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1.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 133: 111064, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378966

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Early reported symptoms include fever, cough, and respiratory symptoms. There were few reports of digestive symptoms. However, with COVID-19 spreading worldwide, symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhoea, and abdominal pain have gained increasing attention. Research has found that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, is strongly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract and liver. Whether theoretically or clinically, many studies have suggested a close connection between COVID-19 and the digestive system. In this review, we summarize the digestive symptoms reported in existing research, discuss the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the gastrointestinal tract and liver, and determine the possible mechanisms and aetiology, such as cytokine storm. In-depth exploration of the relationship between COVID-19 and the digestive system is urgently needed.


Assuntos
/complicações , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Pandemias , /patogenicidade , /metabolismo , Anorexia/etiologia , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Ductos Biliares/metabolismo , Ductos Biliares/virologia , /imunologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Comorbidade , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/etiologia , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/virologia , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Transplante de Fígado , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/virologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Receptores Virais/metabolismo
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Although endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) is widely applied, there is no clear consensus on the optimal biopsy technique. We describe a modified wet suction technique (MWEST) with the aim to compare the efficacy and safety between MWEST and the dry suction technique (DST). METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, crossover, single-blinded study, patients with suspected pancreatic malignancy were randomized to the DST (group A) or MWEST (group B) for the first pass, and the two techniques were performed alternately. The primary outcome was the comparison of specimen adequacy and diagnostic yield between the techniques. Secondary outcomes included the macroscopic visible core (MVC) length, blood contamination of specimens, and adverse events of both techniques. RESULTS: From January 2019 to September 2019, 216 passes were performed in 50 patients. The specimen adequacy was significantly higher in "per lesion" (P=0.026), "per pass" (cytology: P=0.034; histology: P=0.042), and first-pass analysis (P=0.034) for MWEST than for DST. In diagnostic yield, MWEST showed significantly superior histological yield (P=0.014) and first-pass analysis (kappa: MWEST: 0.743, DST: 0.519) compared to DST. MVC lengths were 8 mm (interquartile range [IQR]: 3.25-15 mm) and 10 mm (IQR: 5.25-15 mm) for DST and MWEST, respectively (P=0.036). Blood contamination was significantly more serious in DST than in MWEST (cytology: P=0.021; histology: P=0.042). CONCLUSIONS: EUS-FNB with MWEST resulted in significantly better quality of specimen, histological, and first-pass diagnostic yields, and comparable safety compared to the DST. MWEST is preferred for EUS-FNB in pancreatic solid lesions.

3.
Nanoscale ; 12(44): 22754-22767, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174556

RESUMO

Oral route is one of the most important portals of nanoparticle entry to the body. However, in vivo protein corona formed in the gastrointestinal tract has not been studied owing to the difficulty for the recovery of nanoparticles from the in vivo environment. In this study, by using the magnetic property of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) and Zn2+ doped iron oxide nanoparticles (Zn0.4Fe2.6O4 NPs), the nanoparticles were separated from the gastric fluid after oral administration in mice. The effects of Zn2+ doping and static magnetic field (SMF) treatment on the protein adsorption on the nanoparticles were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Zn2+ doping decreases the adsorption of pepsin on the nanoparticles in vitro and affects the composition of the protein corona in vivo and enhances protein adsorption-induced aggregation of the nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo. SMF treatment affects the composition of the protein corona of Fe3O4 NPs and Zn0.4Fe2.6O4 NPs, and enhances the aggregation of Fe3O4 NPs and Zn0.4Fe2.6O4 NPs in vivo. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that electrostatic attraction is the crucial force to drive adsorption of proteins on Fe3O4 NPs and Zn0.4Fe2.6O4 NPs and protein adsorption-induced change in the surface charge of nanoparticles plays an important role in the pH-dependent aggregation of the nanoparticles. In addition, the work provides the evidence that the protein adsorption-induced aggregation of Fe3O4 NPs and Zn0.4Fe2.6O4 NPs has no effect on their magnetic susceptibility. The results highlight that Zn0.4Fe2.6O4 NPs may be used as a potential oral magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent in diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease.

