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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In adults, anti-tumor-necrosis-factor (TNF)-α therapy is associated with progression of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) to tuberculosis (TB) disease. The existing paediatric data are very limited. METHODS: Retrospective multi-centre study within the Paediatric Tuberculosis Network European Trials Group, capturing patients <18 years who developed TB disease during anti-TNF-α therapy. RESULTS: Sixty-six tertiary healthcare institutions providing care for children with TB participated. Nineteen cases were identified; Crohn´s disease (n=8;42%) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (n=6;32%) were the commonest underlying conditions. Immune-based TB screening (tuberculin skin test and/or interferon-gamma release assay) was performed in 15 patients before commencing anti-TNF-α therapy, but only identified one LTBI case; 13 patients were already receiving immunosuppressants at the time of screening. The median interval between starting anti-TNF-α therapy and TB diagnosis was 13.1 (IQR:7.1-20.3) months. All cases presented with severe disease, predominately miliary TB (n=14;78%). One case was diagnosed post-mortem. TB was microbiologically confirmed in 15 cases (79%). The median duration of anti-TB treatment was 50 (IQR:46-66) weeks. Five of 15 (33%) cases who had completed TB treatment had long-term sequelae. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that LTBI screening is frequently false-negative in this patient population, likely due to immunosuppressants impairing test performance. Therefore, patients with immune-mediated diseases should be screened for LTBI at the point of diagnosis, before commencing immunosuppressive medication. Children on anti-TNF-α therapy are prone to severe TB disease, and significant long-term morbidity. Those observations underscore the need for robust LTBI screening programs in this high-risk patient population, even in low TB prevalence settings.

2.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 116(42): 703-710, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and fusion proteins (FP) are increasingly being used in children and adolescents. In this review, we analyze the evidence for their safety and efficacy in the treatment of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, AWMF.org, and other databases for high-quality trials (i.e., randomized controlled trials with clinical primary endpoints) and guidelines published at any time up to 10 December 2018 that dealt with mAb and FP that are approved for pediatric use. The search term was "monoclonal anti- body/fusion protein [e. g. adalimumab] AND children." RESULTS: The 620 hits included 25 high-quality trials (20 of them manufacturer- sponsored) on 9 mAb/FP (omalizumab, adalimumab, etanercept, ustekinumab, infliximab, golimumab, anakinra, canakinumab, tocilizumab, and abatacept), as well as 6 guidelines (3 each of levels S3 and S2k) on the treatment of bronchial asthma, psoriasis, juvenile idopathic arthritis, and chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. For none of these conditions are mAb and FP the drugs of first choice. Adverse drug effects are rare but sometimes severe (infection, immune dysregulation, tumors). CONCLUSION: The retrieved trials have deficiencies that make it difficult to reliably evaluate the efficacy, safety, and utility of mAb/FP for children and adolescents with chronic inflammatory diseases. mAb/FP nonetheless represent a treatment option to be considered in case conventional immune-modulating drugs are ineffective. Researcher-initiated, high-quality trials and manufacturer-independent, systematic long-term evaluations of adverse effects (e.g., tumors) are sorely needed.

5.
Clin Immunol ; 201: 30-34, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776520

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID) comprise a group of genetic diseases characterized by abrogated development of T lymphocytes. In some case reports of atypical SCID patients elevated proportions of γδ T lymphocytes have been reported. However, it is unknown whether these γδ T cells modulate or reflect the patient's clinical phenotype. We investigated the frequency of elevated γδ T cell proportions and associations with clinical disease manifestations in a cohort of 76 atypical SCID patients. Increased proportions of γδ T lymphocytes were present in approximately 60% of these patients. Furthermore, we identified positive correlations between elevated proportions of γδ T cells and the occurrence of CMV infections and autoimmune cytopenias. We discuss that CMV infections might trigger an expansion of γδ T lymphocytes, which could drive the development of autoimmune cytopenias. We advocate that atypical SCID patients should be screened for elevated proportions of γδ T lymphocytes, CMV infection and autoimmune cytopenias.

