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1.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) suggest that the combined effects of breast cancer (BC)-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can improve BC risk stratification using polygenic risk scores (PRSs). The performance of PRSs in GWAS-independent clinical cohorts is poorly studied in individuals carrying mutations in moderately penetrant BC predisposition genes such as CHEK2. METHODS: 760 female CHEK2 mutation carriers were included; 561 women were affected with BC, of whom 74 developed metachronous contralateral BC (mCBC). For PRS calculations, two SNP sets covering 77 (SNP set 1, developed for BC risk stratification in women unselected for their BRCA1/2 germline mutation status) and 88 (SNP set 2, developed for BC risk stratification in female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers) BC-associated SNPs were used. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Both SNP sets provided concordant PRS results at the individual level (r = 0.91, p < 2.20 × 10-16). Weighted cohort Cox regression analyses revealed statistically significant associations of PRSs with the risk for first BC. For SNP set 1, a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.71 per standard deviation of the PRS was observed (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.36 to 2.15, p = 3.87x10-6). PRSs identify a subgroup of CHEK2 mutation carriers with a predicted lifetime risk for first BC that exceeds the surveillance thresholds defined by international guidelines. Association of PRS with mCBC was examined via Cox regression analysis (SNP set 1 HR =: 1.23, 95%CI = 0.86 to 1.78, p = .26). CONCLUSION: PRSs may be used to personalize risk-adapted preventive measures for women with CHEK2 mutations. Larger studies are required to assess the role of PRSs in mCBC predisposition.

2.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 75, 2020 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PGRMC1 (progesterone receptor membrane component 1) is a highly conserved heme binding protein, which is overexpressed especially in hormone receptor-positive breast cancer and plays an important role in breast carcinogenesis. Nevertheless, little is known about the mechanisms by which PGRMC1 drives tumor progression. The aim of our study was to investigate the involvement of PGRMC1 in cholesterol metabolism to detect new mechanisms by which PGRMC1 can increase lipid metabolism and alter cancer-related signaling pathways leading to breast cancer progression. METHODS: The effect of PGRMC1 overexpression and silencing on cellular proliferation was examined in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model. Next, we investigated the interaction of PGRMC1 with enzymes involved in the cholesterol synthesis pathway such as CYP51, FDFT1, and SCD1. Further, the impact of PGRMC1 expression on lipid levels and expression of enzymes involved in lipid homeostasis was examined. Additionally, we assessed the role of PGRMC1 in key cancer-related signaling pathways including EGFR/HER2 and ERα signaling. RESULTS: Overexpression of PGRMC1 resulted in significantly enhanced proliferation. PGRMC1 interacted with key enzymes of the cholesterol synthesis pathway, alters the expression of proteins, and results in increased lipid levels. PGRMC1 also influenced lipid raft formation leading to altered expression of growth receptors in membranes of breast cancer cells. Analysis of activation of proteins revealed facilitated ERα and EGFR activation and downstream signaling dependent on PGRMC1 overexpression in hormone receptor-positive breast cancer cells. Depletion of cholesterol and fatty acids induced by statins reversed this growth benefit. CONCLUSION: PGRMC1 may mediate proliferation and progression of breast cancer cells potentially by altering lipid metabolism and by activating key oncogenic signaling pathways, such as ERα expression and activation, as well as EGFR signaling. Our present study underlines the potential of PGRMC1 as a target for anti-cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinogênese , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Xenoenxertos , Homeostase , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
3.
Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd ; 80(4): 410-429, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322110