4.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(18): 3934-3941, 2020 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024750

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has so far caused hundreds of mortalities worldwide. Although respiratory symptoms are the main complication in COVID-19 patients, the disease is also associated with gastrointestinal problems, with diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting being primary COVID-19 symptoms. Thus, cancer and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) management, stool viral tests, and virus exposure are major concerns in the context of COVID-19 epidemic. In patients with colorectal cancer and IBD, the colonic mucosa exhibits elevated angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor levels, enhancing COVID-19 susceptibility. In some cases, positive viral stool tests may be the only indicator of infection at admission or after leaving quarantine. Without supplemental stool tests, the risk of undetected COVID-19 transmission is high. Moreover, viral exposure during the regular or emergency endoscopic examination should be avoided. We carefully discuss key gastrointestinal concerns with regard to COVID-19 and call for more attention to such problems.

5.
ACS Omega ; 5(34): 21745-21752, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905415

RESUMO

Water pollution caused by oil spillages has aroused worldwide attention. Therefore, it is of great significance to develop low-cost, environmentally friendly materials to remove oil contaminants from water. Herein, a "green" superhydrophobic sponge made from marine algae was fabricated by one-step growth of silicone nanofilaments onto a AgNP-decorated alginate sponge via chemical vapor deposition of an azeotrope of (CH3)3SiCl and SiCl4. The reaction of the azeotrope with the alginate sponge was termed "instant", as it took only a few minutes (5 min) at room temperature to achieve superhydrophobicity (152.0°). Such sponges resist high temperatures, UV irradiation, organic solvents, and mechanical abrasion without losing the superhydrophobicity. The sponges absorbed oil droplets within seconds (1.3-7.0 s) with 11.7-17.1 g/g of sorption capacities for oils of different viscous levels (0.56-1775.00 mPa·s). These sponges could retain 90% of the initial oil sorption capacities after 10 consecutive oil sorption/desorption cycles. Benefiting from the superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity, the sponges also exhibited high efficiency in oil/water mixture separation. Once the oil/water mixture was injected into the sponge, oil drops were retained in inner pores while water was rejected and spouted from the surface. These excellent performances make the resultant sponge a competitive material for oil spill emergency remediation.

6.
Gastroenterology ; 159(6): 2203-2220.e14, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The pattern of genetic alterations in cancer driver genes in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is highly diverse, which partially explains the low efficacy of available therapies. In spite of this, the existing mouse models only recapitulate a small portion of HCC inter-tumor heterogeneity, limiting the understanding of the disease and the nomination of personalized therapies. Here, we aimed at establishing a novel collection of HCC mouse models that captured human HCC diversity. METHODS: By performing hydrodynamic tail-vein injections, we tested the impact of altering a well-established HCC oncogene (either MYC or ß-catenin) in combination with an additional alteration in one of eleven other genes frequently mutated in HCC. Of the 23 unique pairs of genetic alterations that we interrogated, 9 were able to induce HCC. The established HCC mouse models were characterized at histopathological, immune, and transcriptomic level to identify the unique features of each model. Murine HCC cell lines were generated from each tumor model, characterized transcriptionally, and used to identify specific therapies that were validated in vivo. RESULTS: Cooperation between pairs of driver genes produced HCCs with diverse histopathology, immune microenvironments, transcriptomes, and drug responses. Interestingly, MYC expression levels strongly influenced ß-catenin activity, indicating that inter-tumor heterogeneity emerges not only from specific combinations of genetic alterations but also from the acquisition of expression-dependent phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS: This novel collection of murine HCC models and corresponding cell lines establishes the role of driver genes in diverse contexts and enables mechanistic and translational studies.