7.
Allergy ; 74(9): 1691-1702, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary complications are responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates in patients with the rare immunodeficiency disorder STAT3 hyper-IgE syndrome (STAT3-HIES). The aim of this study was to expand knowledge about lung disease in STAT3-HIES. METHODS: The course of pulmonary disease, radiological and histopathological interrelations, therapeutic management, and the outcome of 14 STAT3-HIES patients were assessed. RESULTS: The patients' quality of life was compromised most by pulmonary disease. All 14 patients showed first signs of lung disease at a median onset of 1.5 years of age. Lung function revealed a mixed obstructive-restrictive impairment with reduced FEV1 and FVC in 75% of the patients. The severity of lung function impairment was associated with Aspergillus fumigatus infection and prior lung surgery. Severe lung tissue damage, with reduced numbers of ATP-binding cassette sub-family A member 3 (ABCA3) positive type II pneumocytes, was observed in the histological assessment of two deceased patients. Imaging studies of all patients above 6 years of age showed severe airway and parenchyma destruction. Lung surgeries frequently led to complications, including fistula formation. Long-term antifungal and antibacterial treatment proved to be beneficial, as were inhalation therapy, chest physiotherapy, and exercise. Regular immunoglobulin replacement therapy tended to stabilize lung function. CONCLUSIONS: Due to its severity, pulmonary disease in STAT3-HIES patients requires strict monitoring and intensive therapy.

10.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 56(9): 1597-1606, 2017 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28859329

RESUMO

Objectives: The aim was to analyse factors influencing the individual colchicine dose in children with FMF, to evaluate the impact of dose adjustment on the clinical course and inflammation and to identify clinical parameters and biomarkers that predict dose increase in the near future. Methods: Data from 409 paediatric FMF patients (4566 visits) derived from the national auto-inflammatory diseases registry were analysed. Serum concentrations of S100 molecules were determined by ELISA. Results: The age-dependent colchicine dose is influenced by the present genotype. The body surface area is the anthropometric parameter that correlates best with the applied dosages. Colchicine introduction and dose increase lead to significant reduction of clinical symptoms and inflammation. During established colchicine therapy, an increase of one single biomarker increases the likelihood of a dose increment in the next 12 months with a factor of 1.62-1.94. A combination of biomarkers including S100 molecules increases this odds ratio up to 4.66 when analysing all patients and up to 7.27 when analysing patients with a high risk of severe disease. Conclusion: Colchicine therapy is currently guided mainly by the occurrence of clinical symptoms and serological inflammation. Other factors, such as the genotype, the body surface area and biomarkers, will help to manage colchicine therapy in a more individualized fashion. The additional analysis of S100 molecules as sensitive biomarkers will help to identify patients at risk for dose increases in the near future.


Assuntos
Colchicina/administração & dosagem , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Antropometria/métodos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Superfície Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colchicina/efeitos adversos , Colchicina/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/diagnóstico , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Proteínas S100/sangue , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
12.
JIMD Rep ; 37: 1-5, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28220407

RESUMO

In patients with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl(HMG)-CoA lyase deficiency (OMIM 246450), five pregnancies have been described worldwide, which were either terminated or resulted in severe metabolic sequelae during pregnancy or delivery. Here, we report on a patient with HMG-CoA lyase deficiency, who underwent two uncomplicated pregnancies. The 19-year-old patient was admitted because of recurrent vomiting and nausea. Diagnostics revealed pregnancy at week 8 of gestation. Metabolic analyses revealed normal lactate and blood glucose levels and normal acid-base status. Urine organic acid analysis showed an elevated excretion of 3-CH3-glutaric acid, 2,3-CH3-glutaconic acid, and 3-CH3-3-OH-glutaric acid. Oral treatment with carnitine and glucose wes administered intravenously during the period of nausea and vomiting. After clinical recovery, a diet with 0.89 g/kg of protein/d and 38 kcal/kg body weight/d was given. Meals were taken every 3 h. Additionally, 70 g of starch was given at midnight to maintain normoglycemia at night time. Peripartum, a complete parenteral nutrition, was delivered through a central venous catheter. The patient delivered a healthy male infant by Caesarean section at week 38 of gestation (Apgar 9/10/10) and remained metabolically stable throughout the peripartum period. Postpartum nutrition was gradually changed from parenteral to oral diet. Two years later, the patient became pregnant again and presented with hyperemesis gravidarum. With metabolic monitoring and treatment as before no decompensation occurred. At week 38 of gestation, she delivered a healthy female infant by elective Caesarian section (Apgar 9/10/10). This case report describes the metabolic and obstetric management of two pregnancies in a patient with HMG-CoA lyase deficiency with favorable outcome without metabolic complications.

13.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 139(4): 1302-1310.e4, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27658761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Absent T-cell immunity resulting in life-threatening infections provides a clear rationale for hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Combined immunodeficiencies (CIDs) and "atypical" SCID show reduced, not absent T-cell immunity. If associated with infections or autoimmunity, they represent profound combined immunodeficiency (P-CID), for which outcome data are insufficient for unambiguous early transplant decisions. OBJECTIVES: We sought to compare natural histories of severity-matched patients with/without subsequent transplantation and to determine whether immunologic and/or clinical parameters may be predictive for outcome. METHODS: In this prospective and retrospective observational study, we recruited nontransplanted patients with P-CID aged 1 to 16 years to compare natural histories of severity-matched patients with/without subsequent transplantation and to determine whether immunologic and/or clinical parameters may be predictive for outcome. RESULTS: A total of 51 patients were recruited (median age, 9.6 years). Thirteen of 51 had a genetic diagnosis of "atypical" SCID and 14 of 51 of CID. About half of the patients had less than 10% naive T cells, reduced/absent T-cell proliferation, and at least 1 significant clinical event/year, demonstrating their profound immunodeficiency. Nineteen patients (37%) underwent transplantation within 1 year of enrolment, and 5 of 51 patients died. Analysis of the HSCT decisions revealed the anticipated heterogeneity, favoring an ongoing prospective matched-pair analysis of patients with similar disease severity with or without transplantation. Importantly, so far neither the genetic diagnosis nor basic measurements of T-cell immunity were good predictors of disease evolution. CONCLUSIONS: The P-CID study for the first time characterizes a group of patients with nontypical SCID T-cell deficiencies from a therapeutic perspective. Because genetic and basic T-cell parameters provide limited guidance, prospective data from this study will be a helpful resource for guiding the difficult HSCT decisions in patients with P-CID.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/patologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa
16.
Vaccine ; 34(46): 5587-5594, 2016 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27727030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current national immunisation schedules differ between countries in terms of vaccine formulation, timing of vaccinations and immunisation programme funding and co-ordination. As a result, some HIV infected paediatric population may be left susceptible to vaccine preventable infections. Vaccines used in healthy population should be subjected to high quality ethical research and be explicitly validated for use in children with special vaccination needs such as those infected with HIV. This survey was completed to assess current vaccination practices and attitudes toward vaccination among pediatricians who care for vertically HIV infected children. METHODS: An online questionnaire was completed by 46 experts in paediatric HIV-infection from the Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA). Data were collected between November 2013 and March 2014. RESULTS: 46units looking after 2465 patients completed the questionnaire. The majority of units (67%) reported that common childhood immunisation were administered by the family doctor or local health services rather than in the HIV specialist centre. Vaccination histories were mostly incomplete and difficult to obtain for 40% of the studied population. Concerns were reported regarding the use of live attenuated vaccines, such as varicella and rotavirus, and these were less frequently recommended (61% and 28% of the units respectively). Monitoring of vaccine responses was employed in a minority of centres (41%). A range of different assays were used resulting in diverse units of measurement and proposed correlates of protection. CONCLUSION: Vaccination practices for perinatally HIV-infected children vary a great deal between countries. Efforts should be made to improve communication and documentation of vaccinations in healthcare settings and to harmonise recommendations relating to additional vaccines for HIV infected children and the use of laboratory assays to guide immunisation. This will ultimately improve coverage and vaccine induced immunity in this vulnerable patient group.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Programas de Imunização , Padrões de Prática Médica , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação , Cobertura Vacinal , Vacinas Atenuadas
17.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 68(12): 3023-3034, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27332999

