase in compressive modulus over CS) within the ideal range for bone tissue engineering. Scaffolds demonstrated antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (up to 66% inhibition) whilst also enhancing osteogenesis (up to 3.6-fold increase in calcium deposition) and angiogenesis in vitro. Most significantly, when assessed in a chick embryo in vivo model, CuBG-CS not only demonstrated biocompatibility, but also a significant angiogenic and osteogenic response, consistent with in vitro studies. Collectively, these results indicate that the CuBG-CS developed here show potential as a one-step osteomyelitis treatment: reducing infection, whilst enhancing bone healing.

8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 849, 2019 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787274

RESUMO

The ever-increasing demands for advanced lithium-ion batteries have greatly stimulated the quest for robust electrodes with a high areal capacity. Producing thick electrodes from a high-performance active material would maximize this parameter. However, above a critical thickness, solution-processed films typically encounter electrical/mechanical problems, limiting the achievable areal capacity and rate performance as a result. Herein, we show that two-dimensional titanium carbide or carbonitride nanosheets, known as MXenes, can be used as a conductive binder for silicon electrodes produced by a simple and scalable slurry-casting technique without the need of any other additives. The nanosheets form a continuous metallic network, enable fast charge transport and provide good mechanical reinforcement for the thick electrode (up to 450 µm). Consequently, very high areal capacity anodes (up to 23.3 mAh cm-2) have been demonstrated.

9.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 5(9): 1800502, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30250792

RESUMO

Sulfur (S) is an attractive cathode material with advantages including high theoretical capacity and low cost. However, issues such as the lithium polysulfide shuttle effect and its insulating properties greatly limit the future applications of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Here, a viscous aqueous ink with nanoscale S uniformly decorated on the polar, metallically conductive titanium carbide MXene nanosheets (S@Ti3C2T x ) is reported to address these issues. Importantly, it is observed that the conductive Ti3C2T x mediator efficiently chemisorbs the soluble polysulfides and converts them into thiosulfate/sulfate. The in situ formed sulfate complex layer acts as a thick protective barrier, which significantly retards the shuttling of polysulfides upon cycling and improves the sulfur utilization. Consequently, the binder-free, robust, highly electrically conductive composite film exhibits outstanding electrochemical performance, including high capacities (1244-1350 mAh g-1), excellent rate handling, and impressive cycling stability (0.035-0.048% capacity loss per cycle), surpassing the best MXene-S batteries known. The fabrication of a pouch cell based on the freestanding S@Ti3C2T x film is also reported. The prototype device showcases high capacities and excellent mechanical flexibility. Considering the broad family of MXenes and their unique roles in immobilizing the polysulfides, various S@MXene composites can be similarly fabricated with promising Li+ storage capability and long lifetime performance.

10.
Ultramicroscopy ; 190: 21-29, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29660687

RESUMO

In-situ transmission electron microscopy is rapidly emerging as the premier technique for characterising materials in a dynamic state on the atomic scale. The most important aspect of in-situ studies is specimen preparation. Specimens must be electron transparent and representative of the material in its operational state, amongst others. Here, a novel fabrication technique for the facile preparation of lamellae for in-situ transmission electron microscopy experimentation using focused ion beam milling is developed. This method involves the use of rotating microgrippers during the lift-out procedure, as opposed to the traditional micromanipulator needle and platinum weld. Using rotating grippers, and a unique adhesive substance, lamellae are mounted onto a MEMS device for in-situ TEM annealing experiments. We demonstrate how this technique can be used to avoid platinum deposition as well as minimising damage to the MEMS device during the thinning process. Our technique is both a cost effective and readily implementable alternative to the current generation of preparation methods for in-situ liquid, electrical, mechanical and thermal experimentation within the TEM as well as traditional cross-sectional lamella preparation.

