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1.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with decreased brain gray- (GM) and white-matter (WM) volumes in regions. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is an effective bariatric surgery associated with neuroplastic changes in patients with obesity at 1 month postLSG. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether LSG can induce sustained neuroplastic recovery of brain structural abnormalities, and whether structural changes are accompanied by functional alterations. SETTING: University hospital, longitudinal study. METHODS: Structural magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry analysis were employed to assess GM/WM volumes in 30 obese participants at preLSG and 1 and 3 months postLSG. One-way analysis of variance modeled time effects on GM/WM volumes, and then alterations in resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) were assessed. RESULTS: Significant time effects on GM volumes were in caudate (F = 11.20), insula (INS; F = 10.11), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC; F = 13.32), and inferior frontal gyrus (F = 12.18), and on WM volumes in anterior cingulate cortex (F = 15.70), PCC (F = 15.56), and parahippocampus (F = 17.96, PFDR < .05). Post hoc tests showed significantly increased GM volumes in caudate (mean change ± SEM .018 ± .005 and P = .001, .031 ± .007 and P < .001), INS (.027 ± .008 and P = .003, .043 ± .009 and P < .001), and PCC (.008 ± .004 and P = .042, .026 ± .006 and P < .001), and increased WM volumes in anterior cingulate cortex (.029 ± .006 and P < .001, .041 ± .008 and P < .001), PCC (.017 ± .004 and P < .001, .032 ± .006 and P < .001), and parahippocampus (.031 ± .008 and P =.001, .075 ± .013 and P < .001) at 1 and 3 months postLSG compared with preLSG. Significant increases in GM volumes were in caudate (.013 ± .006 and P = .036), PCC (.019 ± .006 and P = .006), and inferior frontal gyrus (.019 ± .005 and P = .001), and in WM volumes in anterior cingulate cortex (.012 ± .005 and P = .028), PCC (.014 ± .006 and P = .017), and parahippocampus (.044 ± .014 and P = .003) at 3 relative to 1 month postLSG. GM volumes in INS and PCC showed a positive correlation at 1 (r = .57, P = .001) and 3 months postLSG (r = .55, P = .001). GM volume in INS and PCC were positively correlated with RSFC of INS-PCC (r = .40 and P = .03, r = .55 and P = .001) and PCC-INS (r = .37 and P = .046, r = .57 and P < .001) at 1 month postLSG. GM volume in INS was also positively correlated with RSFC of INS-PCC (r = .44, P = .014) and PCC-INS (r = .38, P = .037) at 3 months postLSG. CONCLUSION: LSG induces sustained structural brain changes, which might mediate long-term benefits of bariatric surgery in weight reduction. Associations between regional GM volume and RSFC suggest that LSG-induced structural changes contribute to RSFC changes.

2.
Int J Med Sci ; 16(9): 1260-1270, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588192

RESUMO

Background: Accumulating evidence has shown that neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with gut microbiota through the gut-brain axis. However, the effects of antidepressant treatment on gut microbiota are rarely studied. Here, we investigated whether stress led to gut microbiota changes and whether fluoxetine plays a role in microbiota alteration. Methods: We investigated changes in gut microbiota in a depression model induced by chronic unpredicted mild stress (CUMS) and a restoration model by applying the classic antidepressant drug fluoxetine. Results: We found that stress led to low bacterial diversity, simpler bacterial network, and increased abundance of pathogens, such as Escherichia/Shigella, and conditional pathogens, such as Enterococcus, Vagococcus, and Aerococcus. However, these changes were attenuated by fluoxetine directly and indirectly. Furthermore, the correlation analysis indicated strong correlations between gut microbiota and anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Conclusions: This study revealed that fluoxetine led to restoration of dysbiosis induced by stress stimulation, which may imply a possible pathway through which one CNS target drug plays its role in reshaping the gut microbiota.