RESUMO

More than ten years ago, the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (GC-HBOC) set up a panel of experts (VUS Task Force) which was tasked with reviewing the classifications of genetic variants reported by individual centres of the GC-HBOC to the central database in Leipzig and reclassifying them, where necessary, based on the most recent data. When it evaluates variants, the VUS Task Force must arrive at a consensus. The resulting classifications are recorded in a central database where they serve as a basis for ensuring the consistent evaluation of previously known and newly identified variants in the different centres of the GC-HBOC. The standardised VUS evaluation by the VUS Task Force is a key element of the recall system which has also been set up by the GC-HBOC. The system will be used to pass on information to families monitored and managed by GC-HBOC centres in the event that previously classified variants are reclassified based on new information. The evaluation algorithm of the VUS Task Force was compiled using internationally established assessment methods (IARC, ACMG, ENIGMA) and is presented here together with the underlying evaluation criteria used to arrive at the classification decision using a flow chart. In addition, the characteristics and special features of specific individual risk genes associated with breast and/or ovarian cancer are discussed in separate subsections. The URLs of relevant databases have also been included together with extensive literature references to provide additional information and cover the scope and dynamism of the current state of knowledge on the evaluation of genetic variants. In future, if criteria are updated based on new information, the update will be published on the website of the GC-HBOC ( https://www.konsortium-familiaerer-brustkrebs.de/ ).

4.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom ; 98(4): 355-367, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detection of circulating tumor cells (CTC) by techniques based on epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is suboptimal in urothelial carcinoma (UC). As HER2 is thought to be broadly expressed in UC, we explored its utility for CTC detection. METHODS: HER2 and EpCAM expression was analyzed in 18 UC cell lines (UCCs) by qRT-PCR, western blot and fluorescence-activated cell scanning (FACS) and compared to the strongly HER2-expressing breast cancer cell line SKBR3 and other controls. HER2 expression in UC patient tissues was measured by qRT PCR and correlated with data on survival and risk for metastasis. UCCs with high EpCAM and variable HER2 expression were used for spike-in experiments in the CellSearch system. Twenty-one blood samples from 13 metastatic UC patients were analyzed for HER2-positive CTCs with CellSearch. RESULTS: HER2 mRNA and protein were broadly expressed in UCC, with some heterogeneity, but at least 10-fold lower than in the HER-2+ SKBR3 cells. Variations were unrelated to cellular phenotype or clinicopathological characteristics. EpCAM expression was essentially restricted to UCCs with epitheloid phenotypes. Heterogeneity of EpCAM and HER2 expression was observed also in spike-in experiments. The 7 of 21 blood samples from 6 of 13 patients were enumerated as CTC positive via EpCAM, but only one sample stained weakly positive (1+) for HER2. CONCLUSIONS: Detection rate of CTCs by EpCAM in UC is poor, even in metastatic patients. Because of its widespread expression, particularly in patients with high risk of metastasis, detection of HER2 could improve identification of UC CTCs, which is why combined detection using antibodies for EpCAM and HER2 may be beneficial.

5.
Mol Oncol ; 14(4): 686-703, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037720

RESUMO

Platinum-based compounds remain a well-established chemotherapy for cancer treatment despite their adverse effects which substantially restrict the therapeutic windows of the drugs. Both the cell type-specific toxicity and the clinical responsiveness of tumors have been associated with mechanisms that alter drug entry and export. We sought to identify pharmacological agents that promote cisplatin (CP) efficacy by augmenting the levels of drug-induced DNA lesions in malignant cells and simultaneously protecting normal tissues from accumulating such damage and from functional loss. Formation and persistence of platination products in the DNA of individual nuclei were measured in drug-exposed cell lines, in primary human tumor cells and in tissue sections using an immunocytochemical method. Using a mouse model of CP-induced toxicity, the antihistaminic drug diphenhydramine (DIPH) and two methylated derivatives decreased DNA platination in normal tissues and also ameliorated nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, and neurotoxicity. In addition, DIPH sensitized multiple cancer cell types, particularly ovarian cancer cells, to CP by increasing intracellular uptake, DNA platination, and/or apoptosis in cell lines and in patient-derived primary tumor cells. Mechanistically, DIPH diminished transport capacity of CP efflux pumps MRP2, MRP3, and MRP5 particularly in its C2+C6 bimethylated form. Overall, we demonstrate that DIPH reduces side effects of platinum-based chemotherapy and simultaneously inhibits key mechanisms of platinum resistance. We propose that measuring DNA platination after ex vivo exposure may predict the responsiveness of individual tumors to DIPH-like modulators.