11.
Sci Adv ; 4(3): eaao5031, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29511736

RESUMO

Precise tunability of electronic properties of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials is a key goal of current research in this field of materials science. Chemical modification of layered transition metal dichalcogenides leads to the creation of heterostructures of low-dimensional variants of these materials. In particular, the effect of oxygen-containing plasma treatment on molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has long been thought to be detrimental to the electrical performance of the material. We show that the mobility and conductivity of MoS2 can be precisely controlled and improved by systematic exposure to oxygen/argon plasma and characterize the material using advanced spectroscopy and microscopy. Through complementary theoretical modeling, which confirms conductivity enhancement, we infer the role of a transient 2D substoichiometric phase of molybdenum trioxide (2D-MoO x ) in modulating the electronic behavior of the material. Deduction of the beneficial role of MoO x will serve to open the field to new approaches with regard to the tunability of 2D semiconductors by their low-dimensional oxides in nano-modified heterostructures.

12.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 4179, 2018 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29520108

RESUMO

This paper describes the wet-chemistry synthesis of highly crystalline hexagonal flakes of Ni-Fe layered double hydroxide (LDH) produced at temperature as low as 100 °C. The flakes with diameter in the range of 0.5-1.5 µm and the thickness between 15 and 20 nm were obtained by homogeneous precipitation method with the use of triethanolamine (TEA) and urea. By analyzing the intermediate products, it is suggested that, differently from previous reports, a thermodynamically metastable iron oxyhydroxide and Ni-TEA complex are firstly formed at room temperature. Subsequently, when the mixture is heated to 100 °C and the pH increases due to the thermal decomposition of urea, Ni2+ and Fe3+ are slowly released and then recombine, thus leading to formation of pure, highly-crystalline Ni-Fe LDH flakes. This material showed promising results as an electrocatalyst in oxygen evolution reaction (OER) providing an overpotential value of 0.36 V.

13.
J Phys Chem B ; 122(2): 972-983, 2018 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29058914

RESUMO

The photocatalytic activity of different titanium oxide nanowires containing gold (Au@TiO2NWs), and gold-graphene (Au@TiO2NWs-graphene), was evaluated by studying the reaction of hydrogen production by water splitting under UV-vis light. The composites showed high surface areas, with values above 300 m2 per gram, even after the incorporation of gold and graphene on the surface of titanium oxide nanowires. The highest hydrogen production of Au@TiO2NWs was 1436 µmol h-1 g-1, under irradiation at 400 nm, and with a gold loading of 10 wt %. This photocatalytic activity was 11.5 times greater than that shown by the unmodified TiO2NWs. For the Au@TiO2NWs-graphene composites, the highest hydrogen amount obtained was 1689 µmol h-1 g-1, at loadings of 10 and 1 wt % of gold and graphene, respectively. The photocatalytic activity of the gold-graphene compounds was 1.2 times greater than that shown by the titanium oxide catalysts and 13.5 times higher than the bare TiO2NWs. Even at wavelengths greater than 500 nm, the compounds exhibited yields of hydrogen above 1000 µmol h-1 g-1, demonstrating the high catalytic activity of the compounds. In addition, TiO2-based materials are of great interest for energy storage and conversion devices, in particular for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. TiO2 has a significant advantage due to its low volume change (<4%) during the Li ion insertion/desertion process, short paths for fast lithium ion diffusion, and large exposed surface, offering more lithium insertion channels. However, the relatively low theoretical capacity and electrical conductivity of TiO2 greatly hamper its practical application. In this work, free-standing electrodes composed by TiO2NWs and carbon nanotubes, CNT@TiO2NWs, were used as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. As a result, the electronic conductivity and mechanical properties of the composite were greatly improved and a good cycling performance was obtained in these batteries. This research shows the potential of TiO2-based materials for the development of new catalysts for hydrogen production and energy storage systems.

