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1.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 7(11)2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34829183

RESUMO

A cultivated mushroom species, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, is becoming increasingly popular thanks to its attractive colour and medicinal properties. In this study, P. citrinopileatus was grown in a cultivation medium enriched with wheat bran (WB), thymus post-extraction waste (TPEW) and pumpkin post-extraction waste (PPEW) products. The study showed that the post-extraction wastes are a crucial factor determining the accumulation of minerals, the content/profile of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) and phenolic compounds in fruit bodies, thereby increasing their nutritional value. The use of the waste materials significantly increased LMWOAs contents. The sum of LMWOAs under all cultivation mediums increased, especially quinic, malic and citric acids under the 20% PPEW, 25 and 50% TPEW addition. Total phenolic content, phenolic content, as well as the composition and scavenging effect on DPPH radicals, were strongly dependent on the used substrate. The control variant was poor in phenolic compounds, while the supplementation increased the contents and diversity of these metabolites. In the control, only four phenolic compounds were quantified (chlorogenic, gallic, syringic and vanillic acids), while in the supplemented substrates up to 14 different phenolic compounds (caffeic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic, gallic, protocatechuic, salicylic, sinapic, syringic, trans-cinnamic and vanillic acids, catechin and rutin).

2.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34834638

RESUMO

Mushrooms supplementation with iron (Fe) is usually limited, and therefore it would be beneficial to search for other vital elements able to improve the process. The aim of this study was to verify a possible interaction between Fe and calcium (Ca) to estimate the role of the addition of the latter metal to stimulate Fe accumulation in Pholiota nameko. Additionally, an analysis of phenolic compounds and low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) was performed. The increase of Fe concentration in the substrate caused a significantly higher accumulation of this metal in P. nameko. The addition of Ca (5 or 10 mM) stimulated Fe accumulation, just as Fe concentration in the substrate stimulated Ca accumulation, which pointed to a synergism between these metals. The obtained results show that the presence of Fe in the substrate may also promote K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, and S accumulation. In contrast, the addition of Ca stimulates and/or inhibits their content in fruit bodies. The phenolic and organic acids profile was poor. Only gallic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, sinapic and syringic acids (phenolics), as well as citric and succinic acids (LMWOAs), were quantified in some combinations in P. nameko fruiting bodies.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 807(Pt 2): 150874, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627905

RESUMO

Cryoconite is a mixture of mineral and organic material covering glacial ice, playing important roles in biogeochemical cycles and lowering the albedo of a glacier surface. Understanding the differences in structure of cryoconite across the globe can be important in recognizing past and future changes in supraglacial environments and ice-organisms-minerals interactions. Despite the worldwide distribution and over a century of studies, the basic characteristics of cryoconite, including its forms and geochemistry, remain poorly studied. The major purpose of our study is the presentation and description of morphological diversity, chemical and photoautotrophs composition, and organic matter content of cryoconite sampled from 33 polar and mountain glaciers around the globe. Observations revealed that cryoconite is represented by various morphologies including loose and granular forms. Granular cryoconite includes smooth, rounded, or irregularly shaped forms; with some having their surfaces covered by cyanobacteria filaments. The occurrence of granules increased with the organic matter content in cryoconite. Moreover, a major driver of cryoconite colouring was the concentration of organic matter and its interplay with minerals. The structure of cyanobacteria and algae communities in cryoconite differs between glaciers, but representatives of cyanobacteria families Pseudanabaenaceae and Phormidiaceae, and algae families Mesotaeniaceae and Ulotrichaceae were the most common. The most of detected cyanobacterial taxa are known to produce polymeric substances (EPS) that may cement granules. Organic matter content in cryoconite varied between glaciers, ranging from 1% to 38%. The geochemistry of all the investigated samples reflected local sediment sources, except of highly concentrated Pb and Hg in cryoconite collected from European glaciers near industrialized regions, corroborating cryoconite as element-specific collector and potential environmental indicator of anthropogenic activity. Our work supports a notion that cryoconite may be more than just simple sediment and instead exhibits complex structure with relevance for biodiversity and the functioning of glacial ecosystems.