6.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to estimate precise age-specific tubo-ovarian carcinoma (TOC) and breast cancer (BC) risks for carriers of pathogenic variants in RAD51C and RAD51D. METHODS: We analysed data from 6178 families, 125 with pathogenic variants in RAD51C; and 6690 families, 60 with pathogenic variants in RAD51D. TOC and BC relative and cumulative risks were estimated using complex segregation analysis to model the cancer inheritance patterns in families, while adjusting for the mode of ascertainment of each family. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Pathogenic variants in both RAD51C and RAD51D were associated with TOC (RAD51C RR = 7.55, 95%CI:5.60-10.19, p = 5 × 10-40; RAD51D RR = 7.60, 95%CI:5.61-10.30, p = 5 × 10-39) and BC (RAD51C RR = 1.99, 95%CI:1.39-2.85, p = 1.55 × 10-4; RAD51D RR = 1.83, 95%CI:1.24-2.72, p = 0.002). For both RAD51C and RAD51D, there was a suggestion that the TOC RRs increased with age until around age 60 years and decreased thereafter. The estimated cumulative risks of developing TOC to age 80 were 11% (95%CI:6-21%) for RAD51C and 13% (95%CI:7-23%) for RAD51D pathogenic variant carriers. The estimated cumulative risks of developing BC to 80 were 21% (95%CI:15-29%) for RAD51C and 20% (95%CI:14-28%) for RAD51D pathogenic variant carriers. Both TOC and BC risks for RAD51C/D pathogenic variant carriers varied by cancer family history, and could be as high as 32-36% for TOC, for carriers with two first degree relatives diagnosed with TOC; or 44-46% for BC, for carriers with two first degree relatives diagnosed with BC. CONCLUSIONS: These estimates will facilitate the genetic counselling of RAD51C and RAD51D pathogenic variant carriers and justify the incorporation of RAD51C and RAD51D into cancer risk prediction models.

7.
Mol Cancer Res ; 18(2): 278-286, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704732

RESUMO

Mechanisms of intrinsic resistance of serous ovarian cancers to standard treatment with carboplatin and paclitaxel are poorly understood. Seventeen primary serous ovarian cancers classified as responders or nonresponders to standard treatment were screened with DigiWest protein array analysis for 279 analytes. Histone methyl transferase EZH2, an interaction partner of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), was found as one of the most significantly represented proteins in responsive tumors. Survival analysis of 616 patients confirmed a better outcome in patients with high EZH2 expression, but a worse outcome in patients with low EZH2 and high-ATM-expressing tumors compared with patients with low EZH2 and low-ATM-expressing tumors. A proximity ligation assay further confirmed an association between ATM and EZH2 in tumors of patients with an increased disease-free survival. Knockdown of EZH2 resulted in treatment-resistant cells, but suppression of both EZH2 and ATM, or ATM alone, had no effect. DigiWest protein analysis of EZH2-knockdown cells revealed a decrease in proteins involved in mitotic processes and checkpoint regulation, suggesting that deregulated ATM may induce treatment resistance. IMPLICATIONS: Ovarian cancer is a malignancy with high mortality rates, with to date, no successful molecular characterization strategies. Our study uncovers in a comprehensive approach the involvement of checkpoint regulation via ATM and EZH2, potentially providing a new therapeutic perspective for further investigations.

8.
J Mol Diagn ; 22(1): 111-121, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669227

RESUMO

Mutations in the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of the ESR1 gene result in resistance to estrogen deprivation therapy (EDT) in breast cancer. Their detection might enable optimization of therapy strategies. However, the predictive utility of the primary tumor (PT) is limited, and obtaining serial biopsies of metastatic lesions is challenging. To underline their application as a liquid biopsy, single circulating tumor cells (CTCs) were analyzed with a next-generation sequencing approach for the ESR1 coding region. CTCs from 46 metastatic luminal breast cancer patients were enriched using CellSearch system and isolated by micromanipulation. Their genomic DNA was amplified and the ESR1 gene was sequenced. Furthermore, tissue samples from corresponding PTs and/or metastatic lesions were investigated. ESR1 mutations were detected in 12 patients-exclusively in patients treated with EDT (P = 0.048). In seven cases mutations were located in the hotspot regions in the LBD. Six novel mutations were identified. ESR1 mutations were absent in PT tissue samples and were detected only in metastases obtained after CTC characterization. Single-cell CTC analysis for ESR1 mutations could be of clinical value to identify patients who progress under EDT and therefore benefit from an early switch to an alternative endocrine therapy or other treatment regimens. Furthermore, our data indicate that mutations outside the LBD's hotspot regions might also contribute to resistance to EDT.

9.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 1101, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognostic relevance of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients has been confirmed by several clinical trials. However, predictive blood-based biomarkers for stratification of patients for targeted therapy are still lacking. The DETECT studies explore the utility of CTC phenotype for treatment decisions in patients with HER2 negative MBC. Associated with this concept is a plethora of translational projects aiming to identify potential predictive biomarkers. The androgen receptor (AR) is expressed in over 70% of hormone receptor-positive and up-to 45% of triple-negative tumours. Studies has indicated the promising nature of AR as a new therapy target with a clinical benefit rate for anti-AR treatment in MBC patients up to 25% The aim of this analysis was the characterization of CTCs regarding the expression of the AR using immunofluorescence. METHODS: MBC patients were screened for the HER2-status of CTCs in the DETECT studies. In a subset of CTC-positive patients (n = 67) an additional blood sample was used for immunomagnetic enrichment of CTCs using the CellSearch® Profile Kit prior to transfer of the cells onto cytospin slides. Establishment of immunofluorescence staining for the AR was performed using prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and DU145 as positive and negative control, respectively. Staining of DAPI, pan-cytokeratin (CK) and CD45 was applied to identify nucleated epithelial cells as CTCs and to exclude leucocytes. RESULTS: Co-staining of the AR, CK and CD45 according to the above mentioned workflow has been successfully established using cell lines with known AR expression spiked into the blood samples from healthy donors. For this translational project, samples were analysed from 67 patients participating in the DETECT studies. At least one CTC was detected in 37 out of 67 patients (56%). In 16 of these 37 patients (43%) AR-positive CTCs were detected. In eight out of 25 patients (32%) with more than one CTC, AR-positive and AR-negative CTCs were observed. CONCLUSION: In 43% of the analysed CTC samples from patients with MBC the AR expression has been detected. The predictive value of AR expression in CTCs remains to be evaluated in further trials.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/metabolismo , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 787, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inherited pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the most common causes of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). The risk of developing breast cancer by age 80 in women carrying a BRCA1 pathogenic variant is 72%. The lifetime risk varies between families and even within affected individuals of the same family. The cause of this variability is largely unknown, but it is hypothesized that additional genetic factors contribute to differences in age at onset (AAO). Here we investigated whether truncating and rare missense variants in genes of different DNA-repair pathways contribute to this phenomenon. METHODS: We used extreme phenotype sampling to recruit 133 BRCA1-positive patients with either early breast cancer onset, below 35 (early AAO cohort) or cancer-free by age 60 (controls). Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) was used to screen for variants in 311 genes involved in different DNA-repair pathways. RESULTS: Patients with an early AAO (73 women) had developed breast cancer at a median age of 27 years (interquartile range (IQR); 25.00-27.00 years). A total of 3703 variants were detected in all patients and 43 of those (1.2%) were truncating variants. The truncating variants were found in 26 women of the early AAO group (35.6%; 95%-CI 24.7 - 47.7%) compared to 16 women of controls (26.7%; 95%-CI 16.1 to 39.7%). When adjusted for environmental factors and family history, the odds ratio indicated an increased breast cancer risk for those carrying an additional truncating DNA-repair variant to BRCA1 mutation (OR: 3.1; 95%-CI 0.92 to 11.5; p-value = 0.07), although it did not reach the conventionally acceptable significance level of 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first time that the combined effect of truncating variants in DNA-repair genes on AAO in patients with hereditary breast cancer is investigated. Our results indicate that co-occurring truncating variants might be associated with an earlier onset of breast cancer in BRCA1-positive patients. Larger cohorts are needed to confirm these results.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Reparo do DNA , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Deleção de Sequência , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Loci Gênicos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Vigilância da População , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
11.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(7)2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261643