7.
Cancer Biomark ; 29(3): 347-357, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: MicroRNA-629 (miR-629) has been found to play an important role in the pathogenesis of human cancers. However, the function of miR-629 is still unknown in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The purpose of this study is to preliminarily elucidate the regulatory mechanism of miR-629 in NSCLC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mRNA and protein expression was measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis. The function of miR-629 was investigated by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) and Transwell assays. The relationship between miR-629 and FOXO1 was confirmed by dual luciferase assay. RESULTS: MiR-629 was upregulated in NSCLC tissues and cells. High expression of miR-629 predicted poor prognosis in patients with NSCLC. Moreover, miR-629 promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion in NSCLC cells. In addition, FOXO1 was confirmed as a direct target of miR-629 in NSCLC. Furthermore, knockdown of FOXO1 also promoted proliferation, migration and invasion of NSCLC cells. More importantly, overexpression of FOXO1 weakened the carcinogenesis of miR-629 in NSCLC. Besides that, miR-629 promoted EMT and activated the PI3K/AKT pathway in NSCLC. CONCLUSIONS: MiR-629 promotes the progression of NSCLC by targeting FOXO1 and regulating EMT/PI3K/AKT pathway.

8.
Mol Med Rep ; 22(4): 2695-2704, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700754

RESUMO

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which is a chronic, relapsing condition associated with the disorder of gut microbial communities. A previous study reported that levels of Roseburia intestinalis (R.I), a butyrate­producing bacterium, are significantly decreased in patients with IBD and exert an anti­inflammatory function in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)­induced colitis. However, the role of R.I flagellin in UC and its underlying molecular mechanism are not yet fully understood. Therefore, a DSS­induced colitis model in C57Bl/6 mice and the LPS/ATP­induced THP­1 macrophages were treated with R.I flagellin, which were used to investigate the anti­inflammatory effects of R.I flagellin. The results demonstrated that R.I flagellin decreased colitis­associated disease activity index, colonic shortening and the pathological damage of the colon tissues in murine colitis models. Furthermore, R.I flagellin decreased the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibited activation of the nucleotide­binding oligomerization segment­like receptor family 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in murine colitis. R.I flagellin was also demonstrated to decrease the Gasdermin D to yield the N­terminal fragment membrane pore and inhibit inflammasome­triggered pyroptosis. In vitro analysis indicated that microRNA (miR)­223­3p was involved in the regulation of R.I flagellin on NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrated that R.I flagellin inhibited activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and pyroptosis via miR­223­3p/NLRP3 signaling in macrophages, suggesting that R.I flagellin may be used as a novel probiotic product for the treatment of UC.

9.
Exp Ther Med ; 19(4): 2604-2614, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32256740

RESUMO

Different neoadjuvant therapy regimens are available for rectal cancer, but the relative effects are controversial. The aim of the present network meta-analysis (NMA) was to estimate the relative efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant therapies for resectable rectal cancer. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials were searched for publications dated from 1946 up to June 2018. The present study included randomized clinical trials that compared treatments for resected rectal cancer: Surgery alone, surgery preceded by neoadjuvant radiotherapy (RT), neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CT) or neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Direct pairwise comparisons and NMA were conducted. A total of 23 randomized controlled trials were included in the present study. RT had an overall survival (OS) benefit when compared with surgery alone [HR (hazard ratio), 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.82-0.97; quality of evidence, high]. All three neoadjuvant regimens were associated with lower local recurrence (LR) when compared with surgery alone [RT: odds ratio (OR), 0.44; 95% CI, 0.35-0.65; quality of evidence, high; CRT: OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.23-0.56; quality of evidence, low and CT: OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.11-1.00; quality of evidence, low]. There were no significant differences in OS and LR between CRT and RT (OS: OR, 1.10); 95% CI, 0.93-1.20; LR: OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.61-1.10). Ranking probabilities indicated that CRT was the best strategy for local control, with a surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) of 78.78%. Patients treated with RT had improved disease-free survival compared with those treated with surgery alone (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.64-1.00; quality of evidence, low). Neoadjuvant RT or CRT did not significantly improve distant metastases compared with surgery alone (RT: OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.69-1.10 and CRT: OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.47-1.10). CRT had an improved pathological complete response rate compared with RT (OR, 4.90; 95% CI, 21.80-17.00; quality of evidence, low). No significant difference for the risk of anastomotic leak between each treatment was observed in the NMA. In conclusion, RT decreased the LR and improved OS compared with surgery alone for resected rectal cancer. CRT was the best neoadjuvant therapy analyzed and CT was likely the second best for all outcomes based on SUCRA. However, these findings were limited by overall low quality of evidence.