4.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(10)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34685857

RESUMO

The potential of the Paulownia hybrid for the uptake and transport of 67 elements along with the physiological response of plants cultivated in highly contaminated post-industrial wastes (flotation tailings-FT, and mining sludge-MS) was investigated. Biochar (BR) was added to substrates to limit metal mobility and facilitate plant survival. Paulownia could effectively uptake and translocate B, Ca, K, P, Rb, Re and Ta. Despite severe growth retardation, chlorophyll biosynthesis was not depleted, while an increased carotenoid content was noted for plants cultivated in waste materials. In Paulownia leaves and roots hydroxybenzoic acids (C6-C1) were dominant phenolics, and hydroxycinnamic acids/phenylpropanoids (C6-C3) and flavonoids (C6-C3-C6) were also detected. Plant cultivation in wastes resulted in quantitative changes in the phenolic fraction, and a significant drop or total inhibition of particular phenolics. Cultivation in waste materials resulted in increased biosynthesis of malic and succinic acids in the roots of FT-cultivated plants, and malic and acetic acids in the case of MS/BR substrate. The obtained results indicate that the addition of biochar can support the adaptation of Paulownia seedlings growing on MS, however, in order to limit unfavorable changes in the plant, an optimal addition of waste is necessary.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; : 151162, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695469

RESUMO

Because wild-growing edible mushroom species are frequently consumed, a knowledge of their mineral composition is essential. The content of elements in mushrooms and their possible beneficial or harmful effect may be influenced by the human-impacted environment. Thus, the aim of the study was to analyse the mineral composition of the soil, trees, and especially soil- and tree-growing mushroom species collected from within a city and from rural areas. Due to potentially higher pollution in urban areas, we assumed that mushrooms from a city environment will contain higher levels of mineral elements than those from rural areas and that the high content will be attributed to greater contamination of city soils. Significantly higher concentrations of several elements in soils (Ca, Ba, Bi, Hg, Pb, Sb, Sr, W and Zr) and trees (Ag, Bi, Ce, Co, Mn, Mo, Nd, Pr, Ta, Tm and W) were observed from the samples collected in the city. Additionally, significantly higher contents of Ag, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Sr, Y and Zn in soil-growing, and Al, As, Ba, Cr, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ta and Zn in tree-growing mushroom species were recorded from the urban area. These differences formed the basis for the observation that the content of elements in urban mushrooms is generally higher than in those from rural areas. However, a higher content of several soil elements does not necessarily mean that there will be a significantly higher content in fruit bodies. There was also no real risk of consuming soil-growing mushroom species collected in recent years from the city, suggesting that this practice may still be continued.

6.
Molecules ; 26(18)2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577087

RESUMO

This article presents studies on iron speciation in the pottery obtained from archaeological sites. The determination of iron forms Fe(II) and Fe(III) has been provided by a very simple test that is available for routine analysis involving the technique of molecular absorption spectrophotometry (UV-Vis) in the acid leachable fraction of pottery. The elemental composition of the acid leachable fraction has been determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Additionally, the total concentration of the selected elements has been determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with energy dispersion (EDXRF). The results of the iron forms' determinations in archaeological pottery samples have been applied in the archaeometric studies on the potential recognition of the pottery production technology, definitely going beyond the traditional analysis of the pottery colour.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502323

RESUMO

The aim of the study was the multi-elemental analysis of aqueous humor (AH) collected from patients undergoing cataract surgery. The study included: 16 patients with age-related macular degeneration AMD (99 controls), 10 patients with retinopathy (105 controls), 61 patients with hypertension (54 controls), and 33 patients with coexisting diabetes (82 controls). The control groups were recruited from patients with a lack of co-existing disease characterizing the specified studied group. The measurements were performed by the use of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The statistical analysis was carried out using non-parametric testing (Mann-Whitney U). The level of significance was set at p = 0.05. The data obtained revealed substantial variations in elemental composition between the test groups in comparison to the controls. However, the significant variations concerned only a few elements. The phosphorous (P) level and the ratio of P/Ca were significant in retinopathy and diabetes, whereas cobalt (0.091 ± 0.107 mg/L vs. 0.031 ± 0.075 mg/L; p = 0.004) was significant in AMD. In co-existing hypertension, the levels of tin (0.293 ± 0.409 mg/L vs. 0.152 ± 0.3 mg/L; p = 0.031), titanium (0.096 ± 0.059 mg/L vs. 0.152 ± 0.192 mg/L; p = 0.045), and ruthenium (0.035 ± 0.109 mg/L vs. 0.002 ± 0.007 mg/L; p = 0.006) varied in comparison to the controls. The study revealed inter-elemental interactions. The correlation matrices demonstrated the domination of the positive correlations, whereas negative correlations mainly concerned sodium.