3.
Hepatology ; 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529503

RESUMO

The poor prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is mainly attributed to its high rate of metastasis and recurrence. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying HCC metastasis need to be elucidated. The SRY-related HMG box (SOX) family proteins, which are a group of highly conserved transcription factors, play important roles in cancer initiation and progression. Here, we report a novel role of SOX18, a member of the SOX family, in promoting HCC invasion and metastasis. The elevated expression of SOX18 was positively correlated with poor tumor differentiation, higher TNM stage, and poor prognosis. The overexpression of SOX18 promoted HCC metastasis by upregulating metastasis-related genes, including fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) and fms-related tyrosine kinase 4 (FLT4). Knockdown of both FGFR4 and FLT4 significantly decreased SOX18-mediated HCC invasion and metastasis, while the stable overexpression of FGFR4 and FLT4 reversed the decrease in cell invasion and metastasis that was induced by the inhibition of SOX18. Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), which is the ligand of FGFR4, upregulated SOX18 expression. A mechanistic investigation indicated that the upregulation of SOX18 that was mediated by the FGF19-FGFR4 pathway relied on the p-FRS2/p-GSK3ß/ß-catenin pathway. SOX18 knockdown significantly reduced FGF19-enhanced HCC invasion and metastasis. Furthermore, BLU9931, a specific FGFR4 inhibitor, significantly reduced the SOX18-mediated HCC invasion and metastasis. In human HCC tissues, SOX18 expression was positively correlated with FGF19, FGFR4 and FLT4 expression, and patients that coexpressed FGF19/SOX18, SOX18/FGFR4, or SOX18/FLT4 had the worst prognosis. CONCLUSION: We defined a FGF19-SOX18-FGFR4 positive feedback loop that played a pivotal role in HCC metastasis, and targeting this pathway may be a promising therapeutic option for the clinical management of HCC.

4.
Oncogene ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501520

RESUMO

Cancer cells are known to adopt aerobic glycolysis in order to fuel tumor growth, but the molecular basis of this metabolic shift remains largely undefined. O-GlcNAcase (OGA) is an enzyme harboring O-linked ß-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) hydrolase and cryptic lysine acetyltransferase activities. Here, we report that OGA is upregulated in a wide range of human cancers and drives aerobic glycolysis and tumor growth by inhibiting pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2). PKM2 is dynamically O-GlcNAcylated in response to changes in glucose availability. Under high glucose conditions, PKM2 is a target of OGA-associated acetyltransferase activity, which facilitates O-GlcNAcylation of PKM2 by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT). O-GlcNAcylation inhibits PKM2 catalytic activity and thereby promotes aerobic glycolysis and tumor growth. These studies define a causative role for OGA in tumor progression and reveal PKM2 O-GlcNAcylation as a metabolic rheostat that mediates exquisite control of aerobic glycolysis.

5.
Theranostics ; 9(18): 5359-5373, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410220

RESUMO

Metastasis is the primary cause of death in patients with advanced cancer. Recently, a high-fat diet was shown to specifically promote the metastatic potential of specific cancer cells in a CD36-dependent manner. However, the molecular basis of the fatty acid (FA)-induced upregulation of CD36 has remained unclear. Methods: RT-qPCR, FACS analysis, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry, as well as retrieving TCGA database, were carried out to quantitate CD36 expression in gastric cancer (GC) tissues and cell lines. Transwell assay and xenografts were used to assess cell metastasis abilities in vitro and in vivo after indicated treatment. Luciferase reporter assay was carried out to evaluate the changes in signaling pathways when O-GlcNAcylation level was increased in GC cells and in vitro O-GlcNAcylation assay was utilized for wild and mutant types of CD36 protein to explore the potential O-GlcNAcylation sites. Results: High CD36 expression is a predictor of poor survival and promotes metastasis of GC cells and the use of neutralizing antibodies to block CD36 inhibits GC metastasis in mice. FA or a HFD promotes the metastatic potential of GC cells by upregulating CD36 via increasing the O-GlcNAcylation level. Increased O-GlcNAcylation levels promote the transcription of CD36 by activating the NF-κB pathway and also increase its FA uptake activity by directly modifying CD36 at S468 and T470. Conclusion: FA-induced hyper-O-GlcNAcylation promotes the transcription and function of CD36 by activating the NF-κB pathway and directly modifying CD36 at S468 and T470, which drives GC metastasis.

6.
Theranostics ; 9(13): 3879-3902, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281520

RESUMO

Background: Metastasis is the major reason for high recurrence rates and poor survival among patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the underlying molecular mechanism of CRC metastasis is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of forkhead box K2 (FOXK2), one of the most markedly increased FOX genes in CRC, and the mechanism by which it is deregulated in CRC metastasis. Methods: FOXK2 levels were analyzed in two independent human CRC cohorts (cohort I, n = 363; cohort II, n = 390). In vitro Transwell assays and in vivo lung and liver metastasis models were used to examine CRC cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays were used to measure the binding of transcription factors to the promoters of FOXK2, zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Cetuximab was utilized to treat FOXK2-mediated metastatic CRC. Results: FOXK2 was significantly upregulated in human CRC tissues, was correlated with more aggressive features and indicated a poor prognosis. FOXK2 overexpression promoted CRC migration, invasion and metastasis, while FOXK2 downregulation had the opposite effects. ZEB1 and EGFR were determined to be direct transcriptional targets of FOXK2 and were essential for FOXK2-mediated CRC metastasis. Moreover, activation of EGFR signaling by EGF enhanced FOXK2 expression via the extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathways. The EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab significantly inhibited FOXK2-promoted CRC metastasis. In clinical CRC tissues, FOXK2 expression was positively correlated with the expression of p65, ZEB1 and EGFR. CRC patients who coexpressed p65/FOXK2, FOXK2/ZEB1 and FOXK2/EGFR had poorer prognosis. Conclusions: FOXK2 serves as a prognostic biomarker in CRC. Cetuximab can block the EGF-NF-κB-FOXK2-EGFR feedback loop and suppress CRC metastasis.

7.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218532

RESUMO

Functional constipation (FC) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID). Neuroimaging studies on patients with FC showed brain functional abnormalities in regions involved in emotional process modulation, somatic and sensory processing and motor control. Brain structural imaging studies in patients with FGID have also shown disease-related alterations in cortical morphometry, but whether and how FC affects brain structure remains unclear. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging and surface-based morphometry analysis were used to investigate the impact of FC on cortical morphometry in 29 patients with FC and 29 healthy controls (HC). Results showed that patients with FC compared to HC had significantly decreased cortical thickness in the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG), dorsomedial (DMPFC) and ventromedial prefrontal gyrus (VMPFC), right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus, middle temporal gyrus (MTG), and supplementary motor area (SMA) (P < 0.01). Correlation analysis showed that sensation of incomplete evacuation was negatively correlated with cortical thickness in the SMA (P < 0.0001). In addition, patients with FC also had decreased cortical volume than HC in the MTG, precentral gyrus (PreCen) and precuneus/cuneus (P < 0.01), as well as decreased cortical surface area in the PreCen (P < 0.01). No correlation was found between cortical volume/surface area and behavioral measures. These findings suggest that patients with FC are associated with cortical morphometric abnormalities in brain regions implicated in somatic/motor-control, emotional processing and self-referential processing.

8.
Oncogene ; 38(28): 5744-5745, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160652

RESUMO

A correction to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2037, 2019 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048690

RESUMO

Genome-wide analysis of genomic signatures might reveal novel mechanisms for gastric cancer (GC) tumorigenesis. Here, we analysis structural variations (SVs) and mutational signatures via whole-genome sequencing of 168 GCs. Our data demonstrates diverse models of complex SVs operative in GC, which lead to high-level amplification of oncogenes. We find varying proportion of tandem-duplications (TDs) among individuals and identify 24 TD hotspots involving well-established cancer genes such as CCND1, ERBB2 and MYC. Specifically, we nominate a novel hotspot involving the super-enhancer of ZFP36L2 presents in approximately 10% GCs from different cohorts, the oncogenic role of which is further confirmed by experimental data. In addition, our data reveal a mutational signature, specifically occurring in noncoding region, significantly enriched in tumors with cadherin 1 mutations, and associated with poor prognoses. Collectively, our data suggest that TDs might serve as an important mechanism for cancer gene activation and provide a novel signature for stratification.


Assuntos
Oncogenes/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos CD/genética , Caderinas/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Duplicação Gênica/genética , Variação Estrutural do Genoma , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estômago/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
10.
Cancer Cell ; 35(4): 633-648.e7, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30956060

RESUMO

UHRF1 facilitates the establishment and maintenance of DNA methylation patterns in mammalian cells. The establishment domains are defined, including E3 ligase function, but the maintenance domains are poorly characterized. Here, we demonstrate that UHRF1 histone- and hemimethylated DNA binding functions, but not E3 ligase activity, maintain cancer-specific DNA methylation in human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Disrupting either chromatin reader activity reverses DNA hypermethylation, reactivates epigenetically silenced tumor suppressor genes (TSGs), and reduces CRC oncogenic properties. Moreover, an inverse correlation between high UHRF1 and low TSG expression tracks with CRC progression and reduced patient survival. Defining critical UHRF1 domain functions and its relationship with CRC prognosis suggests directions for, and value of, targeting this protein to develop therapeutic DNA demethylating agents.

11.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(488)2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996080

RESUMO

Recent studies have established the involvement of the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) in metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. However, the precise molecular mechanism by which FTO regulates metabolism remains unknown. Here, we used a structure-based virtual screening of U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs to identify entacapone as a potential FTO inhibitor. Using structural and biochemical studies, we showed that entacapone directly bound to FTO and inhibited FTO activity in vitro. Furthermore, entacapone administration reduced body weight and lowered fasting blood glucose concentrations in diet-induced obese mice. We identified the transcription factor forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) mRNA as a direct substrate of FTO, and demonstrated that entacapone elicited its effects on gluconeogenesis in the liver and thermogenesis in adipose tissues in mice by acting on an FTO-FOXO1 regulatory axis.

12.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(3): 239, 2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858360

RESUMO

The sex-determining region Y (SRY)-box (SOX) family has a crucial role in carcinogenesis and cancer progression. However, the role of SOX12 and the mechanism by which it is dysregulated in colorectal cancer (CRC) remain unclear. Here we analyzed SOX12 expression patterns in two independent CRC cohorts (cohort I, n = 390; cohort II, n = 363) and found that SOX12 was significantly upregulated in CRC, indicating a poor prognosis in CRC patients. Overexpression of SOX12 promoted CRC cell proliferation and metastasis, whereas downregulation of SOX12 hampered CRC aggressiveness. Mechanistically, SOX12 facilitated asparagine synthesis by transactivating glutaminase (GLS), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase 2 (GOT2), and asparagine synthetase (ASNS). Downregulation of GLS, GOT2, and ASNS blocked SOX12-mediated CRC cell proliferation and metastasis, whereas ectopic expression of GLS, GOT2, and ASNS attenuated the SOX12 knockdown-induced suppression of CRC progression. In addition, serial deletion, site-directed mutagenesis, luciferase reporter, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays indicated that hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) directly binds to the SOX12 promoter and induces SOX12 expression. Administration of L-asparaginase decreased SOX12-mediated tumor growth and metastasis. In human CRC samples, SOX12 expression positively correlated with GLS, GOT2, ASNS, and HIF-1α expression. Based on these results, SOX12 may serve as a prognostic biomarker and L-asparaginase represents a potential novel therapeutic agent for CRC.

13.
Cancer Lett ; 452: 103-118, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922917

RESUMO

Metastasis is the major cause of poor survival and therapeutic failure in gastric cancer (GC). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying GC metastasis remain unclear. Here, we analyzed the expression patterns of sex determining region Y-box 12 (SOX12) in two independent cohorts of paired GC tissues and adjacent nontumor tissues and conducted in vitro and in vivo functional studies to determine the role of SOX12 in GC cells. High SOX12 expression in GC tissues was associated with increased frequency of recurrence and poorer patient survival. SOX12 overexpression increased GC cell migration, invasion and metastasis, whereas SOX12 downregulation decreased these behaviors. Reporter assays revealed that matrix metallopeptidase 7 (MMP7) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) are transcriptional targets of SOX12 and indicated their requirement for SOX12-mediated GC metastasis. IGF1 induced SOX12 expression via the PI3K/AKT/CREB pathway, forming an IGF1/CREB/SOX12 feedback loop that contributed to GC metastasis. SOX12 expression correlated with MMP7 and IGF1 expression in GC tissues, and patients expressing SOX12 and either MMP7 or IGF1 had higher metastasis and recurrence rates and shorter survival than patients without that expression pattern. In conclusion, SOX12 is a novel prognostic biomarker and regulator of GC metastasis.

14.
Oncogene ; 38(22): 4297-4309, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700830

RESUMO

The naked mole rat (nmr) is cancer resistant due to the abundant production of extremely high-molecular-weight hyaluronan (EHMW-HA). However, whether EHMW-HA has similar anti-cancer effects in mice and humans remains to be determined. The present study used breast cancer cells to clarify the effect of EHMW-HA on breast cancer. First, the overexpression of nmrHas2 in 4T1 and BT549 cell lines in both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) models to mimic tumor microenvironment was established. The 4T1/BT549-nmrHas2 cells could secrete EHMW-HA (with a molecular weight of up to 6 MDa), which was similar to that found in the naked mole rat. Second, EHMW-HA altering tumor microenvironment in both 2D monolayers and 3D spheroids significantly enhanced apoptosis, inhibiting the proliferation of 4T1 and BT549 cells. The prominent anticancer effects of EHMW-HA on the cancer-cell apoptosis phenotype were further confirmed by inhibiting tumor formation in nude mice. Finally, EHMW-HA significantly induced higher p53 protein expression, which enhanced pro-apoptotic proteins p21 and Bax in breast cancer cells; this is in contrast with the triggering of hypersensitivity of the naked mole rat cells to early contact inhibition (ECI). These results have important implications for the design of therapeutic approaches based on the application of EHMW-HA.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Hialurônico/farmacologia , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Ratos-Toupeira , Ratos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
15.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 31(5): e13566, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30729624

RESUMO

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to investigate sex-related differences in brain abnormalities in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Like IBS, women with functional constipation (FC) are 2.1 times as many as men. No study has been performed yet to examine sex-related differences in brain activity and connectivity in patients with FC. Here, we employed resting-state fMRI with amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) to investigate brain functional differences in 51 patients with FC (34 females) and 52 healthy controls (34 females). Results showed abdominal pain and abdominal distension correlated with trait (TAI) and state (SAI) anxiety ratings in the female FC group, and abdominal distension correlated with sensation of incomplete evacuation in the male FC group. Two-way ANOVA revealed sex effects on ALFF in precentral gyrus, thalamus, insula (INS), and orbital frontal cortex (OFC, PFWE  < 0.05). Post hoc test showed that the female FC group had lower ALFF than males in these brain regions (P < 0.01), and ALFF in INS and OFC was correlated with abdominal pain and difficulty of defecation, respectively. Seed voxel correlation analysis showed that the female FC group had weaker connectivity than males between INS and lateral OFC (lOFC). INS-lOFC connectivity was negatively correlated with the anxiety score in the female FC group and was negatively correlated with abdominal distension in the male FC group. These findings provide the first insight into sex-related differences in patients with FC and highlight that INS and OFC play an important role in modulating the intrinsic functional connectivity of the resting brain network showing that this role is influenced by sex.

16.
Theranostics ; 9(3): 721-733, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809304

RESUMO

Depression and obesity have high concurrence within individuals, which may be explained by sharing the same risk factors, including disruption of the intestinal microbiota. However, evidence that delineated the causal connections is extremely scarce. Methods: Mice lacking fat mass- and obesity-associated gene (Fto) were generated. Fto-deficient and wild-type control mice were subjected to novel conditions with or without chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) for 6 weeks. Some mice were treated with antibiotics via their drinking water for 6 weeks in order to deplete their microbiota. Behavioral tests were performed to evaluate anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. 16S rRNA amplicon and metagenomic sequencing were employed to analyse fecal microbiota. Plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were also compared. Results: Deletion of Fto led to lower body weight and decreased anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, Fto+/- mice were also less susceptible to stress stimulation, highlighting the essential role of Fto in pathogenesis of depression. With regard to gut microbiota, Fto deficiency mice harbored specific bacterial signature of suppressing inflammation, characterized with higher abundance of Lactobacillus, lower Porphyromonadaceae and Helicobacter. Critically, behavioral alterations of Fto +/- mice are mediated by shift in gut microbiota, as such changes can be partially attenuated using antibiotics. Exposure to CUMS increased serum IL-6 level while Fto deficiency reduced its level, which may be explained by a lower LPS concentration. Conclusion: Together, our findings uncover the roles of Fto on depression and provide insights into microbiota-related biological mechanisms underlying the association between obesity and depression.

17.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(2): 35, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30674866

RESUMO

Transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) are tightly linked to each other in tumor development and progression, but their interactions in gastric cancer (GC) metastasis remain elusive. Here we report a novel suppressive role of GATA6 in inhibiting GC metastasis by transactivating miR-520b. We found that GATA6 expression was significantly downregulated in metastatic GC cells and tissues and that its downregulation was correlated with a poor GC prognosis. Overexpression of GATA6 suppressed GC cell migration, invasion and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. Luciferase reporter assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that miR-520b is a direct transcriptional target of GATA6. Moreover, miR-520b expression was positively correlated with GATA6 expression in GC tissues, and ectopic expression of miR-520b inhibited the migration and invasion of GC cells. Furthermore, cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1) was identified as a direct and functional target of miR-520b, and GATA6 could suppress GC cell migration and metastasis via miR-520b-mediated repression of CREB1. Downregulation of GATA6 and miR-520b may partly account for the overexpression of CREB1 in GC. In conclusion, our results provide novel insight into the TF-miRNA regulatory network involved in GC metastasis. Targeting the GATA6/miR-520b/CREB1 axis may be an effective approach for GC treatment.

18.
Gut ; 68(10): 1751-1763, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) is common in the gastric epithelium of patients with chronic atrophic gastritis. CDX2 activation in IM is driven by reflux of bile acids and following chronic inflammation. But the mechanism underlying how bile acids activate CDX2 in gastric epithelium has not been fully explored. METHODS: We performed microRNA (miRNA) and messenger RNA (mRNA) profiling using microarray in cells treated with bile acids. Data integration of the miRNA/mRNA profiles with gene ontology (GO) analysis and bioinformatics was performed to detect potential miRNA-mRNA regulatory circuits. Transfection of gastric cancer cell lines with miRNA mimics and inhibitors was used to evaluate their effects on the expression of candidate targets and functions. Immunohistochemistry and in situhybridisation were used to detect the expression of selected miRNAs and their targets in IM tissue microarrays. RESULTS: We demonstrate a bile acids-triggered pathway involving upregulation of miR-92a-1-5p and suppression of its target FOXD1 in gastric cells. We first found that miR-92a-1-5p was increased in IM tissues and induced by bile acids. Moreover, miR-92a-1-5p was found to activate CDX2 and downstream intestinal markers by targeting FOXD1/FOXJ1 axis and modulating activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. Furthermore, these effects were found to be clinical relevant, as high miR-92a-1-5p levels were correlated with low FOXD1 levels and high CDX2 levels in IM tissues. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest a miR-92a-1-5p/FOXD1/NF-κB/CDX2 regulatory axis plays key roles in the generation of IM phenotype from gastric cells. Suppression of miR-92a-1-5p and restoration of FOXD1 may be a preventive approach for gastric IM in patients with bile regurgitation.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/efeitos adversos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização In Situ , Metaplasia/genética , Metaplasia/metabolismo , Metaplasia/patologia , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , RNA Neoplásico/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Regulação para Cima
19.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 30(2): 148-153.e2, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638778

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the role of early overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE) as a clinical marker of prognosis in cirrhosis with a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) and to assess the relationship between recurrence of OHE and survival after TIPS. METHODS: From January 2012 to December 2013, a retrospective study of consecutive patients with cirrhosis and a TIPS was performed at a single institution. A total of 304 patients (196 males; mean age, 52 years) were enrolled during the study period. The mean Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score was 11.6. Time-dependent Cox regression was applied to estimate the predictive ability of early OHE (within 3 months after TIPS) and the effect of its frequency on survival. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 28.3 months, 115 patients experienced OHE after the TIPS procedure; of these, 54 had at least 2 OHE episodes. Long-term survival worsened in patients with early OHE (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.75; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.75-4.32; P < .001). When early OHE was further divided into early-recurrent and single OHE, death was more common in patients with early-recurrent OHE (P < .001) than in patients with early-single OHE (P = .24). After adjustment by MELD score, ascites, serum albumin, indication for TIPS, and age, patients with early-recurrent OHE had a lower probability of survival (HR = 2.91; 95% CI: 1.04-4.89; P < .001). Furthermore, landmark and propensity score analyses confirmed the predictive value of early-recurrent OHE. CONCLUSIONS: Early recurrence of OHE was associated with an increased risk of mortality for patients with cirrhosis who underwent TIPS.


Assuntos
Encefalopatia Hepática/mortalidade , Cirrose Hepática/cirurgia , Derivação Portossistêmica Transjugular Intra-Hepática/mortalidade , Adulto , Feminino , Encefalopatia Hepática/diagnóstico , Encefalopatia Hepática/etiologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Derivação Portossistêmica Transjugular Intra-Hepática/efeitos adversos , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 100: 229-236, 2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388597

RESUMO

The "hunger" hormone ghrelin regulates food-intake and preference for high-calorie (HC) food through modulation of the mesocortico-limbic dopaminergic pathway. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is an effective bariatric surgery to treat morbid obesity. We tested the hypothesis that LSG-induced reductions in appetite and total ghrelin levels in blood are associated with reduced prefrontal brain reactivity to food cues. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) cue-reactivity task with HC and low-calorie (LC) food pictures was used to investigate brain reactivity in 22 obese participants tested before and one month after bariatric surgery (BS). Nineteen obese controls (Ctr) without surgery were also tested at baseline and one-month later. LSG significantly decreased (1) fasting plasma concentrations of total ghrelin, leptin and insulin, (2) craving for HC food, and (3) brain activation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in response to HC vs. LC food cues (PFWE < 0.05). LSG-induced reduction in DLPFC activation to food cues were positively correlated with reduction in ghrelin levels and reduction in craving ratings for food. Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) connectivity analyses showed that the right DLPFC had stronger connectivity with the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) after LSG, and changes in BMI were negatively correlated with changes in connectivity between the right DLPFC and vACC in the LSG group only. These findings suggest that LSG-induced weight-loss may be related to reductions in ghrelin, possibly leading to decreased food craving and hypothetically reducing DLPFC response to the HC food cues.

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