10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(15): 17730-17737, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157538

RESUMO

Natural halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) with a hollow lumen have been widely applied in many fields, such as water purification, drug carriers, cosmetics, antibacterial, and scaffolds for tissue engineering. However, their in vivo toxicity is still largely unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate sub-chronic oral toxicity of HNTs in the small intestine of mice. The results demonstrated that oral HNTs at low dose (5 mg/kg) for 30 days promoted mouse growth with no obvious adverse effect on the small intestine. The promotive effect on mouse growth disappeared after cessation of oral administration of HNTs. Oral HNTs at high dose (50 mg/kg) for 30 days induced aluminum (Al) and silicon (Si) accumulation and oxidative stress in the small intestine, which caused significant increases in the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and inflammatory response and iNOS-mediated damages in the organ. Oral HNTs-induced changes in the small intestine at high dose were not observed after a 30-day recovery period. These findings provided the first evidence that oral HNTs-induced sub-chronic toxicity in the small intestine was reversible. The results suggest that HNTs at low concentration in environments have no adverse effect on mice, while there are health risks to mice under severe contamination by HNTs.


Assuntos
Argila , Nanotubos , Administração Oral , Silicatos de Alumínio , Animais , Intestino Delgado , Camundongos
11.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 51(1): 18-23, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950784

RESUMO

Objective: To study the expression and secretion of alternative complement pathway regulator complement factor H (CFH) in spontaneously produced or induced human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelium (hESC-RPE). Methods: RPE cells were acquired by spontaneous differentiation from hESC (sdRPE), a source of hESC-RPE, according to the method used in clinical trials. RPE cells were also acquired under the induction of growth factors and small molecules for 14 d (iRPE). Acquired cells were kept culturing for 3 month for maturation. All differentiated cells(P3)were cultivated for 4-5 weeks prior to characterization with qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Secretion levels of CFH were investigated by ELISA. ARPE-19 cell line was served as control. Results: Both sdRPE and iRPE showed high similarity in cell morphology and the pattern of specific gene expression with human RPE. The relative CFH mRNA expression levels of both sdRPE and iRPE were significantly higher than that of ARPE-19 ( P<0.05). The CFH secretion levels of sdRPE in the 24 h-, 48 h- and 72 h-culture medium were higher than those of iRPE ( P=0.000 2); and this CFH secretion levels of both sdRPE and iRPE were higher than that of the ARPE-19 cell line ( P<0.000 1). Conclusion: Both sdRPE and iRPE derived by different differentiation methods expressed and secreted CFH, suggesting that hESC-RPE may have certain ability to regulate the alternative complement pathway.


Assuntos
Fator H do Complemento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina , Linhagem Celular , Fator H do Complemento/genética , Via Alternativa do Complemento/genética , Humanos , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/citologia , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/metabolismo
12.
Biomater Sci ; 7(10): 4174-4185, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380882

RESUMO

The homeostasis process in the gut tissue of humans relies on intestinal bacteria. However, the intestine is a complex structural tissue with a huge superficial area, and thus the effective application of probiotics in the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) is still challenging. Herein, we show the feasibility of probiotic target delivery and retention using magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-internalized Roseburia intestinalis, which can be easily directed by a magnetic field in vitro and in vivo. Subsequently, the increased colonization of this core profitable flora not only resulted in a better therapy effect than traditional intragastric administration but also altered the bacterial composition, leading to a higher diversity in microbial taxa in rats with colitis. Our findings illustrate the exciting opportunities that nanotechnology offers for alternative strategies to modulate biological systems remotely and precisely, which represent a step towards the wireless magnetic manipulation of living biological entities in microbiology.


