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1.
Food Chem ; 367: 130738, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384978

RESUMO

A homogeneous galactoglucan was purified from the alkali-extracted polysaccharides from the basidioma of Macrolepiota albuminosa by gradient ethanol precipitation, whose proposed structure was given for the first time. Results showed it had a molecular weight of 210 kDa, and mainly consisted of glucose and galactose. There were abundant filaments, randomly distributed sheet-like and flaky appearance in its surface by SEM observation. Its backbone comprised ß-(1 â†’ 6)-Glcp, α-(1 â†’ 6)-Galp and ß-(1 â†’ 3,6)-Glcp residues at 4:1:1, terminated by ß-(1 â†’ 3)-Glcp and T-Glcp residues. Rheological measurements suggested its steady flow behavior was highly dependent on concentrations. Newtonian behavior was evident at low concentrations, whereas pseudoplastic behavior was observed at high concentrations. Besides, the X-ray diffraction patterns proved the presence of amorphous structure. The conformational parameters were detected by HPSEC-MALLS-RI, revealing a random coil conformation in NaNO3 aqueous solution. This work provides a theoretical basis for the application of polysaccharides from M. albuminosa in food- and drug-based therapies.


Assuntos
Galactanos , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos , Glucanos , Peso Molecular , Polissacarídeos
2.
Food Chem ; 368: 130772, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399182

RESUMO

Macrolepiota albuminosa (Berk.) Pegler is abundant in active polysaccharides, but little is known about their structures and solution properties. In this study, water-extracted polysaccharides from M. albuminosa (MAWP) were purified into three fractions with structural heterogeneity, which was attributed to the diversity in molecular weight, monosaccharide composition and linkage patterns, further affecting their solution properties. Methylation and NMR analysis revealed MAWP-60p and MAWP-70 were a 3-O-methylated glucomannogalactan and a previously unreported glucomannogalactan, whereas MAWP-80 was elucidated as a branched galactoglucan. Besides, three fractions exhibited random coil conformation in aqueous solution, while MAWP-60p had the highest viscosity due to its highest molecular weight, mean square radius of gyration (Rg) and O-methyl group attached to the backbone. The molecular weight, monosaccharide composition and glycosidic linkages might be the major contributors to the flexibility, molecular size and stereochemistry of mushroom polysaccharide chains.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Polissacarídeos , Carboidratos da Dieta , Peso Molecular , Monossacarídeos , Viscosidade
3.
Food Chem X ; 12: 100168, 2021 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34877528

RESUMO

Polysaccharides are important biomacromolecules with numerous beneficial functions and a wide range of industrial applications. Functions and properties of polysaccharides are closely related to their structural features. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a well-established technique which has been widely applied in polysaccharide structural analysis. In this paper, the principle of IR and interpretation of polysaccharide IR spectrum are briefly introduced. Classical applications of IR spectroscopy in polysaccharide structural elucidation are reviewed from qualitative and quantitative aspects. Some advanced IR techniques including integrating with mass spectrometry (MS), microscopy and computational chemistry are introduced and their applications are emphasized. These emerging techniques can considerably expand application scope of IR, thus exert a more important effect on carbohydrate characterization. Overall, this review seeks to provide a comprehensive insight to applications of IR spectroscopy in polysaccharide structural analysis and highlights the importance of advanced IR-integrating techniques.

4.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 35(6): 1171-1182, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224052

