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1.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 50(6): 44-45, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315259

RESUMO

A global socio-bioethics is called upon to address the ethical challenges arising from the revolutionary gene editing technologies such as CRISPR-Cas9, which offers the capability to rewrite the human genome. The ethical inquiry Françoise Baylis has undertaken in the book Altered Inheritance: CRISPR and the Ethics of Human Genome Editing (Harvard University Press, 2019) operates at individual, societal and global levels. Baylis has not only presented insights on how to practice "slow science" and achieve broad societal consensus through empowering the public, but she also shown what a global socio-bioethics approach can offer for the further development of bioethics.

2.
Nurs Ethics ; : 969733020964850, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In China, the conventional family-based ageing care model is under pressure from social transitions, raising the question of whether and to what extent families are still capable of dealing with the care of the aged. OBJECTIVE: This article examines the vulnerability and inadequacy of families to bear responsibility for the care of the aged against a backdrop of socioeconomic transformation and diminishing institutional support in rural China. RESEARCH DESIGN: This article adopts an empirical ethical approach that integrates empirical investigation with ethical inquiry. PARTICIPANTS AND RESEARCH CONTEXT: The empirical component of this article focuses on the lived experiences of caring for a wife and mother with dementia in one rural Chinese family, collected from a 6-month fieldwork study conducted at one primary hospital. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS: Approval was obtained from the university ethics committee. FINDINGS: The empirical study highlights a conflicted family process of managing and negotiating care that indicates the inadequacies and limited ability of families to deal with aged care tasks. In addition, inadequate structures and institutional deficiencies exacerbate the vulnerability of rural families and their inability to offer adequate care. CONCLUSION: Acknowledging the vulnerability of families as ageing care providers, this article calls for a socially supported family care model for rural older people in China and also proposes policy recommendations.

3.
Complement Ther Med ; 52: 102419, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years more health service users are utilising complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), including acupuncture, for the management of their health. Currently general practitioners (GPs), in most cases, act as the primary provider and access point for further services and also play an important role in integrated care management. However, the interaction and collaboration between GPs and acupuncturists in relation to shared care has not been investigated. This research explored interprofessional communication between GPs and acupuncturists in New Zealand. This article reports specifically the acupuncturists' viewpoints. METHODS: This study formed part of a larger mixed methods trial investigating barriers and facilitators to communication and collaboration between acupuncturists and general practitioners in New Zealand. Semi structured interviews of 13 purposively sampled acupuncture participants were conducted and analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: The data analysis identified both facilitators and barriers to integrative care. Facilitators included a willingness to engage, and the desire to support patient choice. Barriers included the limited opportunities for sharing of information and the lack of current established pathways for communication or direct referrals. The role evidence played in integrative practice provided complex and contrasting narratives. CONCLUSIONS: This research contributes to the body of knowledge concerning communication and collaboration between GPs and acupuncturists, and suggests that by facilitating communication and collaboration, acupuncture can provide a significant component of integrated care packages. This research provides context within a New Zealand health care setting, and also provides insight through the disaggregation of specific provider groups for analysis, rather than a grouping together of CAM as a whole.

4.
Nurs Ethics ; : 969733020944446, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851923

RESUMO

To effectively address ageing and develop adequate eldercare needs, among others, new ethical visions are much needed. One of the ways to formulate sound ethical visions for contemporary issues is to reclaim, reinterpret and revive old moral ideas and ideals rooted in different indigenous cultural traditions. Drawing thought, wisdom and inspirations from classical Confucianism, the article offers a Confucian ethical outlook on healthy ageing and social eldercare. The popular perception of ageing in the West as well as China regards old age as a period of inevitable decline. However, Kong Zi (Confucius) treats human life as an ongoing moral pilgrimage, with old age the summit of the lifelong journey. This Confucian ethical view on ageing as the culmination of a lifelong moral cultivation has various important themes. They include the primary feature of learning in healthy ageing, the essential role of social eldercare embedded in the popular Confucian norm 'filial piety' (xiao), intergenerational flourishing and the necessity to respect the rights and dignity of each old person. Such a Confucian socio-ethical vision can not only help identify contemporary failings in the area of eldercare but also generate novel ideas and frameworks to help China and the world to face population ageing and elderly care in a more positive way.