Assuntos
Clostridiales/fisiologia , Doença de Crohn/microbiologia , Doença de Crohn/terapia , Compostos Férricos/química , Animais , Colite/microbiologia , Colite/terapia , Campos Magnéticos , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Probióticos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
13.
Polymers (Basel) ; 11(8)2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434260

RESUMO

Abundant studies have been completed about factors on the pyrolysis of coal and biomass. However, few articles laid emphasis on using CO2 as a carrier gas to explore the compositional changes of pyrolysis products in coal and biomass pyrolysis for industrial application and commercial value. The experiments on coal and biomass pyrolysis in N2 and CO2 using a horizontal tube furnace were conducted at 500 °C. The impact of introducing CO2 on the pyrolysis process of bituminous coal and Platanus sawdust was investigated. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of tar and the characterizations of char including Brunner-Emmet-Teller (BET) measurements, scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and element analysis were studied. The findings in light of the experimental results show that introducing CO2 enhances the coal and biomass pyrolysis in a solid product by promoting the fracture of hydroxyl groups. It also promotes tar decomposition and the release of volatiles, which contribute to the occurrence of char with high porosity, pore volume, and specific surface. Furthermore, higher specific surface enhances the adsorption performance of char as active carbon. Simultaneously, CO2 promotes the increase of oxygen-containing aromatics especially the methoxy-containing aromatics, and the decrease of deoxygenated aromatic hydrocarbons in pyrolysis oils. In addition, the introduction of CO2 changes the amount of aliphatic compounds in various ways for the pyrolysis of coal and biomass. From a perspective of business, the changes in the composition of pyrolysis oil brought by CO2 may create new value for fuel utilization and industrial products.

14.
Cell Commun Signal ; 17(1): 92, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to confirm that blocking RasGRP4 can effectively slow down the growth of DLBCL both in vitro and in vivo and ascertain the role of RasGRP4 in the prognosis of DLBCL clinically. METHODS: RasGRP4 expression levels were examined in benign tissues and lymphomas. In order to verify somatic mutation in RasGRP4 gene, cDNA sequencing was performed in DLBCL patients. RasGRP4-dependent cell proliferation, mitochondrial membrane potential, oxidative stress levels and signaling pathway changes were measured by knockdown of RasGRP4. Tumor growth was monitored in xenografted lymphoma model. Clinical data were collected to confirm the role of RasGRP4 in DLBCL. RESULTS: RasGRP4 expression was significantly elevated in DLBCL while no somatic mutations were detected of this gene in DLBCL patients. Decreased RasGRP4 significantly inhibited cell proliferation by simultaneously reducing mitosis and promoting apoptosis and increased the oxidative stress levels. Mechanistically, reduced expression of RasGRP4 decreased ERK while increased JNK expression in SUDHL-4 cells. Knockdown of RasGRP4 also significantly inhibited tumor formation in vivo. Furthermore, RasGRP4 expression levels were significantly higher in patients with larger DLBCL lesions (P = 0.0004), high-risk international prognostic index score groups (P = 0.0042), and its expression was positively correlated with maximum standardized uptake value in DLBCL (P = 0.0004). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate the oncogenic role of RasGRP4 in DLBCL, suggesting it as a prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target in DLBCL.


Assuntos
Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/metabolismo , Fatores ras de Troca de Nucleotídeo Guanina/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Ciclo Celular , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Neoplasias Experimentais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Experimentais/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
15.
Cancer Imaging ; 19(1): 47, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292000

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis in patients with invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (IMA) of the lung. METHODS: A total of 68 patients who underwent surgical resection for primary lung IMA were reviewed during the period of 2009 and 2017. Tumors were classified as solitary-type or pneumonic-type according to the computed tomography (CT) findings. Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the effects of clinicopathological characteristics on univariate and multivariable analyses of disease-free survival (DFS). RESULTS: Solitary-type was found in 54 patients, while pneumonic-type was found in 14 patients. The patients' age varied between 56 and 68 years (patients' median age was 61 years). Besides, 50 patients had T1/T2 tumor stage (73.5%). Compared with solitary-type, higher T stage, N stage, and pathological stage (P < 0.001) were found in pneumonic-type. Moreover, the survival analysis showed that the pneumonic-type had a significantly poorer DFS compared with solitary-type (P = 0.004). Univariate analysis showed that pneumonic pattern on CT scan, T stage, pathologic stage, and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) were significant predictive factors of survival (P = 0.011, 0.014, 0.013, 0.029, respectively). Multivariate analysis further indicated that pneumonic-type was the only independent prognostic factor for poor survival [hazard ratio (HR) = 6.764, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.563-29.269, P = 0.011]. CONCLUSIONS: Based on CT findings, the solitary-type IMA is associated with a lower stage and better prognosis compared with the pneumonic-type IMA.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/normas
16.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(7): 98, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222401

RESUMO

Sterols are crucial functional components for eukaryotic cell membrane. Due to versatile activities, sterols show wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industries. Ergosterol not only reflects cell growth but also serves as the precursor for manufacturing steroid drugs. To date, the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway in yeast has been reported, and the industrial production of ergosterol is achieved by yeast fermentation or extraction from fungal mycelia. Here, we summarize its biosynthesis, regulation, transportation, and subcellular location of enzymes in yeast. In particular, we review the regulation of ergosterol biosynthesis at transcriptional, translational and post-translational levels. Furthermore, we advocate metabolic engineering and fermentation strategies for high-level production of ergosterol. This study may provide evaluable insights into metabolic engineering of yeast for scaled-up fermentation production of ergosterol or beyond.


Assuntos
Ergosterol/biossíntese , Leveduras/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Candida albicans/metabolismo , Cryptococcus neoformans/metabolismo , Fermentação , Engenharia Metabólica , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Schizosaccharomyces/metabolismo
17.
Polymers (Basel) ; 11(5)2019 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109157

RESUMO

Artemisia vulgaris is an economic plant that is spreading widely in central China. Its unused bast generates a large amount of biomass waste annually. Utilizing the fibers in Artemisia vulgaris bast may provide a new solution to this problem. This research attempts to strengthen the understanding of Artemisia vulgaris by analyzing its fiber compositions and preparing micro- and nano-cellulose fibers, which can be used as raw materials for composites. In this work, Artemisia vulgaris bast powder (AP) and microcellulose and nanocellulose fibers (AMFs and ANFs) were produced and characterized by optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), and bacteriostatic test. The results indicated that cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin were the main components in the Artemisia vulgaris bast. The cellulose content reached 40.9%. The Artemisia vulgaris single fibers were microcellulose fibers with an average length of 850.6 µm and a diameter of 14.4 µm. Moreover, the AMF had considerable antibacterial ability with an antibacterial ratio of 36.6%. The ANF showed a length range of 250-300 nm and a diameter of 10-20 nm, and it had a higher crystallinity (76%) and a lower thermal stability (initial degradation temperature of 183 °C) compared with raw ANF (233 °C). This study provides fundamental information on Artemisia vulgaris bast cellulose for its subsequent utilization.

18.
Gastroenterol Res Pract ; 2019: 6132504, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049059

RESUMO

Background: Seawater-immersed open abdominal injury is a special injury during marine activities. Effective warmed peritoneal lavage in the field early after injury is the key to treatment. This pilot study aimed at exploring the treatment effects of a self-developed portable peritoneal lavage device compared with conventional treatment model. Material and Methods: Beagle dogs were used to develop models of seawater-immersed open abdominal injury. A conventional lavage method or a novel peritoneal lavage device was used for lavage and rewarming. The vital signs, electrolyte, serum inflammatory cytokine expression levels, histological changes of mucosa, and microstructure variety of different groups were observed and compared before and after immersion and 2 h, 1 d, 3 d, and 5 d after lavage. Results: The levels of TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-8, IFN-γ, VEGF, and TGF-ß in the blood and the damage of tissues and cells in three groups were increased after immersion and decreased at the later points of time after lavage. The concentration of Na+, K+, Cl-, lactate, and lactate dehydrogenase in the plasma was significantly higher than that before immersion (P < 0.05), and the concentration of Ca2+ and HCO3 - and plasma pH decreased slightly (P < 0.05). The degree of tissue inflammation and mucosal injury in the delayed control group and device group was lower than the control group. Conclusions: Timely lavage and rewarming using a portable peritoneal lavage device reduced the inflammatory response of seawater-immersed open abdominal injury dogs and reduced the damage of multiple organs. The dogs recovered better and faster than the conventional treatment group.