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Higher risk of bleeding with ticagrelor over clopidogrel in elderly patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been suggested. We assessed the incidence of major bleedings (MB), reinfarction (re-MI), and all-cause death to evaluate safety and efficacy of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in such population. METHODS: Real-world registries RENAMI and BleeMACS were merged. The pooled cohort was divided into two groups, clopidogrel versus ticagrelor. Statistical analysis considered patients <75 versus ≥75 years old. Endpoints were BARC 3-5 MB, re-MI, and all-cause death at 1-year follow-up. The study included 16,653 patients (13,153 < 75 and 3500 ≥ 75 years). Ticagrelor was underused in elderly patients (16.3% versus 20.8%, P < 0.001). Using propensity score matching (PSM), two treatment groups of 1566 patients were included in the final analysis. RESULTS: Ticagrelor was able to prevent re-MI (hazard ratio [HR], 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2-0.6; P < 0.001) and all-cause death (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.4-0.9; P = 0.026) irrespective of age. In patients ≥75 years, ticagrelor reduced all-cause death (HR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.1-0.8; P = 0.012) and re-MI (HR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.1-1.1, P = 0.072). Moreover, even with the limit of the low number of events, ticagrelor did not significantly increase the incidence of MB (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 0.70-3.0; P = 0.257). At multiple Cox regression, age (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02-1.05; P < 0.001) resulted an independent risk factor for bleeding. CONCLUSION: In our study, reflecting the results from two large retrospective, real-world registries, Ticagrelor did not significantly increase MB compared with clopidogrel in elderly patients with ACS treated with PCI, while significantly improving 1-year survival. Further studies on elderly patients are suggested.

5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e26162, 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032776

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients with multivessel disease (MVD) have a higher incidence of slow-flow/no-reflow (SF-NR) phenomenon during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) than those with single vessel disease. Currently, no effective tools exist to predict the risk of SF-NR in this population. The present study aimed to evaluate whether CHA2DS2-VASc score can be used as a simple tool to predict this risk.This study consecutively included STEMI patients hospitalized in Beijing Anzhen Hospital from January 2005 to January 2015. Among these patients, 1032 patients with MVD were finally enrolled. Patients were divided into SF-NR (+) group and SF-NR (-) group according to whether SF-NR occurred during PPCI. SF-NR was defined as the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) grade ≤2.There were 134 patients (13%) in the SF-NR (+) group. Compared with the SF-NR (-) group, patients in the SF-NR (+) group are elder, with lower left ventricular ejection fraction and higher CHA2DS2-VASc score. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥3 (odds ratio [OR], 2.148; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.389-3.320; P = .001), current smoking (OR, 1.814; 95% CI, 1.19-2.764; P = .006), atrial fibrillation (OR, 2.892; 95% CI, 1.138-7.350; P = .03), complete revascularization (OR, 2.307; 95% CI, 1.202-4.429; P = .01), and total length of stents ≥40 mm (OR, 1.482; 95% CI, 1.011-2.172; P = .04) were independent risk factors of SF-NR. The incidence of SF-NR in patients with CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥3 was 1.7 times higher than that in patients with CHA2DS2-VASc score <3. Additionally, patients with CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥3 plus ≥2 risk factors have 3 times higher incidence of SF-NR than those with CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥3 plus 0 to 1 risk factor.CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥3 can be used as a simple and sensitive indicator to predict SF-NR phenomenon and guide the PPCI strategy in STEMI patients with MVD.


Assuntos
Fenômeno de não Refluxo/fisiopatologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Medição de Risco/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Idoso , Angiografia Coronária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Função Ventricular Esquerda
6.
Food Chem ; 359: 129899, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965763

RESUMO

A low methyl-esterified pectin (33.2% methyl-esterification degree) was isolated from the tuber of Dioscorea opposita Thunb., which was an edible and medicinal material in China. This pectin (Mw of 1.3 × 104 g/mol) contained the ~59.1% homogalacturonan (HG) and ~38.1% highly branched rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) region with possible side chains embracing arabinogalactan II, arabinan or arabinogalactan I. The fragments including HG backbone consisting of â†’ 4)-α-GalpA-(1 â†’ and â†’ 4)-α-GalpA-6-O-methyl-(1 â†’ with molar ratio of ~2:1, and repeating unit of arabinogalactan II side chain composed of α-Araf-(1 â†’ and â†’ 3,6)-ß-Galp-(1→, were speculated through methylation analysis and NMR spectra. However, the linkage pattern for RG-I backbone and side chains were indiscernible due to limited resolution of NMR spectra. Besides, the pectin adopted a flexible chain conformation in 0.1 M NaNO3 solution. These results provided a structural basis for study on polysaccharide from D. opposite, which was benefit for development of functional food of yam.


Assuntos
Dioscorea/química , Pectinas/isolamento & purificação , Configuração de Carboidratos , China , Galactanos/análise , Galactanos/química , Galactanos/isolamento & purificação , Pectinas/análise , Pectinas/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Polissacarídeos/análise , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação
7.
Food Res Int ; 143: 110290, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992390

RESUMO

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been widely used as an analytical chemistry technique to investigate the molecular structure and conformation of polysaccharides. Combined with 1D spectra, chemical shifts and coupling constants in both homo- and heteronuclear 2D NMR spectra are able to infer the linkage and sequence of sugar residues. Besides, NMR has also been applied in conformation, quantitative analysis, cell wall in situ, degradation, polysaccharide mixture interaction analysis, as well as carbohydrates impurities profiling. This review summarizes the principle and development of NMR in polysaccharides analysis, and provides NMR spectra data collections of some common polysaccharides. It will help to promote the application of NMR in complex polysaccharides of biochemical interest, and provide valuable information on commercial polysaccharide products.


Assuntos
Polissacarídeos , Sequência de Carboidratos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Conformação Molecular , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular
8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 182: 2151-2161, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051255

RESUMO

Three water-soluble pectic polysaccharides (WKBP-P2, P3 and P4) were isolated from white kidney bean by ion exchange combined with size-exclusion methods. The structural features were characterized by GC-MS, NMR spectroscopy and HPSEC-MALLS-RI. It was found that three pectic polysaccharides were the major water-extracted polysaccharides in white kidney bean. All the WKBP-P2, P3 and P4 were probably composed of various structural regions including homogalacturonan (HG), xylogalacturonan (XGA), rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) regions in backbone, and arabinan region mainly as side chain. However, these pectic polysaccharides were significantly different in molar ratios of these structural regions and molecular size. WKBP-P2 was HG-predominant pectin (partially methyl-esterified) with weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of 1.2 × 104 g/mol, and contained minor RG-I, arabinan and probable XGA regions. WKBP-P3 (Mw of 4.0 × 104 g/mol) primarily embraced XGA, HG, arabinan regions and minor RG-I region. WKBP-4 with highest Mw (4.5 × 105 g/mol) had the most arabinan region (51.3%), which was probably the side chain linked to the backbone composed of RG-I, HG and slight XGA regions. These findings provided a structural basis for study on polysaccharides from white kidney bean, which was benefit for development of functional food.


Assuntos
Pectinas/química , Pectinas/isolamento & purificação , Phaseolus/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Metilação , Conformação Molecular , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética
9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 182: 1026-1036, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865892

RESUMO

Polysaccharides were extracted by hot water and alkali in sequence from Dolichos lablab L. hull, and further purified by ion-exchange and gel columns. Hot water extracted D. lablab hull polysaccharide (DLHP) was rich in glucuronoxylan and pectin, and alkali extracted polysaccharide (DLHAP) mostly embraced glucuronoxylan. The structures of purified glucuronoxylans from DLHP and DLHAP were mainly analyzed by HPAEC-PAD, methylation combined with GC-MS, NMR and SEC-MALLS. DLHP-1 was identified as acetylated glucuronoxylan containing →4)-ß-Xylp-(1→ backbone with substitution at O-2 site by α-GlcpA/4-O-methyl-α-GlcpA. The molar ratio of ß-Xylp to α-GlcpA was 6.9:1, and acetylation was mainly at O-3 site of ß-Xylp with acetylation degree of 21.5%. DLHP-1 and DLHP-2 had similar physicochemical properties, except for molecular weight (Mw). DLHAP-1 was the non-methylated glucuronoxylan almost without acetylation, and it had the molar ratio of ß-Xylp to α-GlcpA of 5.6:1. Besides, DLHP-1 (Mw of 20.0 × 103 g mol-1) adopted semi-flexible chain, while DLHAP-1 (Mw of 15.4 × 103 g mol-1) showed flexible chain. These results provided a structural basis for study on polysaccharides from D. lablab hull, which was benefit for understanding biological activities and developing functional food or pharmaceuticals of D. lablab.


Assuntos
Dolichos/química , Xilanos/química , Configuração de Carboidratos
10.
Carbohydr Polym ; 261: 117850, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766346

RESUMO

ß-Glucans are widely found in plants and microorganisms, which has a variety of functional activities. During production and application, interactions with other components have a great influence on the structure and functional properties of ß-glucan. In this paper, interactions (including non-covalent interaction and free-radical reaction) between natural product derived ß-glucan and ascorbic acid, polyphenols, bile acids/salts, metal ion or other compounds were summarized. Besides, the mechanism and influence factors of interactions between ß-glucan and small-molecule compounds, and their effects on the functional properties of ß-glucan were detailed. This review aims to develop an understanding and practical suggestions on interactions between ß-glucan and small-molecule compounds, which is expected to provide a useful reference for processing and application.

11.
Food Funct ; 12(6): 2617-2630, 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634806

RESUMO

Obesity is a chronic disease characterized by overweight resulting from fat accumulation, along with disturbance of metabolism and gut microbiota. Fermentation, as a green processing method, is beneficial for improving the nutrition capacity of food components. Polysaccharides are considered as one of the important components in food and are also potential supplements for anti-obesity treatment. This study aimed to investigate the anti-obesity effects of polysaccharides from fermented and non-fermented Momordica charantia L. with Lactobacillus plantarum NCU116 (FP and NFP) on obese rats by serum metabolomics and gut microbiota analysis. Metabolomics results revealed that abnormal lipid metabolism was formed due to obesity. The supplement of FP and NFP improved the glycerophospholipids, glycosphingolipids, and amino acid metabolism of the obese rats, which alleviated the hypercholesterolemia and overweight in rats. Furthermore, the disorder of gut microbiota was ameliorated by FP and NFP. FP promoted the growth of beneficial bacteria, such as phylum Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and genera Anaerostipes, Coprococcus, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium. FP also reduced several harmful bacteria belonging to the phylum Proteobacteria and genera Helicobacter. The positive correlation of the weight loss and lowering of serum lipids with the increased beneficial bacteria further elucidated that the anti-obesity effect of FP in obese rats is associated with the regulation of gut microbiota and serum metabolites. The results of this study could provide information for developing probiotic products in the future that may have beneficial effects on the prevention or treatment of obesity.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus plantarum , Momordica charantia/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fermentação , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
12.
Carbohydr Polym ; 255: 117502, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436255

RESUMO

Agrocybe cylindracea is a common source of active polysaccharides, but their fine structures are not clearly elucidated. In the present study, four fractions were purified from the alkaline extract of A. cylindracea (JACP), and their chemical components and structures were compared by HPAEC-PAD, methylation combined with GC-MS, and 1D/2D NMR analysis. Results showed the purified fractions' physicochemical properties, including monosaccharide compositions, molecular weights, viscosities and surface morphology considerably varied. JACP-30 was identified as a fucoglucogalactan with a α-(1 → 6)-galactopyranosyl as main chain. JACP-50p and JACP-80r were characterized as ß-(1 → 6)-glucans with side chains composed of terminal and 3-substituted ß-glucopyranosyl residues attached at O-3 for every three residues. Similarly, the backbone of JACP-80 was ß-(1 → 6)-linked glucopyranosyl and ß-(1 → 3,6)-linked glucopyranosyl residues at a ratio of 4:1. This work provides more information to the understanding of polysaccharides from A. cylindracea, further guiding its biological researches and developing the application in food and biomedicine industries.


Assuntos
Agrocybe/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Extração Líquido-Líquido/métodos , Monossacarídeos/química , beta-Glucanas/química , Sequência de Carboidratos , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/classificação , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Metilação , Peso Molecular , Monossacarídeos/classificação , Monossacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Hidróxido de Sódio/química , beta-Glucanas/classificação , beta-Glucanas/isolamento & purificação
13.
Am Heart J ; 234: 101-110, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Double kissing (DK) crush approach for patients with coronary bifurcation lesions, particularly localized at distal left main or lesions with increased complexity, is associated with significant reduction in clinical events when compared with provisional stenting. Recently, randomized clinical trial has demonstrated the net clinical benefits by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided implantation of drug-eluting stent in all-comers. However, the improvement in clinical outcome after DK crush treatment guided by IVUS over angiography guidance for patients with complex bifurcation lesions have never been studied in a randomized fashion. TRIAL DESIGN: DKCRUSH VIII study is a prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial designed to assess superiority of IVUS-guided vs angiography-guided DK crush stenting in patients with complex bifurcation lesions according to DEFINITION criteria. A total of 556 patients with complex bifurcation lesions will be randomly (1:1 of ratio) assigned to IVUS-guided or angiography-guided DK crush stenting group. The primary end point is the rate of 12-month target vessel failure, including cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction, or clinically driven target vessel revascularization. The secondary end points consist of the individual component of primary end point, all-cause death, myocardial infarction, and in-stent restenosis. The safety end point is the incidence of definite or probable stent thrombosis. An angiographic follow-up will be performed for all patients at 13 months and clinical follow-up will be continued annually until 3 years after the index procedure. CONCLUSIONS: DKCRUSH VIII trial is the first study designed to evaluate the differences in efficacy and safety between IVUS-guided and angiography-guided DK crush stenting in patients with complex true bifurcation lesions. This study will also provide IVUS-derived criteria to define optimal DK crush stenting for bifurcation lesions at higher complexity.


Assuntos
Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença das Coronárias/terapia , Stents Farmacológicos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Causas de Morte , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Doença das Coronárias/patologia , Reestenose Coronária/etiologia , Trombose Coronária/etiologia , Stents Farmacológicos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Revascularização Miocárdica , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Carbohydr Polym ; 251: 117116, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142651

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that water-soluble polysaccharides from fermented carrot pulp (WSP-p) have stronger anti-diabetic effects than those from un-fermented carrot pulp (WSP-n). This study aimed to improve understanding of these functional differences by comparing their molecular structures. Weight-average molecular weights of WSP-p fractions were lower than those of the corresponding WSP-n fractions. While both WSPs had similar functional groups, more fragmented particles were observed on the surface of large particles of WSP-n than WSP-p. Monosaccharide composition and methylation analysis confirmed that both WSP-p and WSP-n were pectic polysaccharides, containing rhamnogalacturonan-I-type polysaccharides with 1,4-linked α-d-galacturonic acid residues and homogalacturonan regions with 1,4-GalpA linkages. 1H and 13C NMR showed that they had similar linkage patterns. These findings suggested that probiotic fermentation of WSP mainly cleaved the linkages between repeating units, and resulted in less polydisperse molecular size distributions.


Assuntos
Daucus carota/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Probióticos/metabolismo , Daucus carota/metabolismo , Fermentação , Ácidos Hexurônicos/química , Ácidos Hexurônicos/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Estrutura Molecular , Monossacarídeos/química , Monossacarídeos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Probióticos/química
15.
J Geriatr Cardiol ; 17(8): 510-518, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952526

RESUMO

Intermediate- and high-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) is a life-threatening medical emergency with high morbidity and mortality. Many of the treatment options for PE involve clinicians from multiple disciplines. Pulmonary Embolism Response Teams (PERTs) have been developed to coordinate the multidisciplinary team of clinicians to streamline the decision making process and develop individualised treatment plans in a timely fashion. The first PERT was established in 2012 and subsequently multiple centres worldwide have introduced this model for the management of intermediate- and high-risk PE. In this review, we evaluate the organisational structure and algorithms of different PERT services and compare data from pre- and post-PERT services to determine the impact of PERT on outcomes. We consider the cost and time implications of this multidisciplinary 24-hour service and suggest areas for further research and review.

16.
Carbohydr Polym ; 249: 116813, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933661

RESUMO

Arabinoxylan (BIF-60) was isolated from barley water-insoluble fiber (BIF) by ethanol precipitation at 60 % (v/v). BIF-60 was composed of xylose (48.5 %) and arabinose (30.3 %). Its average molecular weight was 1360 kDa. Methylation and 1D/2D NMR analysis showed that BIF-60 possessed ß-(l→4)-xylan as backbone, comprised of un-substituted (1,4-linked ß-Xylp, 56.9 %), mono-substituted (1,2,4-linked and 1,3,4-linked ß-Xylp, 22.1 %) and di-substituted (1,2,3,4-lin4ked ß-Xylp, 18.4 %) xylose units, as well as other residues (T-Araf-(1→, T-Xylp-(1→, →5)-Araf-(1→, →2)-Araf-(1→, →3)-Araf-(1→ and →4)-Glcp-(1→). BIF-60 exhibited shear-thinning behaviour, low gel stability and weak gelling ability at high concentrations. This work provides a theoretical and experimental basis for molecular structure and properties of the alkali-extracted arabinoxylan from barley kernel, which could guide further functional research and application of barley-derived arabinoxylan.

17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 164: 826-835, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707281

RESUMO

Glucomannans (GMs) from abundant natural resources have excellent processing properties and plentiful bioactivities. In current study, functional properties of GMs with different structural characteristics, including KGM from konjac, DOP from dendrobium, AGP40, ASP-4N, ASP-6N, & ASP-8N from aloe were determined. Results suggested that molecular weights (Mw) of GMs were positively correlated with their water absorption capacity, fat absorption capacity, and viscosity, while ratio of mannose/glucose showed negative effect. Higher degree of acetylation (DA) mainly corresponded to higher values of solubility and ζ-potential. Then, effects of the six GMs on general health status, serum biochemicals, and intestinal SCFAs production in mice were evaluated in vivo. Analysis of general health status and levels of serum biochemicals revealed that mice with consecutive supplementation of GMs for 14 days performed normally compared with those in control group. Interestingly, the productions of SCFAs (mainly acetate and butyrate) in the cecal and colonic contents were significantly promoted. Generally, higher concentrations of SCFAs were produced when mice were treated with GMs having higher Mw, ratio of glucose, and DA. The current investigation suggested that both functional and intestinal fermentation property of GMs were jointly determined by the monosaccharide composition, molecular weight, and degree of acetylation.


Assuntos
Aloe/química , Amorphophallus/química , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/biossíntese , Mananas/química , Acetilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ceco/efeitos dos fármacos , Ceco/metabolismo , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/metabolismo , Dendrobium/química , Humanos , Mananas/classificação , Mananas/isolamento & purificação , Mananas/farmacologia , Camundongos , Peso Molecular , Água/química
18.
Carbohydr Polym ; 237: 116117, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241414

RESUMO

Konjac glucomannan (KGM) with a molecular weight (MW) of 823.4 kDa was partially degraded by endo-1,4-ß-mannanase. Two hydrolyzed KGM fractions (KGM-M-1: 147.2 kDa and KGM-M-2: 21.5 kDa) were characterized and applied to the animal tests in comparison with the native KGM. After oral feeding to the mice, KGM-M-1 and KGM-M-2 significantly increased the levels of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the colonic contents and the native KGM increased the SCFAs in the cecum. The more significant effect of the native KGM in the cecum may be attributable to its high viscosity, slowing down the movement of intestinal microflora through the cecum, while the lower MW KGM-M-1 and KGM-M-2 could move more easily through the colon to be fermented by colonic bacteria. This new finding may be useful for future research and development of low-MW KGM polysaccharides through enzyme hydrolysis for the desired gut health benefits.


Assuntos
Catárticos , Ceco/microbiologia , Colo/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mananas , Amorphophallus/química , Animais , Catárticos/química , Catárticos/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Masculino , Mananas/química , Mananas/farmacologia , Camundongos , Viscosidade
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 151: 483-491, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084460

RESUMO

Polysaccharide derived from natural products has a wide range of sources and mild properties, and exhibit various bioactivities. Ascorbic acid is one of the most important nutrients in fruits and vegetables, as well as their products. Ascorbic acid and polysaccharide coexist in many systems during food production and processing. Many studies have found that ascorbic acid at low concentrations degrades polysaccharide derived from natural products via hydroxyl radical. In this paper, the research progress on ascorbic acid induced polysaccharide degradation is summarized from four aspects: mechanism of action, analytical methods, influencing factors and bioactivity of degradation products. It is expected to provide a theoretical basis for further research.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Carboidratos da Dieta , Hidrólise , Oxirredução , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/ultraestrutura , Análise Espectral
20.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 73(2): 114-122, feb. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195002

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: No está clara la asociación entre los inhibidores de la enzima de conversión de la angiotensina (IECA) o los antagonistas del receptor de la angiotensina II (ARA-II) y la mortalidad de los pacientes con síndrome coronario agudo (SCA) sometidos a intervención coronaria percutánea (ICP) con fracción de eyección del ventrículo izquierdo (FEVI) conservada. Nuestro objetivo es determinar dicha asociación en pacientes con FEVI conservada o reducida. MÉTODOS: Se analizaron datos procedentes del registro BleeMACS. El objetivo principal fue la mortalidad a 1 año. Se aplicaron ponderación por la probabilidad inversa del tiempo de supervivencia y ajustes por regresión de Cox, puntuación de propensión y variables instrumentales. RESULTADOS: De los 15.401 pacientes con SCA sometidos a ICP, se prescribieron IECA/ARA-II al 75,2%. Se produjeron 569 muertes (3,7%) durante el primer año tras el alta hospitalaria. Después del ajuste multivariado, los IECA/ARA-II se asociaron con menor mortalidad, pero solo en los pacientes con FEVI ≤ 40% (HR=0,62; IC95%, 0,43-0,90; p = 0,012). Con los IECA/ARA-II, la reducción del riesgo relativo de la mortalidad estimada fue del 46,1% en los pacientes con FEVI ≤ 40% y del 15,7% en aquellos con FEVI> 40% (pinteracción=0,008). En los pacientes con FEVI> 40%, los IECA/ARA-II se asociaron con menor mortalidad solo por infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST (HR=0,44; IC95%, 0,21-0.93; p = 0,031). CONCLUSIONES: El beneficio de los IECA/ARA-II en mortalidad tras ICP por SCA se concentra en pacientes con FEVI ≤ 40% y aquellos con FEVI> 40% e infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST. Se precisan estudios contemporáneos que analicen el impacto de los IECA/ARA-II en pacientes con SCA sin elevación del segmento ST y FEVI> 40%


INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: For patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), it is unclear whether angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are associated with reduced mortality, particularly with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The goal of this study was to determine the association between ACEI/ARB and mortality in ACS patients undergoing PCI, with and without reduced LVEF. METHODS: Data from the BleeMACS registry were used. The endpoint was 1-year all-cause mortality. The prognostic value of ACEI/ARB was tested after weighting by survival-time inverse probability and after adjustment by Cox regression, propensity score, and instrumental variable analysis. RESULTS: Among 15 401 ACS patients who underwent PCI, ACEI/ARB were prescribed in 75.2%. There were 569 deaths (3.7%) during the first year after hospital discharge. After multivariable adjustment, ACEI/ARB were associated with lower 1-year mortality, ≤ 40% (HR, 0.62; 95%CI, 0.43-0.90; P=.012). The relative risk reduction of ACEI/ARB in mortality was 46.1% in patients with LVEF ≤ 40%, and 15.7% in patients with LVEF> 40% (P value for treatment-by-LVEF interaction=.008). For patients with LVEF> 40%, ACEI/ARB was associated with lower mortality only in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (HR, 0.44; 95%CI, 0.21-0.93; P=.031). CONCLUSION: The benefit of ACEI/ARB in decreasing mortality after an ACS in patients undergoing PCI is concentrated in patients with LVEF ≤ 40%, and in those with LVEF> 40% and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. In non-ST-segment elevation-ACS patients with LVEF> 40%, further studies are needed to assess the prognostic impact of ACEI/ARB


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Volume Sistólico , Análise de Sobrevida
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