5.
J Bioeth Inq ; 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840823

RESUMO

The ethical experience and lessons of China's and the world's response to COVID-19 will be debated for many years to come. But one feature of the Chinese authoritarian response that should not be overlooked is its practice of silencing and humiliating the whistle-blowers who told the truth about the epidemic. In this article, we document the humiliation of Dr Li Wenliang (1986-2020), the most prominent whistle-blower in the Chinese COVID-19 epidemic. Engaging with the thought of Israeli philosopher Avishai Margalit, who argues that humiliation constitutes an injury to a person's self-respect, we discuss his contention that a decent society is one that abolishes conditions which constitute a justification for its dependents to consider themselves humiliated. We explore the ways that institutions humiliate whistle-blowers in Western countries as well as in China.

6.
J Bioeth Inq ; 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840850

RESUMO

Two theories on the origins of COVID-19 have been widely circulating in China and the West respectively, one blaming the United States and the other a highest-level biocontainment laboratory in Wuhan, the initial epicentre of the pandemic. Both theories make claims of biological warfare attempts. According to the available scientific evidence, these claims are groundless. However, like the episodes of biological warfare during the mid-twentieth century, the spread of these present-day conspiracy theories reflects a series of longstanding and damaging trends in the international scene which include deep mistrust, animosities, the power of ideologies such as nationalism, and the sacrifice of truth in propaganda campaigns. Also, the threats associated with biological warfare, bioterrorism, and the accidental leakage of deadly viruses from labs are real and growing. Thus, developing a better global governance of biosafety and biosecurity than exists at present is an urgent imperative for the international community in the broader context of a looming Cold War II. For such a governance, an ethical framework is proposed based upon the triple ethical values of transparency, trust, and the common good of humanity.

7.
Acupunct Med ; : 964528420929341, 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasingly, many patients believe that a combined approach of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), including acupuncture, and conventional medicine is better than either on its own, and more patients now have the desire to discuss CAM with well-informed general practitioners (GPs). However, to our knowledge, the interaction and collaboration between GPs and acupuncturists specifically in relation to shared care have not been investigated. This research explored interprofessional communication between GPs and acupuncturists in New Zealand. This article specifically reports the GPs' viewpoints. METHODS: This study was part of a larger mixed-methods research project. Semi-structured interviews of 14 purposively sampled GP participants were conducted and analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: The data analysis identified both facilitators of and barriers to integrative health care. Facilitators included the willingness of GPs to engage in communication and a recognition of the importance of patient choice. Barriers included the limited opportunities for sharing information and the lack of current established pathways for communication or direct referrals. GPs also highlighted the confusion around scopes of practice in terms of the different styles of and approaches to acupuncture. CONCLUSION: This research contributes to the body of knowledge concerning interprofessional communication and collaboration between GPs and acupuncturists and suggests that while there are significant barriers to collaboration, there is also the potential to impact provider satisfaction and patient well-being. It provides context within a New Zealand health care setting and also provides additional insights regarding acupuncture, specifically through the disaggregation of specific CAM modalities.

8.
J Bioeth Inq ; 17(2): 191-201, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588181

RESUMO

Extensive conflicts of interest (COI) at both individual and institutional levels are identifiable in scientific research and healthcare in China, as in many other parts of the world. A prominent new case from China is He Jiankui's experiment that produced the world's first gene-edited babies and that raises numerous ethical, political, socio-cultural, and transnational questions. Serious financial and other COI were involved in He's genetic adventure. Using He's infamous experiment as a case study, this paper explores the wider issue of financial and other COI in scientific research and healthcare in China, especially institutional conflict of interest (ICOI) and policy-related COI. Taking a socio-ethical perspective, it examines China's state policies and its massive efforts to transform and commercialize scientific research, the lack of policies and oversight mechanisms for regulating COI, as well as major ethical issues arising from COI including the undermining of public trust. Some practical suggestions are offered for institutional reform and institutional development so that COI, particularly ICOI, can be avoided or more effectively managed in scientific research in China.

9.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 39: 101114, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental health presents a significant burden of disease and a large, and increasing, number of patients are self-selecting forms of CAM, including acupuncture, as an adjunct, or standalone treatment for the management of their mental health. General practitioners (GPs) play an important role in integrated care management of primary mental health, and in most cases act as the primary provider and access point for further services. However, the interaction and collaboration between GPs and acupuncturists in relation to shared mental health care has not been investigated. This research explores interprofessional communication between GPs and acupuncturists in New Zealand concerning mental health care. The aim of this research was to understand the barriers to communication, and to facilitate collaboration between the two participant groups. METHODS: The project utilised a mixed methods multiphase design, with both qualitative and quantitative inquiry, and involving the convergence of data and analyses. A nationwide survey of 400 GPs and 250 acupuncturists was conducted. Univariate data was analysed using descriptive statistics, which included frequencies and percentages for categorical data. This was followed by individual semi-structured interviews of 13 purposively sampled acupuncturists, and 14 GPs which was analysed using thematic analysis. This design consisted of three distinct phases: quantitative, qualitative, implementation and reflection. RESULTS: Both provider groups acknowledged the complexities of working within mental health care, and supported the development of specific mental health competencies in light of the recognition of the limitations surrounding current mental health care. The unfamiliarity of acupuncture's evidence-base to both provider groups was an identified barrier, yet both groups acknowledged that while practice is informed by the evidence, there are many other factors that also inform clinical practice. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first in New Zealand to seek quantitative data and qualitative views regarding alignment about mental health management approaches and the use of acupuncture. This has the potential of improving healthcare outcomes through better inter professional communication and by contributing to better trans-cultural understandings on healthcare issues. The results of this research, whilst looking at the communication model between acupuncture and primary health care, will have easily generalizable findings for other necessary interprofessional communication strategies. This is the first time that the role and potential of the relatively untapped resource base of acupuncture within the health sector has been investigated within a New Zealand context.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Clínicos Gerais/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Nova Zelândia
10.
Bioethics ; 34(6): 593-601, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469104

RESUMO

This paper examines caregiving for sick older family members in the context of socio-economic transformations in rural China, combining empirical investigation with normative inquiry. The empirical part of this paper is based on a case study, taken from fieldwork in a rural Chinese hospital, of a son who took care of his hospitalized mother. This empirical study highlighted family members' weiqu (sense of unfairness)-a mental status from experiencing mistreatment and oppression in family care, yet with constrained power to explicitly protest or make care-related choices. Underpinning people's weiqu and constrained choice, as informed by the conception of structural injustice, is the impact of unjust social structures, organized by unfavourable norms, discriminatory social policies and institutions targeting rural populations. By restraining individual choices and capacities in supporting health care for aging populations, these unjust structures create additional difficulties for and discriminations against rural families and their older members. Some policy recommendations are proposed to mitigate structural injustice so as to empower families and promote care for older people in rural settings.

11.
Nurs Ethics ; : 969733020912517, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pressing issue of aged care has made gendered caregiving a growing subject of feminist bioethical enquiry. However, the impact of feminism on empirical studies in the area of gendered care in Chinese sociocultural contexts has been less influential. OBJECTIVES: To examine female members' lived experiences of gendered care in rural China and offer proper normative evaluation based on their experiences. RESEARCH DESIGN: This article adopted an empirical ethical approach that integrates ethnographical investigation and feminist ethical inquiry. PARTICIPANTS AND RESEARCH CONTEXT: This article focused on three cases of gendered caregiving for sick older members collected from a 6-month fieldwork conducted in a primary hospital in rural China. ETHICAL CONSIDERATION: Approval was obtained from the university ethics committee. FINDINGS: The empirical work highlights caregivers' voices of weiqu (a sense of unfairness) resulting from their constrained choice when being pressured to engage in caregiving, which is associated with a disadvantageous socio-institutional and structural backdrop in current rural China. Informed by the conception of structural injustice, the normative analysis of this article traced various forms of social norms, structural deficiencies and ageing welfare institutions, as they intertwine and transmit into additional care deficiencies against rural families and their female caregivers. CONCLUSION: This article identified the constraint of gender hierarchy and its intersection with external social structure that exacerbate gendered oppression and exploitation of female labour in rural China. Normatively, this article argues that the current configuration of rural family care, featured by structural impediments and exploration of female labour, is unjust. Some policy recommendations are proposed to empower caregivers and advance care for rural older people.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210084

RESUMO

This paper examines the experiences of seeking healthcare for rural Chinese older people, a population who experiences the multiple threats of socio-economic deprivation, marginalization, and lack of access to medical care, yet have been relatively overlooked within the existing scholarly literature. Based on ethnographical data collected from six-month fieldwork conducted in a rural primary hospital in Southern China, this paper identifies a widespread discouraging, dispiriting attitude regarding healthcare-seeking for rural older members despite the ongoing efforts of institutional reforms with a particular focus on addressing access to health services amongst rural populations. Such an attitude was expressed by older people's families as well as the public in their narratives by devaluing older members' health care demands as "unworthy of care and treatment" ("buzhide zhi" in Chinese). It was also internalized by older people, based on which they deployed a family-oriented health-seeking model and strategically downgraded their expectation on receiving medical care. Moreover, underpinning this discouragement and devaluation, as well as making them culturally legitimate, is the social expectation of rural older people to be enduring and restrained with health-seeking. Simultaneously, this paper highlights the sourc2e of institutional and structural impediments, as they intersect with unfavorable socio-cultural values that normalize discouragement and devaluation.


Assuntos
Características Culturais , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural , Idoso , China , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Trends Biotechnol ; 38(4): 351-354, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014274

RESUMO

As public interest advocates, policy experts, bioethicists, and scientists, we call for a course correction in public discussions about heritable human genome editing. Clarifying misrepresentations, centering societal consequences and concerns, and fostering public empowerment will support robust, global public engagement and meaningful deliberation about altering the genes of future generations.

14.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 19(1): 66, 2019 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Navigating the world of qualitative thematic analysis can be challenging. This is compounded by the fact that detailed descriptions of methods are often omitted from qualitative discussions. While qualitative research methodologies are now mature, there often remains a lack of fine detail in their description both at submitted peer reviewed article level and in textbooks. As one of research's aims is to determine the relationship between knowledge and practice through the demonstration of rigour, more detailed descriptions of methods could prove useful. Rigour in quantitative research is often determined through detailed explanation allowing replication, but the ability to replicate is often not considered appropriate in qualitative research. However, a well described qualitative methodology could demonstrate and ensure the same effect. METHODS: This article details the codebook development which contributed to thematic analysis of qualitative data. This analysis formed part of a mixed methods multiphase design research project, with both qualitative and quantitative inquiry and involving the convergence of data and analyses. This design consisted of three distinct phases: quantitative, qualitative and implementation phases. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: This article is aimed at researchers and doctoral students new to thematic analysis by describing a framework to assist their processes. The detailed description of the methods used supports attempts to utilise the thematic analysis process and to determine rigour to support the establishment of credibility. This process will assist practitioners to be confident that the knowledge and claims contained within research are transferable to their practice. The approach described within this article builds on, and enhances, current accepted models.


Assuntos
Medicina Baseada em Evidências/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Projetos de Pesquisa , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
Med Health Care Philos ; 22(4): 583-591, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903406

RESUMO

There exists a serious shortage of organs for transplantation in China, more so than in most Western countries. Confucianism has been commonly used as the cultural and ethical reason to explain the reluctance of Chinese and other East-Asian people to donate organs for medical purposes. It is asserted that the Confucian emphasis on xiao (filial piety) requires individuals to ensure body intactness at death. However, based on the original texts of classical Confucianism and other primary materials, we refute this popular view. We base our position on the related Confucian norms of filial piety and ren (humaneness, humanity or benevolence), the tension between differentiated love and universal love, and belief in the goodness of human nature. In light of this, we argue that the Confucian ethical outlook actually calls for organ donation at an individual level, and supports an opt-out (presumed consent) system at the level of social policy. Furthermore, because the popular view is based on a number of dominant but misleading modes of thinking about cultural differences, our revisionist account of Confucian moral duties regarding organ donation has implications for developing a more adequate transcultural and global bioethics. These will be discussed and expanded upon.


Assuntos
Confucionismo , Princípios Morais , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/ética , Altruísmo , China , Humanos , Relações Pais-Filho/etnologia , Religião e Medicina
16.
Anat Sci Educ ; 12(4): 444-453, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900810

RESUMO

In China as elsewhere in the world, human bodies and body parts have long been used for a wide range of medical and non-medical purposes. In recent decades, China has played a considerable role in some of the public exhibitions of plastinated bodies and body parts, and the commercial trade in organ donations. These contemporary developments have raised numerous challenging ethical and governance questions. In spite of the growing role of China in these, there have been few studies devoted to Chinese ethical thinking that might govern its policies on the use of human bodies and body parts, and in particular on the issue of commercialization. The present study is an attempt to bridge this gap, and concludes that Confucian thinking stresses the primacy of righteousness over profits and utilities. This conclusion is reached directly by drawing on Confucian ethical responses to the peculiar practice of using human body parts, such as placenta and flesh, as drugs in traditional Chinese medicine in imperial China and what has been called "yili zhibian," the major Confucian discourse on yi (righteousness or justice) and li (profit or interest) in its long history. The principle of prioritizing righteousness over profit leads to a general moral opposition to the commodification of human bodies and body parts. While Confucianism may not place an absolute prohibition on any such use, it does require that any commercial uses are made subject to the fundamental moral principles, such as righteousness, as well as adequate ethical governance procedures.


Assuntos
Comércio/ética , Confucionismo , Exposições como Assunto , Corpo Humano , Princípios Morais , Cadáver , China , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Políticas
18.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 20(1): 32-38, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614228

RESUMO

The rapid developments of science and technology in China over recent decades, particularly in biomedical research, have brought forward serious challenges regarding ethical governance. Recently, Jian-kui HE, a Chinese scientist, claimed to have "created" the first gene-edited babies, designed to be naturally immune to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The news immediately triggered widespread criticism, denouncement, and debate over the scientific and ethical legitimacy of HE's genetic experiments. China's guidelines and regulations have banned germline genome editing on human embryos for clinical use because of scientific and ethical concerns, in accordance with the international consensus. HE's human experimentation has not only violated these Chinese regulations, but also breached other ethical and regulatory norms. These include questionable scientific value, unreasonable risk-benefit ratio, illegitimate ethics review, invalid informed consent, and regulatory misconduct. This series of ethical failings of HE and his team reveal the institutional failure of the current ethics governance system which largely depends on scientist's self-regulation. The incident highlights the need for urgent improvement of ethics governance at all levels, the enforcement of technical and ethical guidelines, and the establishment of laws relating to such bioethical issues.


Assuntos
Edição de Genes/ética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , China , Termos de Consentimento/ética , Ética Médica , Feminino , Edição de Genes/legislação & jurisprudência , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes/ética , Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Experimentação Humana/ética , Experimentação Humana/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Má Conduta Profissional/ética , Receptores CCR5/deficiência , Receptores CCR5/genética
19.
Anat Sci Educ ; 11(5): 525-531, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29338121

RESUMO

Confucianism has been widely perceived as a major moral and cultural obstacle to the donation of bodies for anatomical purposes. The rationale for this is the Confucian stress on xiao (filial piety), whereby individuals' bodies are to be intact at death. In the view of many, the result is a prohibition on the donation of bodies to anatomy departments for the purpose of dissection. The role of dissection throughout the development of anatomy within a Confucian context is traced, and in contemporary China the establishment of donation programs and the appearance of memorial monuments is noted. In reassessing Confucian attitudes, the stress laid on a particular interpretation of filial piety is questioned, and an attempt is made to balance this with the Confucian emphasis on a moral duty to those outside one's immediate family. The authors argue that the fundamental Confucian norm ren (humaneness or benevolence) allows for body donation as people have a moral duty to help others. Moreover, the other central Confucian value, li (rites), offers important insights on how body donation should be performed as a communal activity, particularly the necessity of developing ethically and culturally appropriate rituals for body donation. In seeking to learn from this from a Western perspective, it is contended that in all societies the voluntary donation of bodies is a deeply human activity that is to reflect the characteristics of the community within which it takes place. This is in large part because it has educational and personal repercussions for students. Anat Sci Educ 11: 525-531. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.


Assuntos
Anatomia/educação , Confucionismo/psicologia , Cultura , Princípios Morais , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/ética , China , Dissecação/ética , Dissecação/psicologia , Humanos , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Dev World Bioeth ; 18(1): 26-36, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28922547

RESUMO

To investigate the phenomenon of patient-physician mistrust in China, a qualitative study involving 107 physicians, nurses and health officials in Guangdong Province, southern China, was conducted through semi-structured interviews and focus groups. In this paper we report the key findings of the empirical study and argue for the essential role of medical professionalism in rebuilding patient-physician trust. Health professionals are trapped in a vicious circle of mistrust. Mistrust (particularly physicians' distrust of patients and their relatives) leads to increased levels of fear and self-protection by doctors which exacerbate difficulties in communication; in turn, this increases physician workloads, adding to a strong sense of injustice and victimization. These factors produce poorer healthcare outcomes and increasingly discontented and angry patients, escalate conflicts and disputes, and result in negative media coverage, all these ultimately contributing to even greater levels of mistrust. The vicious circle indicates not only the crisis of patient-physician relationship but the crisis of medicine as a profession and institution. Underlying the circle is the inherent conflict of interest in the healthcare system by which health professionals and hospitals have become profit-driven. This institutional conflict of interest seriously compromises the fundamental principle of medical professionalism-the primacy of patient welfare-as well as the traditional Chinese ideal of "medicine as the art of humanity". Patient trust can be restored through rectifying this institutional conflict of interest and promoting medical professionalism via a series of recommended practical measures.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/ética , Ética Médica , Relações Médico-Paciente/ética , Profissionalismo/ética , Confiança , China , Confidencialidade/ética , Características Culturais , Humanos , Preconceito , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Classe Social
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