14.
Acta Biomater ; 65: 426-435, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29104084

RESUMO

Total joint replacements (TJR) are costly procedures required to relieve pain and restore function in patients suffering from end-stage arthritis. Despite great progress in the development and durability of TJRs, the generation of prosthesis-associated wear particles over time leads to an inflammatory cascade which culminates in periprosthetic osteolysis. Studies suggest that wear particles drive the polarization/differentiation of immature macrophages towards a pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype rather than an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype associated with normal bone and wound healing. This, in turn, contributes to the initiation of peri-implant inflammation. As a result, modulating M1 macrophage cytokine production has been recognised as a viable therapeutic option. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of hydroxyapatite (HA) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) particles on human macrophage polarization by comparing their effect on M1/M2-associated gene expression using real-time PCR. Furthermore, using immunoblotting to assess kinase activation, we sought to identify the intracellular signalling molecules activated by PMMA/HA particles and to determine whether pharmacological blockade of these molecules impacts on macrophage phenotype and cytokine production as measured by ELISA. We report that wear particles preferentially polarize macrophages towards an M1 phenotype, an effect that is dependent on activation of the membrane proximal kinase, Syk and members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family of signalling molecules. Pre-treatment of macrophages with Syk inhibitors (R788/piceatannol) or MAPK inhibitors (SB203580 and PD98059), not only prevents M1 polarization, but also attenuates production of key pro-inflammatory mediators that have been specifically implicated in periprosthetic osteolysis and osteoclast differentiation. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: It is now well established that wear-debris particles from implanted materials drive deleterious inflammatory responses which can eventually lead to implant loosening. In this study, we provide further insight into the specific cellular pathways activated by wear particles in primary human immune cells. We demonstrate that PMMA bone cement and hydroxyapatite, a commonly used biomaterial, drive the polarization of macrophages towards an inflammatory phenotype and identify the specific signalling molecules that are activated in this process. Pre-treatment of macrophages with pharmacological inhibitors of these molecules in turn prevents macrophage polarization and dampens inflammatory cytokine production. Hence these signalling molecules represent potential therapeutic targets to treat or possibly prevent particulate induced osteolysis.


Assuntos
Polaridade Celular , Prótese Articular , Macrófagos/citologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Baço/enzimologia , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Durapatita/química , Humanos , Osteoartrite/patologia , Osteoartrite/cirurgia , Osteólise , Polimetil Metacrilato/química , Falha de Prótese , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
15.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 7614, 2017 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28790388

RESUMO

In this work, lithium titanate nanoparticles (nLTO)/single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) composite electrodes are prepared by the combination of an ultrasound irradiation and ultrasonic spray deposition methods. It was found that a mass fraction of 15% carbon nanotubes optimizes the electrochemical performance of nLTO electrodes. These present capacities as high as 173, 130, 110 and 70 mAh.g-1 at 0.1C, 1C, 10C and 100C, respectively. Moreover, after 1000 cycles at 1C, the nLTO/SWCNT composites present a capacity loss of just 9% and a Coulombic efficiency of 99.8%. Therefore, the presented methodology might be extended to other suitable active materials in order to manufacture binder free electrodes with optimal energy storage capabilities.

16.
Small ; 13(34)2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28692755

RESUMO

2D metal chalcogenide (MC) nanosheets (NS) have displayed high capacities as lithium-ion battery (LiB) anodes. Nevertheless, their complicated synthesis routes coupled with low electronic conductivity greatly limit them as promising LiB electrode material. Here, this work reports a facile single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) percolating strategy for efficiently maximizing the electrochemical performances of gallium chalcogenide (GaX, X = S or Se). Multiscaled flexible GaX NS/SWCNT heterostructures with abundant voids for Li+ diffusion are fabricated by embedding the liquid-exfoliated GaX NS matrix within a SWCNT-percolated network; the latter improves the electron transport and ion diffusion kinetics as well as maintains the mechanical flexibility. Consequently, high capacities (i.e., 838 mAh g-1 per gallium (II) sulfide (GaS) NS/SWCNT mass and 1107 mAh g-1 per GaS mass; the latter is close to the theoretical value) and good rate capabilities are achieved, which can be majorly attributed to the alloying processes of disordered Ga formed after the first irreversible GaX conversion reaction, as monitored by in situ X-ray diffraction. The presented approach, colloidal solution processing of SWCNT and liquid-exfoliated MC NS to produce flexible paper-based electrode, could be generalized for wearable energy storage devices with promising performances.