RESUMO

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) hold great promise with regard to prognosis, treatment optimization, and monitoring of breast cancer patients. Single CTC transcriptome profiling might help reveal valuable information concerning intra-patient heterogeneity relevant to therapeutic interventions. In this study, we combined Diagnostic Leukapheresis (DLA), which is a microfluidic enrichment using the ParsortixTM system, micromanipulation with CellCelectorTM and subsequent single cell multi-marker transcriptome profiling. First, a PCR panel consisting of 30 different endocrine resistance and phenotypic marker genes was validated for single cell profiling by using different breast cancer cell lines. Second, this panel was applied to characterize uncultured and cultured CTCs, which were enriched from a cryopreserved DLA product obtained from a patient suffering from metastatic breast cancer resistant to endocrine therapy. Gene expression profiles of both CTC populations uncovered inter CTC heterogeneity for transcripts, which are associated with response or resistance to endocrine therapy (e.g., ESR1, HER2, FGFR1). Hierarchical clustering revealed CTC subpopulations with different expressions of transcripts regarding the CTCs' differential phenotypes (EpCAM, CD44, CD24, MYC, MUC1) and of transcripts involved in endocrine signaling pathways (FOXO, PTEN). Moreover, ER-positive CTCs exhibited significant higher expression of Cyclin D1, which might be relevant for CDK4/6 inhibitor therapies. Overall, gene expression profiles of uncultured and cultured CTCs resulted in a partly combined grouping. Our findings demonstrate that multi-marker RNA profiling of enriched single uncultured CTCs and cultured CTCs form cryopreserved DLA samples may provide important insights into intra-patient heterogeneity relevant for targeted therapies and therapy resistance.

12.
Nanotechnology ; 30(39): 395101, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239418

RESUMO

Among various nanoparticles tested for pharmacological applications over the recent years, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) seem to be promising candidates for the construction of drug delivery systems due to their superior biophysical and biochemical properties. The subcellular fate of incorporated nanomaterial is decisive for transporting pharmaceuticals into target cells. Therefore a detailed characterization of the uptake of GQDs into different breast cancer models was performed. The demonstrated accumulation inside the endolysosomal system might be the reason for the particles' low toxicity, but has to be overcome for cytosolic or nuclear drug delivery. Furthermore, the penetration of GQDs into precision-cut mammary tumor slices was studied. These constitute a far closer to reality model system than monoclonal cell lines. The constant uptake into the depth of the tissue slices underlines the systems' potential for drug delivery into solid tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Grafite/metabolismo , Pontos Quânticos/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Grafite/química , Humanos , Nanoestruturas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Pontos Quânticos/química , Frações Subcelulares/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
13.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 55, 2019 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of the BARD1 gene in breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) predisposition remains elusive, as published case-control investigations have revealed controversial results. We aimed to assess the role of deleterious BARD1 germline variants in BC/OC predisposition in a sample of 4920 BRCA1/2-negative female BC/OC index patients of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (GC-HBOC). METHODS: A total of 4469 female index patients with BC, 451 index patients with OC, and 2767 geographically matched female control individuals were screened for loss-of-function (LoF) mutations and potentially damaging rare missense variants in BARD1. All patients met the inclusion criteria of the GC-HBOC for germline testing and reported at least one relative with BC or OC. Additional control datasets (Exome Aggregation Consortium, ExAC; Fabulous Ladies Over Seventy, FLOSSIES) were included for the calculation of odds ratios (ORs). RESULTS: We identified LoF variants in 23 of 4469 BC index patients (0.51%) and in 36 of 37,265 control individuals (0.10%), resulting in an OR of 5.35 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.17-9.04; P < 0.00001). BARD1-mutated BC index patients showed a significantly younger mean age at first diagnosis (AAD; 42.3 years, range 24-60 years) compared with the overall study sample (48.6 years, range 17-92 years; P = 0.00347). In the subgroup of BC index patients with an AAD < 40 years, an OR of 12.04 (95% CI = 5.78-25.08; P < 0.00001) was observed. An OR of 7.43 (95% CI = 4.26-12.98; P < 0.00001) was observed when stratified for an AAD < 50 years. LoF variants in BARD1 were not significantly associated with BC in the subgroup of index patients with an AAD ≥ 50 years (OR = 2.29; 95% CI = 0.82-6.45; P = 0.11217). Overall, rare and predicted damaging BARD1 missense variants were significantly more prevalent in BC index patients compared with control individuals (OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.26-3.67; P = 0.00723). Neither LoF variants nor predicted damaging rare missense variants in BARD1 were identified in 451 familial index patients with OC. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the significant association of germline LoF variants in BARD1 with early-onset BC, we suggest that intensified BC surveillance programs should be offered to women carrying pathogenic BARD1 gene variants.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Mutação com Perda de Função , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
14.
Mol Oncol ; 13(7): 1548-1558, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116510

RESUMO

The GILUPI CellCollector (CC) is a novel in vivo circulating tumor cell (CTC) detection device reported to overcome the limitations of small blood sample volumes. The aim of this prospective, blinded study was to evaluate the clinical application of the CC and to compare its performance to the CellSearch (CS) system in M0 and M1 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. A total of 80 patients (31 M0, 49 M1) with CRC were enrolled. CTCs were simultaneously measured in the peripheral blood using CS and the CC, and the results of both assays were correlated to clinicopathological variables and overall survival. The total number of detected CTCs and CTC-positive patients did not significantly differ between both assays. In the M0 patients, the CC detected CTCs more frequently than CS. There was no significant difference in total CTC numbers detected with the CC between M0 and M1 patients. In addition, no significant correlation with clinicopathological parameters or overall survival was observed with CC CTCs. In contrast, detection of CTCs with CS was significantly correlated with Union for International Cancer Control stage and reduced overall survival. There was no correlation between CTCs detected by the CC and the CS system. Using in silico analysis, we estimate that CC screens a volume of 0.33-18 mL during in vivo application, in contrast to much higher volumes reported elsewhere. In conclusion, while being safe and easy to use, the CC did not outperform CS in terms of CTC yield or sensitivity. While CTC detection in M0 CRC patients was significantly increased with the CC, the clinical relevance of these CTCs appears inferior to the cells identified by the CS system.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Contagem de Células , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Clin Chem ; 65(4): 549-558, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737205

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) may be used to improve cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. However, because knowledge regarding CTC biology is limited and the numbers of CTCs and CTC-positive cancer patients are low, progress in this field is slow. We addressed this limitation by combining diagnostic leukapheresis (DLA) and microfluidic enrichment to obtain large numbers of viable CTCs from metastasized breast cancer patients. METHODS: DLA was applied to 9 patients, and 7.5 mL of peripheral blood was drawn. CTCs were enriched with the Parsortix™ system. The quality of CTCs from fresh and cryopreserved DLA products was tested, and CTCs were cultured in vitro. Single uncultured and cultured CTCs were isolated by micromanipulation to determine different parameters, such as genomic aberrations and mutation profiles of selected tumor-associated genes. Expression levels of estrogen receptor and HER2/neu were monitored during in vitro culture. RESULTS: Viable CTCs from peripheral blood and fresh or frozen DLA products could be enriched. DLA increased the likelihood of successful CTC culture. Cryopreserved DLA products could be stored with minimal CTC loss and no overt reduction in the tumor cell quality and viability during an observation period of up to 3 years. The analyzed parameters did not change during in vitro culture. DLA samples with high CTC numbers and lower ratios of apoptotic CTCs were more likely to grow in culture. CONCLUSIONS: The increased CTC numbers from fresh or cryopreserved DLA products facilitate multiple functional and molecular analyses and, thus, could improve our knowledge of their biology.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Leucaférese/métodos , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Contagem de Células/métodos , Humanos , Microfluídica/métodos , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia
17.
Cytometry A ; 93(12): 1213-1219, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30551262

RESUMO

Diagnostic leukapheresis (DLA) is based on continuous centrifugation that collects mononuclear cells from peripheral blood with a density of 1.055-1.08 g/ml. As epithelial cells have a similar density, DLA cocollects circulating tumor cell (CTCs) along with the targeted mononuclear cells. Here, we report on our single center experience applying DLA in 40 nonmetastatic and metastatic breast cancer patients and its impact on CTC detection. We found that the use of just 5% of the DLA product (corresponding to a median peripheral blood volume of around 60 ml) in the CellSearch® assay already leads to a significant increase in CTC detection frequency and yield. The implementation of the method was unproblematic, and we did not observe any adverse events in our patient cohort. Extrapolating the CTC counts in the DLA samples to the whole DLA product indicated that enormous CTC numbers could be harvested by this approach (around 205x more CTCs than in the 7.5 ml blood sample in M1 patients). In conclusion, DLA is a clinically safe method to collect CTCs from liters of blood enabling a real liquid biopsy. Yet, further technical developments are required to process whole DLA products and exploit the full potential of this approach. As it is foreseeable that DLA will be used by several groups, and hopefully ultimately brought to the patients in a routine setting, we discuss recommendations on the minimum of required information for reporting on DLAs to allow comparison across different approaches. © 2018 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Leucaférese/métodos , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Adolescente , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Contagem de Células/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida/métodos , Padrões de Referência
18.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 172(2): 497-503, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30105462

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Classification of rare BRCA1 missense variants presents a major challenge for the counseling and treatment of patients. Variant classification can be complicated by conflicting lines of evidence. BRCA1 c.5309G>T p.(Gly1770Val) has been shown to abrogate BRCA1 protein homologous DNA repair; however, multiple sequence alignment demonstrates a lack of sequence conservation at this position, suggesting that glycine at position 1770 may not be essential for cellular maintenance in humans. We analyzed clinical information to resolve the classification of BRCA1 c.5309G>T p.(Gly1770Val). METHODS: We performed multifactorial likelihood analysis combining segregation data for 14 informative families, and breast tumor histopathological data for 17 variant carriers, ascertained through the ENIGMA consortium. RESULTS: Bayes segregation analysis gave a likelihood ratio of 101:1 in favor of pathogenicity. The vast majority of breast tumors showed features indicative of pathogenic variant carrier status, resulting in a likelihood ratio of 15800794:1 towards pathogenicity. Despite a low prior probability of pathogenicity (0.03) based on bioinformatic prediction, multifactorial likelihood analysis including segregation and histopathology analysis gave a posterior probability of > 0.99 and final classification of Pathogenic. CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence that BRCA1 c.5309G>T p.(Gly1770Val), previously described as a Moroccan founder variant, should be treated as a disease-causing variant despite a lack of evolutionary conservation at this amino acid position. Additionally, we stress that bioinformatic information should be used in combination with other data, either direct clinical evidence or some form of clinical calibration, to arrive at a final clinical classification.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Evolução Molecular , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Sequência Conservada , Reparo do DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência
19.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 265, 2018 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29514593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no international consensus up to which age women with a diagnosis of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and no family history of breast or ovarian cancer should be offered genetic testing for germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 (gBRCA) mutations. Here, we explored the association of age at TNBC diagnosis with the prevalence of pathogenic gBRCA mutations in this patient group. METHODS: The study comprised 802 women (median age 40 years, range 19-76) with oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 negative breast cancers, who had no relatives with breast or ovarian cancer. All women were tested for pathogenic gBRCA mutations. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between age at TNBC diagnosis and the presence of a pathogenic gBRCA mutation. RESULTS: A total of 127 women with TNBC (15.8%) were gBRCA mutation carriers (BRCA1: n = 118, 14.7%; BRCA2: n = 9, 1.1%). The mutation prevalence was 32.9% in the age group 20-29 years compared to 6.9% in the age group 60-69 years. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant increase of mutation frequency with decreasing age at diagnosis (odds ratio 1.87 per 10 year decrease, 95%CI 1.50-2.32, p < 0.001). gBRCA mutation risk was predicted to be > 10% for women diagnosed below approximately 50 years. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the general understanding that a heterozygous mutation probability of 10% or greater justifies gBRCA mutation screening, women with TNBC diagnosed before the age of 50 years and no familial history of breast and ovarian cancer should be tested for gBRCA mutations. In Germany, this would concern approximately 880 women with newly diagnosed TNBC per year, of whom approximately 150 are expected to be identified as carriers of a pathogenic gBRCA mutation.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias Unilaterais da Mama/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Neoplasias Unilaterais da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Unilaterais da Mama/patologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Cancer Med ; 7(4): 1349-1358, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29522266

RESUMO

The prevalence of germ line mutations in non-BRCA1/2 genes associated with hereditary breast cancer (BC) is low, and the role of some of these genes in BC predisposition and pathogenesis is conflicting. In this study, 5589 consecutive BC index patients negative for pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutations and 2189 female controls were screened for germ line mutations in eight cancer predisposition genes (ATM, CDH1, CHEK2, NBN, PALB2, RAD51C, RAD51D, and TP53). All patients met the inclusion criteria of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer for germ line testing. The highest mutation prevalence was observed in the CHEK2 gene (2.5%), followed by ATM (1.5%) and PALB2 (1.2%). The mutation prevalence in each of the remaining genes was 0.3% or lower. Using Exome Aggregation Consortium control data, we confirm significant associations of heterozygous germ line mutations with BC for ATM (OR: 3.63, 95%CI: 2.67-4.94), CDH1 (OR: 17.04, 95%CI: 3.54-82), CHEK2 (OR: 2.93, 95%CI: 2.29-3.75), PALB2 (OR: 9.53, 95%CI: 6.25-14.51), and TP53 (OR: 7.30, 95%CI: 1.22-43.68). NBN germ line mutations were not significantly associated with BC risk (OR:1.39, 95%CI: 0.73-2.64). Due to their low mutation prevalence, the RAD51C and RAD51D genes require further investigation. Compared with control datasets, predicted damaging rare missense variants were significantly more prevalent in CHEK2 and TP53 in BC index patients. Compared with the overall sample, only TP53 mutation carriers show a significantly younger age at first BC diagnosis. We demonstrate a significant association of deleterious variants in the CHEK2, PALB2, and TP53 genes with bilateral BC. Both, ATM and CHEK2, were negatively associated with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumor phenotypes. A particularly high CHEK2 mutation prevalence (5.2%) was observed in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive tumors.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/diagnóstico , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Variação Genética , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
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