Assuntos
Humor Aquoso/metabolismo , Catarata/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Retinopatia Diabética/fisiopatologia , Elementos Químicos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Degeneração Macular/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Catarata/epidemiologia , Catarata/patologia , Catarata/terapia , Extração de Catarata , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Cristalino/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prognóstico
8.
Int J Phytoremediation ; : 1-14, 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310221

RESUMO

NOVELTY STATEMENT: That is probably the first study to date of trees and shrubs differing in age and growing on post-industrial soil contaminated with calcium (Ca) and selected toxic metals/metalloids. The obtained results show that an alkaline reaction (less than 9) of soil and an unusually high Ca concentration may help the studied tree species to adapt/survive in unfavorable habitat conditions (high concentration of toxic elements). The efficiency of phytoextraction of toxic elements was so high that, especially for forest animals (roe-deer) that consume, e.g., willow shoots, it could pose a serious threat to health and life, both for them and potentially for humans.

9.
Talanta ; 231: 122403, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965052

RESUMO

The paper presents an independent application of two hyphenated techniques, wherein an identical chromatographic system i.e. high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was coupled to microwave induced plasma optical emission spectrometry (MIP OES) or inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). A cation-exchange column and a mobile phase based on pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (PDCA) were employed to separate Fe(II) and Fe(III) within 300 s. Additionally, two methods of sample preparation were employed. Optimization and validation of both methods were conducted parallel. The applicability was presented with different sample matrix types: post-glacial sediments, archaeological pottery, soils located in the proximity of industry wastes disposal site, river sediments and yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis). Obtained results were compared in terms of the excitation source (microwave induced or inductively coupled) and supplied gas (nitrogen or argon). The research introduces HPLC-MIP OES for iron speciation analysis and its applicability were critically evaluated with HPLC-ICP OES.

10.
Environ Pollut ; 275: 116590, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582630

RESUMO

As humans are present in Antarctica only for scientific and tourism-related purposes, it is often described as a pristine region. However, studies have identified measurable levels of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), in the Antarctic region. These are highly toxic anthropogenic compounds with tendency to travel long distances and reach remote environments, where they can bioaccumulate in the biota. Penguins are exposed to POPs mainly through their diet, which they partially eliminate via feathers. Species of the genus Pygoscelis occur around Antarctic continent and its surrounding regions, and can act as indicators of contaminants that reach the continent. Here, we report OCP and PCB levels in feathers of male and female penguins of P. adeliae, P. antarcticus and P. papua from King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Interspecific, sex- and body-size-related differences were investigated in the contamination profiles of PCBs and OCPs. Feather samples were collected from adult penguins (n = 41). Quantification of compounds was performed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The three Pygoscelis species presented similar contamination profiles, with higher concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (∑DDT; 1.56-3.82 ng g-1 dw), lighter PCB congeners (∑PCB: 11.81-18.65 ng g-1 dw) and HCB (hexachlorobenzene: 1.65-4.06 ng g-1 dw). Amongst the three penguin species, P. antarcticus had lower and P. papua higher concentrations of most of the compounds identified. We found interspecific differences in POPs accumulation as well as sex differences in POP concentrations. Our data indicate a small but significant positive correlation between body size and the concentrations of some compounds. Despite the overall low concentrations found, this study increases knowledge of the occurrence of POPs in Antarctic penguins, thereby reinforcing concerns that Antarctica, although remote and perceived to be protected, is not free from the impact of anthropogenic pollutants.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Spheniscidae , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Ilhas , Masculino , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise
11.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1147: 1-14, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485568

RESUMO

The paper presents a usage of a new hyphenated technique, wherein a Multi-mode Sample Introduction System (MSIS) was applied as an interface of two high pressure liquid chromatography units and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (2 HPLC-MSIS-ICP-OES). Simultaneous separation and detection of non-hydride forming and hydride forming elements was possible due to the application of two different HPLC column, cation-exchange and anion-exchange respectively. The method was able to determine 15 elements quantitatively with a distinction of three arsenic and two iron species and it was validated obtaining acceptable LODs (2.67-28.7 µg L-1) and recoveries (80-120%). The method applicability was presented and confirmed on 5 varied sample matrix types i.e. post-glacial sediments, yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis), soil samples located in the proximity of industry wastes disposal site, river sediments, and archaeological pottery. In addition to the above, unknown Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn species were detected in real samples (qualitative speciation analysis) and the identification was attempted according to the literature.

12.
J Hazard Mater ; 405: 124244, 2021 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082017

RESUMO

Mutual transformations of particular As forms are dynamic. Therefore hydroponic experiments need to account for this variation. For this reason, the aim of the study was to determine the time-dependent changes of Astotal and selected forms of this metalloid (As(III), As(V), DMA or the sum of other organic forms) in modified Knop's solution and organs (root, low and high stem) of 2-year-old Quercus robur L. seedlings within a 33-day long hydroponic experiment. The results indicate the varying speed of As uptake and transport to aerial plant parts. A decrease in contents of As forms in organs of seedlings exposed to individual As forms varied, which indicates simultaneous transformations of As forms both in Knop's solution and plant organs. The obtained results indicate the need to analyse the main forms of As both in the nutrient solution and plant organs to assess the actual effectiveness of As phytoextraction by plants. It is necessary because, as demonstrated in this work, the addition of a specific As form does not mean that the capacity of a given plant relative to this form specifically is assessed. Capsule: The form of arsenic added to the medium undergoes dynamic changes affecting the phytoextraction of this metalloid in Quercus robur L. organs.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Quercus , Hidroponia , Raízes de Plantas , Plantas , Plântula
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(4): 4430-4442, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940836

RESUMO

The study monitored the content of 55 elements in 21 wood-growing mushroom species collected between 2013 and 2019 from Lower and Upper Silesia in Poland. Only 27 of the elements (Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, In, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Pr, Pt, Rh, Sr, Ti, Tm, V, Y, Zn, and Zr) were detected in all mushroom species, while others (As, Au, B, Be, Bi, Ce, Co, Cr, Dy, Er, Eu, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hf, Ho, Ir, Li, Lu, Mo, Os, Pb, Rb, Re, Ru, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Tb, Te, Th, Tl, Tm, U, and Yb) were below the limit of detection in the fruit bodies of at least one species. Wide ranges for major elements in the whole population of all the mushroom species were as follows: 15.4-470 (Ca), 6580-44,600 (K), 314-2150 (Mg), 38.0-319 (Na), and 1100-15,500 (P) mg kg-1 dm, respectively. The rank sum revealed that M. giganteus fruit bodies were the most enriched with all detectable elements, while A. mellea had the lowest content of the majority of elements. Mushrooms belonging to the Hymenochaetaceae family were characterized as some of the most enriched with the studied elements, while mushrooms of the Fomitopsidaceae family had the lowest content of elements. Similarities as well as differences between the obtained results and the available literature data confirm the important role of both mushroom species and the tree on which the fungus has grown.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Oligoelementos , Minerais , Polônia , Oligoelementos/análise , Madeira/química
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(1): 389-404, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812153

RESUMO

It has been known since the 1970s that differences exist in the profile of element content in wild-growing mushroom species, although knowledge of the role of mushroom species/families as determinants in the accumulation of diverse element remains limited. The aim of this study was to determine the content of 63 mineral elements, divided into six separate groups in the fruit bodies of 17 wild-growing mushroom species. The mushrooms, growing in widely ranging types of soil composition, were collected in Poland in 2018. Lepista nuda and Paralepista gilva contained not only the highest content of essential major (531 and 14,800 mg kg-1, respectively of Ca and P) and trace elements (425 and 66.3 mg kg-1, respectively of Fe and B) but also a high content of trace elements with a detrimental health effect (1.39 and 7.29 mg kg-1, respectively of Tl and Ba). A high content of several elements (Al, B, Ba, Bi, Ca, Er, Fe, Mg, Mo, P, Sc, Ti or V) in L. nuda, Lepista personata, P. gilva and/or Tricholoma equestre fruit bodies belonging to the Tricholomataceae family suggests that such species may be characterised by the most effective accumulation of selected major or trace elements. On the other hand, mushrooms belonging to the Agaricaceae family (Agaricus arvensis, Coprinus comatus and Macrolepiota procera) were characterised by significant differences in the content of all determined elements jointly, which suggests that a higher content of one or several elements is mushroom species-dependent. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Agaricus , Coprinus , Humanos , Minerais/análise , Polônia
15.
Environ Res ; 193: 110580, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309821

RESUMO

The growing use of rare earth elements (REE) in industry determines their increased transport to the environment. The higher concentration of this group of elements in soils near roads may also suggest that traffic plays a significant role in their distribution. The aim of this study was to examine the content of REEs in selected consumables (car parts, asphalt) and environmental samples (plants, soils) in order to estimate the extent to which these elements derive from traffic and also to analyze their phytoextraction from soil by selected herbaceous plants species. Research materials were car parts (5 brake pads, 10 new tires - summer and winter), 20 samples of asphalt and road dust settled on its surface; soil, and 7 plants species growing at a distance of 1 m from the edge of the 5 roads located in the Wielkopolska Voivodeship, Poland. The content of REEs in the collected samples was determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. The content of REEs in asphalt and brake pads was similar and significantly higher than in tires. According to the mass of particular stripped materials, the main source of these elements was asphalt. The amount of REEs released from tires to the environment was found to be much lower than REEs released from asphalt but generally higher than from brake pads. The content of REEs in the soil was found to increase in accordance with traffic intensity, but chemical composition of soil was the main determinant of the uptake these elements, mainly via the root systems of plants. The obtained results suggest that densely vegetated roadsides and verges could be an effective strategy for decontamination of soils polluted with REEs, although the most effective remedy would involve significant changes in the production technologies of automotive parts and asphalt that would limit the emission of elements to environment.


Assuntos
Metais Terras Raras , Poluentes do Solo , Metais Terras Raras/análise , Plantas , Polônia , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
16.
Chemosphere ; 266: 129113, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310525

RESUMO

The level of environmental contamination can vary according to different types of land use. The aim of the present study was to determine the relations among Cd, Pb, Ni and Cr content in plants (Taraxacum officinale) and soils for 10 types of land use in the urban areas of representative cities for central Europe region (Warsaw, Poznan and Wroclaw in Poland). Descriptive statistical analysis, as well as cluster analysis and principal component analysis, heatmaps and Andrews curves, was performed to identify relations between HMs and land use, as well as differences between particular cities. The investigations revealed variation among sites, plant organs and cities. The content (mg kg-1 DW) in soils, roots and leaves for Cd varied between 0.4 and 3.6, 0.4-2.8 and 0.5-3.9, Cr ranged between 23.2 and 40.6, 14.0-26.1 and 15.8-24.8, Ni varied between 2.1 and 13.2, 0.2-42.1 and 0.0-3.9, while Pb varied between 27.0 and 231.5, 4.3-34.2 and 3.0-9.5, respectively. It was possible to note some tendencies. Nickel was the element with the highest content in the roots (up to 42.1 mg kg-1 DW) in comparison to leaves and soils and the highest bioaccumulation factor (up to 15.0). This means that the main source of Ni might be contamination of the soil. The cluster analysis of standardized HM levels in leaves revealed that cadmium is a different from the other three elements, which might be related to the translocation factor, for which this element was found to have the highest levels at many sites.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Taraxacum , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Metais Pesados/análise , Polônia , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
17.
Chemosphere ; 263: 127859, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841871

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) on growth parameters and levels of stress-related metabolites in Acer pseudoplatanus, Betula pendula and Quercus robur. The increase of DMA concentration in the solution led to a notable growth retardation of trees. An intense As accumulation (mainly As(III) and As(V)) expressed as BCF and TF > 1 was recorded only for Q. robur. Generally a decrease in contents of cellulose, hemicellulose and holocellulose with a simultaneous increase in lignin content were recorded. Phenolic composition of leaf extracts was modified by DMA, while root and rhizosphere extracts were poor in phenolics. Toxicity of DMA leads to a significant drop in salicylic acid content in leaves observed at lower doses. Higher DMA levels caused a second, probably ROS-derived depletion of the metabolite accompanied with a severe growth retardation, most pronounced in the case of B. pendula. DMA caused the inhibition of LMWOA biosynthesis in roots of A. pseudoplatanus, B. pendula and their exudation into the rhizosphere, while in Q. robur roots and leaves a stimulation of their accumulation was observed. Disturbances in the activity of enzymatic antioxidants were observed for all the species following the increasing level of DMA.


Assuntos
Acer , Arsênio , Quercus , Betula , Ácido Cacodílico , Folhas de Planta , Árvores
18.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128095, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297091