17.
Adv Mater ; 29(36)2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28741695

RESUMO

2D transition-metal carbides and nitrides, known as MXenes, have displayed promising properties in numerous applications, such as energy storage, electromagnetic interference shielding, and catalysis. Titanium carbide MXene (Ti3 C2 Tx ), in particular, has shown significant energy-storage capability. However, previously, only micrometer-thick, nontransparent films were studied. Here, highly transparent and conductive Ti3 C2 Tx films and their application as transparent, solid-state supercapacitors are reported. Transparent films are fabricated via spin-casting of Ti3 C2 Tx nanosheet colloidal solutions, followed by vacuum annealing at 200 °C. Films with transmittance of 93% (≈4 nm) and 29% (≈88 nm) demonstrate DC conductivity of ≈5736 and ≈9880 S cm-1 , respectively. Such highly transparent, conductive Ti3 C2 Tx films display impressive volumetric capacitance (676 F cm-3 ) combined with fast response. Transparent solid-state, asymmetric supercapacitors (72% transmittance) based on Ti3 C2 Tx and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) films are also fabricated. These electrodes exhibit high capacitance (1.6 mF cm-2 ) and energy density (0.05 µW h cm-2 ), and long lifetime (no capacitance decay over 20 000 cycles), exceeding that of graphene or SWCNT-based transparent supercapacitor devices. Collectively, the Ti3 C2 Tx films are among the state-of-the-art for future transparent, conductive, capacitive electrodes, and translate into technologically viable devices for next-generation wearable, portable electronics.

18.
Nanoscale ; 9(19): 6575-6580, 2017 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28474725

RESUMO

A large lateral size and low dimensions are prerequisites for next generation electronics. Since the first single layer MoS2 transistor reported by Kis's group in 2011, layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have been demonstrated to be the ideal candidate for next generation electronics. However, the development of large scale and low cost growth techniques is a crucial step towards TMDs' inclusion in modern electronics and photoelectronics. In this work we develop a cheap, wet chemical, and environment friendly deposition process for two dimensional MoS2 flakes with extended size. For our deposition process, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (ATTM) dissolved in deionized water was used as precursor solution and was deposited on a SiO2/Si substrate through a Langmuir-Blodgett like deposition process. To our knowledge, this is the first time MoS2 flakes have been grown in an aqueous solution. Large-sized MoS2 flakes exceeding 150 µm in lateral size were obtained after thermal decomposition. Thicknesses ranging from a monolayer to 5 monolayers were confirmed by AFM and Raman spectroscopy. Further investigations revealed that the quality of the produced flakes strongly depends on the post growth thermal treatment and its atmosphere. This simple and nontoxic deposition method is suitable for the preparation of large (hybrid) transition metal dichalcogenide nanostructures for applications in next generation electronics.

19.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 1737, 2017 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28496096

RESUMO

The five-layer Aurivillius phase Bi6TixFeyMnzO18 system is a rare example of a single-phase room temperature multiferroic material. To optimise its properties and exploit it for future memory storage applications, it is necessary to understand the origin of the room temperature magnetisation. In this work we use high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, EDX and EELS to discover how closely-packed Ti/Mn/Fe cations of similar atomic number are arranged, both within the perfect structure and within defect regions. Direct evidence for partitioning of the magnetic cations (Mn and Fe) to the central three of the five perovskite (PK) layers is presented, which reveals a marked preference for Mn to partition to the central layer. We infer this is most probably due to elastic strain energy considerations. The observed increase (>8%) in magnetic cation content at the central PK layers engenders up to a 90% increase in potential ferromagnetic spin alignments in the central layer and this could be significant in terms of creating pathways to the long-range room temperature magnetic order observed in this distinct and intriguing material system.

20.
Science ; 356(6333): 69-73, 2017 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28386010

RESUMO

All-printed transistors consisting of interconnected networks of various types of two-dimensional nanosheets are an important goal in nanoscience. Using electrolytic gating, we demonstrate all-printed, vertically stacked transistors with graphene source, drain, and gate electrodes, a transition metal dichalcogenide channel, and a boron nitride (BN) separator, all formed from nanosheet networks. The BN network contains an ionic liquid within its porous interior that allows electrolytic gating in a solid-like structure. Nanosheet network channels display on:off ratios of up to 600, transconductances exceeding 5 millisiemens, and mobilities of >0.1 square centimeters per volt per second. Unusually, the on-currents scaled with network thickness and volumetric capacitance. In contrast to other devices with comparable mobility, large capacitances, while hindering switching speeds, allow these devices to carry higher currents at relatively low drive voltages.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA