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1.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(49): 46140-46148, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729222

RESUMO

Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) serves as a powerful tool for biological research, and laser desorption ionization (LDI) is used as a major sampling ionization method. Study of materials for LDI represents a major field in the MSI research, either for matrices in matrix-assisted LDI (MALDI) or sample substrates allowing matrix-free LDI. In this study, we developed a composite substrate using polydopamine (PDA) film to coat an antireflection (AR) surface for LDI-MSI. The AR material has been previously shown to confine UV energy within the micro-/nanostructures, leading to a highly localized temperature rise to facilitate analyte thermal desorption. PDA coating on the AR material further enhances the light-to-heat conversion and improves the contact between the substrate surface and the biological sample materials. With this substrate, desorption and ionization of lipids from raw human plasma samples and biological tissue sections have been achieved. Matrix-free LDI-MSI of around 30 lipid species in mouse brain sections was achieved with a significantly simplified MSI procedure at a spatial resolution of 50 µm. This method was applied to determine mouse fatty liver disease through monitoring the abundances and distributions of triacylglycerols and glycerophospholipids. Dramatic differences in the lipid profiles were subsequently identified between the liver tissues from the wild-type and obese mice.

2.
Analyst ; 144(22): 6641-6646, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595888

RESUMO

The detection of the HPV L1 protein provides information about the infection status of the virus, reflects the replication status of the HPV virus in cervical cells, and helps understand the regression and progress of cervical lesions. Herein, we report a novel laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (LDI MS) method for the sensitive detection of the HPV 16 L1 protein, based on non-covalent competitive adsorption between the HPV 16 L1 aptamer and melamine on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The intensity of the MS signal corresponding to the mass tag shows a linear relationship with the HPV 16 L1 concentration in the range 2-80 ng mL-1, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 58.8 pg mL-1. Using this method, the HPV 16 L1 protein is quantitatively analyzed in both clinical and vaccine samples. The described method is simple and has high sensitivity and good reliability.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Capsídeo/análise , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Proteínas Oncogênicas Virais/análise , Adsorção , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Sequência de Bases , Proteínas do Capsídeo/química , Ouro/química , Papillomavirus Humano 16/química , Limite de Detecção , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Proteínas Oncogênicas Virais/química , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/análise , RNA/química , Triazinas/química
3.
Anal Chem ; 91(21): 13508-13513, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608618

RESUMO

The physical properties of microparticles, such as mass, size, and density, are critical for their functions. The comprehensive characterization of these physical parameters, however, remains a fundamental challenge. Here, we developed a particle mass spectrometry (PMS) methodology for determining the mass, size, and density of microparticles simultaneously. The collisional cross-section (CCS) and mass spectrometry (MS) measurements were performed in a single quadrupole ion trap (QIT), and the two modes can be switched easily by tuning the electric and gas hydrodynamic fields of the QIT. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated through a series of monodispersed polystyrene (PS) and silica (SiO2) particle standards. The SiO2/polypyrrole core-shell particles were also successfully characterized, and the measured results were verified by using conventional methods.

4.
Analyst ; 144(23): 7017-7023, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647064

RESUMO

The rapid identification of human body fluids is meaningful for forensic casework. However, current methods suffer from several limitations such as poor sensitivity, time consumption and big sample consumption. Herein, we developed a mass spectrometry method to distinguish human body fluids (blood, semen, urine, sweat, and saliva) based on small molecular regions with no pretreatment, microliter sample consumption and high throughput. A highly sensitive and high salt-tolerance matrix N-(1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride (NEDC) was used to efficiently detect metabolites in complex humoral environment. Some characteristic small metabolic molecules such as heme, hemin, creatinine, phosphate acid, uric acid, citric acid and lactic acid were identified and served as potential biomarkers to differentiate different body fluid types. Further principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to cluster the body fluid samples and three principal components allowed 75% clustering of all body fluid types. Blind testing revealed that nine out of ten unknown body fluid samples could be correctly classified into their corresponding group. This novel method can efficiently differentiate five body fluids with minimal interferences due to the storage time (less than 12 months) and carrier materials (cotton, fabric and tissue). The whole process from sampling to recording of mass spectra of body fluids can be finished in less than 10 minutes. We believe that this developed strategy has significant implications for rapid and effective human body fluid screening in forensic casework.

5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(40): 11256-11261, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545583

RESUMO

Honey is a natural product that could be easily adulterated with various cheaper sweeteners. In the present study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) was applied for the detection of honey adulteration based on oligosaccharide and polysaccharide profiles. MS-based strategy could reveal the presence of polysaccharides with higher degree of polymerization (DP ≥ 13) and abnormal trends of saccharides in adulterated honey samples, which could be used as indicators for the identification of honey adulteration with high-fructose corn syrup and corn syrup. MS/MS-based strategy was proposed to characterize the difference in the composition of oligosaccharide isomers between honey samples and adulterated ones with corn syrup or invert syrup, in which the [M+Cl]- of disaccharides, trisaccharides, and tetrasaccharides were fragmented to give diagnostic product ion pairs. The method is effective and robust for the high-throughput monitoring of honey adulteration, and provides a new perspective for the identification of other high-carbohydrate foods.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Mel/análise , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Polissacarídeos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Xarope de Milho Rico em Frutose/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
6.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(71): 10619-10622, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428752

RESUMO

Here we report Ti3C2 MXene assisted LDI-LIFT-TOF/TOF for robust differentiation and relative quantitation of glycan isomers that differ in composition, connectivity and configuration. The improved sensitivity and background-free properties of this substrate combined with the special fragment profile produced by LDI-LIFT-TOF/TOF open a new door for nanomaterial assisted glycan structual analysis.

7.
Anal Chem ; 91(15): 9393-9397, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317729

RESUMO

Microparticles play important roles in our life. Besides chemical compositions and morphology, the size of microparticles will also decide their behavior in the environment or in organisms. Weighing the mass of microparticles by mass spectrometry is a useful method to characterize their size. In this technical note, a miniature particle mass spectrometer with an aerodynamic desorption/ionization ion source has been developed. We used a compact main control board to produce an ac voltage for trapping and ejecting the particles. The sampling process and data acquisition were also controlled by this board. We utilized this instrument to measure polystyrene spheres, silica particles, and mice red blood cells. Mass distributions of these particles were obtained rapidly with good accuracy.

8.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(41): 5769-5772, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038516

RESUMO

Surface-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI MS) performances were enhanced by modifying surfaces to include a plasmonic hot-electron transfer effect. After modification, the core material's specificity was not only maintained but also enhanced. The MS imaging of ischemic tissues with the modified material indicated some sulfatide changes, which have been barely reported.

9.
Behav Brain Res ; 364: 233-244, 2019 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30731099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At present, the harm of new-type drug, methamphetamine (METH), has gradually exceeded that of the traditional opioid drugs, and METH abuse has become a serious public health and social problem. In our previous study, complement factor H (CFH) was found to be upregulated in the sera of METH-addicted patients and rats and in certain brain regions in the rats. METHODS: We used ELISA and immunofluorescence to confirm the changes in CFH in the serum and hippocampus of a METH behavioral sensitization mouse model, and C1q expression was also detected by immunofluorescence in the hippocampus. We aimed to elucidate the involvement of CFH and C1q in the mechanism of METH addiction. We also detected the distribution of various small molecules by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) in select brain regions: the nucleus accumbens, the hippocampus and the ventral tegmental area. RESULTS: The expression of CFH was upregulated in the serum and hippocampus of METH behavioral sensitization model mice, consistent with our previous research on conditioned place preference rats. In contrast, C1q decreased dramatically in the mossy fibers of the hippocampus. The results of small-molecule imaging by MALDI-MSI showed that the levels of K+, antioxidants, neurotransmitters, and ATP metabolism-related molecules were altered in different regions. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate the involvement of the complement system in the mechanism of METH addiction and validate the presence of oxidative stress, energy metabolism changes during addiction. This suggests the utility of further investigation into the above aspects.

10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(48): 41178-41184, 2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30406990

RESUMO

This work developed a novel spermine-modified nanodiamonds (SP-NDs)-based method to selectively enrich oligonucleotides for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) of human papillomavirus (HPV) virus. Our results showed that SP-NDs can effectively extract and enrich DNA oligonucleotides from sodium dodecyl sulfonate and urea solution. In addition, SP-NDs can also selectively extract oligonucleotides from enzymes digestion products of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment mass polymorphism (PCR-RFMP) of HPV virus. Then, the extract can be detected by MALDI-TOF MS directly without further purification. According to the MS results, the HPV genotyping can be achieved. More importantly, with SP-NDs extraction, clinical samples infected with HPV genotype 16 and 18 can be identified. The described method shows great advantages of simplicity, high selectivity, and good reliability in real clinical samples. Due to our methods improvement on DNA enrichment, extraction and purification, the PCR-based MALDI-TOF MS for the analysis of oligonucleotides maybe become more rapid, sensitive, and high-throughput, is promising for analysis for DNA methylation, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and other virus typing.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Papillomavirus Humano 18/genética , Nanopartículas/química , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Humanos
11.
Sci Adv ; 4(10): eaat9039, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30402541

RESUMO

It is crucial but of a great challenge to study in vivo and in situ drug release of nanocarriers when developing a nanomaterial-based drug delivery platform. We developed a new label-free laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MS) imaging strategy that enabled visualization and quantification of the in situ drug release in tissues by monitoring intrinsic MS signal intensity ratio of loaded drug over the nanocarriers. The proof of concept was demonstrated by investigating the doxorubicin (DOX)/polyethylene glycol-MoS2 nanosheets drug delivery system in tumor mouse models. The results revealed a tissue-dependent release behavior of DOX during circulation with the highest dissociation in tumor and lowest dissociation in liver tissues. The drug-loaded MoS2 nanocarriers are predominantly distributed in lung, spleen, and liver tissues, whereas the accumulation in the tumor was unexpectedly lower than in normal tissues. This new strategy could also be extended to other drug-carrier systems, such as carbon nanotubes and black phosphorus nanosheets, and opened a new path to evaluate the drug release of nanocarriers in the suborgan level.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Portadores de Fármacos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Animais , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/química , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Dissulfetos/química , Doxorrubicina/química , Feminino , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Molibdênio/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
12.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(76): 10726-10729, 2018 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30187034

RESUMO

We report a novel biosensor platform based on competitive non-covalent interaction between ssDNA and a mass tag towards AuNPs, which detects PSA biomarkers sensitively, observed using MALDI MS. A detection limit of 57 pg mL-1 has been achieved, showing an improvement of two orders of magnitude compared to the traditional spectroscopic method.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/urina , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Antígeno Prostático Específico/urina , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Adenina/análise , Adenina/química , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Citosina/análise , Citosina/química , DNA de Cadeia Simples/química , Ouro/química , Guanina/análise , Guanina/química , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Timina/análise , Timina/química
13.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(77): 10905-10908, 2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206581

RESUMO

Plasmonic metal nanostructures have been used as effective materials for enhancing the laser desorption ionization (LDI) efficiency in mass spectrometry analysis. But the ionization mechanism and the origin of initial charges have not been fully understood yet. Here we provided experimental evidence showing that the hot electron transfer in localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) plays a key role in ionizing molecules during the LDI process.

14.
Anal Chem ; 90(18): 10670-10675, 2018 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30139250

RESUMO

Disulfide bonds are an important post-translational modification of proteins and play a significant role in stabilizing protein structure. While both mass spectrometry-based bottom-up and top-down proteomics are widely used in the identification of disulfide linkages, the top-down approach can avoid potential information loss of disulfide linkage occurring in the bottom-up analysis. In the present work, we applied matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry to investigate the heat-induced disulfide rearrangement of ß-lactoglobulin (ß-LG). Since ß-LG (18 kDa) is too large for common TOF/TOF analysis, we use 2-nitrophloroglucinol (2-NPG) as a matrix to generate multiply charged proteins by MALDI. Fragmentation of doubly charged protein ions yields characteristic triplet peaks of disulfide bonds. We found that the characteristic fragments derived from the heterolytic cleavage of disulfide bonds decreased sharply when the incubation temperature of ß-LG solution reached the critical point of 75 °C. These results indicate that the disulfide linkage between C160 and C66 has been broken during the heating process and, probably, new disulfide formed. In conclusion, our work highlights the analytical value of the multiply charged MALDI-TOF/TOF method in the identification of larger proteins (>12 kDa) and disulfide-containing proteins.


Assuntos
Dissulfetos/química , Temperatura Alta , Lactoglobulinas/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos
15.
Anal Chem ; 90(14): 8309-8313, 2018 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29939716

RESUMO

MALDI mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) is a powerful tool to study endogenous metabolites. The process of matrix deposition is crucial for a high-quality imaging result. Commercial instruments for matrix deposition are expensive. Low-cost methods like airbrushing will generate matrix crystals that are too large for high-spatial-resolution imaging. Sublimation may cause some compounds to go undetected because of the lack of solvent. Herein, we utilized a mini-humidifier, costing less than 5 dollars, to deposit matrix for MALDI-MSI. Compared with Imageprep, a commercialized instrument, our device based on the humidifier provided higher sensitivity and much smaller matrix crystals with diameters of less than 10 µm. High-quality ion images with 10 µm spatial resolution were obtained using our method. The enhancement of sensitivity by the humidifier could provide a sufficient amount of ions to perform tandem mass imaging. We also performed MALDI-MS/MS imaging to separate two lipids in mouse brain.

16.
Anal Chem ; 90(11): 6397-6402, 2018 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29767952

RESUMO

Cell-surface sialoglycoconjugates (sialoglycoproteins and sialoglycolipids) play important roles in cell-cell interactions and related tumor metastasis process. Although there have been some analytical methods to evaluate the sialoglycoconjugates, an effective method providing both qualitative and quantitative information is still deficient. Here we establish an extraction-free, sensitive, and high-throughput platform to realize in situ detection of the cell-surface sialoglycoconjugates on various cell lines, e.g., cancer and normal cells by laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI MS). In this proposal, azide groups were introduced into the ends of cell-surface sialoglycoconjugates by the biorthogonal method, and then the sialoglycoconjugates were armed with a laser-cleavable probe (Tphsene) through click chemistry. We can easily get the probes signal under laser irradiation, which reflected the presence of cell-surface sialoglycoconjugates. Different cell lines were discriminated simultaneously, and the LDI relative quantification agreed with fluorescent results. Besides, a linear quantitation relationship in the range of 100 fmol to 100 pmol was obtained with a designed and synthesized internal standard (phTsane) added. A detection limit of 5 fmol was obtained with good reproducibility. Based on the quantitative and high-throughput ability, we conducted pharmacodynamics study of drug (tunicamycin) on cancer cells. In addition, we found the tag was safe from sweet-spot effect of matrix adding. The simultaneous detection of sialoglycoconjugates and metabolites was therefore achieved. We believe that this laser cleavable probes-based cell-surface engineering for sialoglycoconjugates platform means great significance to diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic purposes. Besides, this strategy can be applied to other glycoconjugates which is hard to detect and the related disease processes when more corresponding chemically modified sugar substrates and exact biorthogonal reactions are developed.


Assuntos
Glicoconjugados/análise , Ácidos Siálicos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Azidas/química , Linhagem Celular , Química Click , Células HeLa , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Lasers , Neoplasias/química , Neoplasias/patologia
17.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 444, 2018 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29410412

RESUMO

Bacterial infectious diseases, such as sepsis, can lead to impaired function in the lungs, kidneys, and other vital organs. Although established technologies have been designed for the extracorporeal removal of bacteria, a high flow velocity of the true bloodstream might result in low capture efficiency and prevent the realization of their full clinical potential. Here, we develop a dialyzer made by three-dimensional carbon foam pre-grafted with nanowires to isolate bacteria from unprocessed blood. The tip region of polycrystalline nanowires is bent readily to form three-dimensional nanoclaws when dragged by the molecular force of ligand-receptor, because of a decreasing Young's moduli from the bottom to the tip. The bacterial capture efficiency was improved from ~10% on carbon foam and ~40% on unbendable single-crystalline nanowires/carbon foam to 97% on bendable polycrystalline nanowires/carbon foam in a fluid bloodstream of 10 cm s-1 velocity.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Hemodinâmica , Rins Artificiais , Nanofios , Módulo de Elasticidade , Humanos
18.
Anal Chem ; 90(3): 1525-1530, 2018 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29327919

RESUMO

Saccharide isomer differentiation has been a challenge in glycomics, as the lack of technology to decipher fully the diverse structures of compositions, linkages, and anomeric configurations. Several mass spectrometry-based methods have been applied to the discrimination of disaccharide isomers, but limited quantitative analyses have been reported. In the present study, MALDI-LIFT-TOF/TOF has been investigated to differentiate and relatively quantify underivatized glucose-containing disaccharide isomers that differ in composition, connectivity or configuration. N-(1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride (NEDC) was used as a highly sensitive matrix without matrix interferences in low mass range, thus yielding intense chloride-attached disaccharide ions [M + Cl]-, which could be fragmented to give diagnostic characteristic fragment patterns for distinguishing these isomers. Three different types of disaccharide isomers were successfully relatively quantified in a binary mixture using the specific product ion pairs. Finally, this method was utilized to identify and relatively quantify two disaccharide isomers in Medicago leaf (maltose and sucrose) without numerous preparation steps. In general, this method is a fast, effective, and robust method for rapid differentiation and quantitation of disaccharide isomers in complex medium.

19.
Anal Chem ; 90(1): 729-736, 2018 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29172460

RESUMO

Due to its strong ultraviolet absorption, low background interference in the small molecular range, and salt tolerance capacity, N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine (PNA) was developed as a novel matrix in the present study for analysis and imaging of small molecules by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry time-of-fight (MALDI-TOF MS). The newly developed matrix displayed good performance in analysis of a wide range of small-molecule metabolites including free fatty acids, amino acids, peptides, antioxidants, and phospholipids. In addition, PNA-assisted LDI MS imaging of small molecules in brain tissue of rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) revealed unique distributions and changes of 89 small-molecule metabolites including amino acids, antioxidants, free fatty acids, phospholipids, and sphingolipids in brain tissue 24 h postsurgery. Fifty-nine of the altered metabolites were identified, and all the changed metabolites were subject to relative quantitation and statistical analysis. The newly developed matrix has great potential application in the field of biomedical research.


Assuntos
2-Naftilamina/análogos & derivados , Produtos Biológicos/sangue , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , 2-Naftilamina/química , Aminoácidos/sangue , Animais , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/metabolismo , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
20.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 103: 87-93, 2018 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29278816

RESUMO

Visual inspection is expected as an ideal technique, which can directly and conveniently detect heavy metal ions by observing the color change. Insensitivity of detecting weakly colored heavy transition metal ions and low adsorptivity of metal ions on nanoparticle surface are two main factors hindering the application of visual detection in heavy metal ions detection. Herein, we demonstrated an operational colorimetric sensor based on the color dependence of nanoparticles aggregation to selective and facile detect weakly colored transition heavy metal Cd2+ ions that have been considered as the origin of the "Itai-itai" disease. Uniform colloidal 15nm graphite-like nitride doped carbon quantum dots-capped gold nanoparticle (Au@g-CNQDs) was successfully prepared, wherein the existence of numerous heptazine, carboxyl and hydroxyl groups on the nanoparticle's surface strengthened adsorption of the Cd2+ ions on the surface of Au@g-CNQDs through the "cooperative effect". As a consequence, without expensive and intricate exogenous indicators or other special additives, the Cd2+ ions could sensitively and quickly captured to detect at ultra-low concentration within 30s by the naked-eye. Under the optimal conditions, the Cd2+ ions sensor possesses good analytical performances with a wide linear range of 0.01-3.0µM and a detection limit of 10nM (S/N = 3). Moreover, the biodistribution and aggregation of Cd2+ ions were detected effectively in mice organ tissues suggesting its great potential use for real-word applications.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Cádmio/isolamento & purificação , Metais Pesados/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Cádmio/toxicidade , Ouro/química , Grafite , Íons/isolamento & purificação , Limite de Detecção , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Camundongos , Pontos Quânticos/química , Distribuição Tecidual , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
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