RESUMO

The content of major- and trace elements in wild-growing mushrooms has been subject to numerous studies, but the data on long-term trends in this regard are scarce. The aim of research was to determine the content of 34 elements in four edible mushroom species Boletus edulis, Imleria badia, Leccinum scabrum and Macrolepiota procera, and associated soil collected from Polish forests between 1974 and 2019. As initially hypothesized, the element concentration in the studied soil revealed an increasing trend and was positively correlated with their levels found in fruit bodies. Bioconcentrafion Factor values exceeding 1 were documented for all mushroom species for K, P, Ag, Cd, Cu, Hg, and Zn. When compared to the Adequate Intakes, all the mushroom species were found to be a good dietary source of K, P, and Zn (range of 6260-8690, 6260-8690 and 97-135 mg kg-1 dry weight (dw), respectively), and B. edulis and I. badia a moderate source of Fe (mean 71.5 and 76.5 mg kg-1 dw, respectively), B. edulis of Mn and Mo (mean 20.0 and 0.42 mg kg-1 dw, respectively), while L. scabrum and M. procera a source of Cu. Consumption of the studied mushrooms would not lead to significant exposure to Al, As, Cr, or Ni. Considering that wild mushrooms will continue to be collected in Poland, one should bear in mind that they are a limited source of minerals in the human diet while their frequent, regular consumption, associated with exposure to selected toxic elements, should not be recommended.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Basidiomycota , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Polônia
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22107, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33335140

RESUMO

It is known that a developing avian embryo resorbs micronutrients (calcium and other chemical elements) from the inner layer of the eggshell, inducing thinning and overall changes in the shell's chemical composition. However, an aspect yet to be explored relates to the local changes in the multi-elemental composition (ionome) of the pigment spot and adjacent background colour regions of eggshells resulting from avian embryogenesis (with respect to two extremes of embryonic growth: the maternal level at the moment of egg laying, and after the completion of embryonic growth). To address this problem, we used inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) to establish the elemental profiles of microsamples from the cryptic eggs of Capercaillie Tetrao urogallus and Black Grouse Tetrao tetrix, representing the background colour and pigment spot regions of the shell. We then related these to the developmental stage of the eggs (non-embryonated eggs vs. post-hatched eggshells) and their origin (wild vs. captive hens). Our results show an apparent local disparity between the pigment spot and background colour regions in the distribution of chemical elements: most elements tended to be at higher levels in the speckled regions of the shell, these differences becoming less pronounced in post-hatched eggshells. The trends of changes following embryonic eggshell etching between the pigment spot and background colour shell regions were conflicting and varied between the two species. We hypothesized that one potential working explanation for these interspecific differences could be based on the variable composition of elements (mostly of Ca and Mg), which are the result of the varying thickness of the individual shell layers, especially as the relative difference in shell thickness in the pigment spots and background colour regions was less in Black Grouse eggs. Overall, this investigation strongly suggests that egg maculation plays a functional role in the physiological deactivation of trace elements by incorporating them into the less calcified external shell layer but without participating in micronutrient resorption. Our major critical conclusion is that all research involving the chemical analysis of eggshells requires standardized eggshell sampling procedures in order to unify their colouration and embryonic status.


Assuntos
Casca de Ovo , Ovos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Pigmentação , Animais , Galinhas , Cor , Casca de Ovo/química , Análise Espectral
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22262, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33335273

RESUMO

Very little is known about how the elemental composition (ionome) of an insect cuticle varies as a result of different colouration. Using inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), we established ionomic profiles in microsamples of two adjacent regions of an insect cuticle with a contrasting colour pattern, namely, the black and orange regions of the elytra of the aposematic burying beetle Nicrophorus vespillo. The analysis revealed 53 elements (ranging in atomic weight from Na to Bi) occurring above the detection limit. The frequency of detectability of individual elements varied strongly, and only ten elements (Ba, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P, Rb, Sb and Zn) were present in concentrations exceeding the detection limit in all the samples. The sum of concentrations of all elements in the orange regions of the elytra was 9% lower than in the black ones. The opposite distribution was displayed by the rare earth elements (REEs), the sum of which was 17% lower in the black elytral regions than in the orange ones. The concentrations of six elements were significantly higher in the black than in the orange regions: Al (by 97%), Cu (41%), Mn (14%), Na (46%), Se (97%) and W (47%). The concentrations of essential elements measured in both the black and orange regions exhibited very considerable variance: Ca (σ2 = 1834; 1882, respectively), K (145; 82) P (97; 76), Na (84; 53), Mg (24; 26) and Ba (9; 13). This, in part, could be attributed to individual differences, e.g. those resulting from the consumption of animal carcasses of different quality/chemical composition, but interference between elements and the consequent lowering of measurement quality are also possible. We highlight the fact that deeper insight into the basic relationship between insect colouration and variation in elemental composition requires micro-sampling of the homogeneous layers of an exoskeleton.


Assuntos
Mimetismo Biológico/genética , Besouros/química , Insetos/anatomia & histologia , Oligoelementos/química , Animais , Cor , Íons/química , Íons/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas , Oligoelementos/isolamento & purificação
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