19.
Neuro Oncol ; 21(6): 786-799, 2019 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) succumb to disease within 2 years of diagnosis despite treatment with ionizing radiation (IR) and/or chemotherapy. Our aim was to determine the role of protein phosphatase, magnesium-dependent 1, delta (PPM1D) mutation, present in up to 25% of cases, in DIPG pathogenesis and treatment. METHODS: Using genetic and pharmacologic approaches, we assayed effects of PPM1D mutation on DIPG growth and murine survival. We assayed effects of targeting mutated PPM1D alone or with IR on signaling, cell cycle, proliferation, and apoptosis in patient-derived DIPG cells in vitro, in organotypic brain slices, and in vivo. RESULTS: PPM1D-mutated DIPG cell lines exhibited increased proliferation in vitro and in vivo, conferring reduced survival in orthotopically xenografted mice, through stabilization of truncated PPM1D protein and inactivation of DNA damage response (DDR) effectors p53 and H2A.X. PPM1D knockdown or treatment with PPM1D inhibitors suppressed growth of PPM1D-mutated DIPGs in vitro. Orthotopic xenografting of PPM1D short hairpin RNA-transduced or PPM1D inhibitor-treated, PPM1D-mutated DIPG cells into immunodeficient mice resulted in reduced tumor proliferation, increased apoptosis, and extended mouse survival. PPM1D inhibition had similar effects to IR alone on DIPG growth inhibition and augmented the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of IR in PPM1D-mutated DIPG models. CONCLUSIONS: PPM1D mutations inactivate DDR and promote DIPG growth. Treatment with PPM1D inhibitors activated DDR pathways and enhanced the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of IR in DIPG models. Our results support continued development of PPM1D inhibitors for phase I/II trials in children with DIPG.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/radioterapia , Dano ao DNA/efeitos da radiação , Glioma Pontino Intrínseco Difuso/radioterapia , Proteínas Mutantes/antagonistas & inibidores , Mutação , Proteína Fosfatase 2C/antagonistas & inibidores , Radiação Ionizante , Animais , Apoptose , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/genética , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/patologia , Ciclo Celular , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Glioma Pontino Intrínseco Difuso/genética , Glioma Pontino Intrínseco Difuso/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Proteínas Mutantes/genética , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Proteína Fosfatase 2C/genética , Proteína Fosfatase 2C/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
20.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(13): 6984-6990, 2019 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30869713

RESUMO

Monolayer SnO has been attracting much attention owing to its unique electronic structure, which has potential applications in nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices. However, it is necessary to induce the spin-dependent electronic structure of monolayer SnO for its applications in spintronics. Here, in order to induce the spin polarization of monolayer SnO by magnetic proximity effects, the spin-dependent electronic structure of two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) SnO/CrN heterostructures is calculated using first-principles calculations by considering different strains and interlayer distances. When the interlayer distance of the heterostructure increases, the Sn magnetic moment decreases, but the Cr magnetic moment increases. As the interlayer distance decreases, the band gap of SnO decreases in the spin-down channel because of the enhancements in orbital overlap and hybridization. Meanwhile, the electronic structure of monolayer SnO/CrN heterostructures can also be tailored by in-plane biaxial strain. With an increase in tensile strain, the Fermi level of monolayer SnO moves down and p-type doping appears. For compressive strains, the Fermi level of monolayer SnO moves upward and n-type doping appears. When the in-plane biaxial strain turns from compressive to tensile, the magnetic anisotropy of CrN in monolayer SnO/CrN heterostructure increases, where the easy axis is perpendicular to the CrN layer.

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