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical presentation and medical treatment of patients with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) during the first year of illness. Our study focused on 3-year outcomes in a subsample of patients who were followed up longitudinally. METHODS: From 2000 to 2013, 597 patients with systemic JIA and a disease duration of ≤12 months were recorded in the National Pediatric Rheumatologic Database. Among those patients, 3-year outcome data were available for 133. These data included the clinical Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score in 10 joints (JADAS-10) and the physician's global assessment score (on a numerical rating scale), as well as assessment of joint involvement, growth retardation, and patient-reported outcomes. RESULTS: The median clinical JADAS-10 declined significantly, from 7 in 2000 to 2 in 2013, while the proportion of patients with inactive disease increased from 19% in 2000 to 41% in 2013. The rate of treatment with systemic glucocorticoids and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) remained stable from 2000 to 2013. By 2013, the proportion of patients with systemic JIA who were treated with biologic DMARDs had increased to 20%. At 3-year follow-up, 72% of patients with systemic JIA had inactive disease, and 77% had no functional limitations. Growth retardation was associated with persistently high disease activity and continuing treatment with systemic glucocorticoids. At the 3-year follow-up, one-third of patients were still being treated with systemic glucocorticoids. CONCLUSION: The proportion of patients with inactive disease has increased over the past decade. Possible explanations may include improved access to specialized care, additional treatment options, and earlier or faster step-up treatment. However, challenges in the management of systemic JIA remain, as ∼30% of patients continue to present with ongoing active disease.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Juvenil/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Sistema de Registros , Adolescente , Artrite Juvenil/complicações , Artrite Juvenil/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Alemanha , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Nat Commun ; 7: 11600, 2016 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27231034

RESUMO

The V-ATPase is the main regulator of intra-organellar acidification. Assembly of this complex has extensively been studied in yeast, while limited knowledge exists for man. We identified 11 male patients with hemizygous missense mutations in ATP6AP1, encoding accessory protein Ac45 of the V-ATPase. Homology detection at the level of sequence profiles indicated Ac45 as the long-sought human homologue of yeast V-ATPase assembly factor Voa1. Processed wild-type Ac45, but not its disease mutants, restored V-ATPase-dependent growth in Voa1 mutant yeast. Patients display an immunodeficiency phenotype associated with hypogammaglobulinemia, hepatopathy and a spectrum of neurocognitive abnormalities. Ac45 in human brain is present as the common, processed ∼40-kDa form, while liver shows a 62-kDa intact protein, and B-cells a 50-kDa isoform. Our work unmasks Ac45 as the functional ortholog of yeast V-ATPase assembly factor Voa1 and reveals a novel link of tissue-specific V-ATPase assembly with immunoglobulin production and cognitive function.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Hepatopatias/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Saúde da Família , Glicosilação , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/metabolismo , Lactente , Hepatopatias/metabolismo , Masculino , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/deficiência , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 12(4): 242, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26911548
20.
J Clin Immunol ; 36(1): 73-84, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26604104

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) result in unbalanced STAT signaling and cause immune dysregulation and immunodeficiency. The latter is often characterized by the susceptibility to recurrent Candida infections, resulting in the clinical picture of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). This study aims to assess the frequency of GOF STAT1 mutations in a large international cohort of CMC patients. METHODS: STAT1 was sequenced in genomic DNA from 57 CMC patients and 35 healthy family members. The functional relevance of nine different STAT1 variants was shown by flow cytometric analysis of STAT1 phosphorylation in patients' peripheral blood cells (PBMC) after stimulation with interferon (IFN)-α, IFN-γ or interleukin-27 respectively. Extended clinical data sets were collected and summarized for 26 patients. RESULTS: Heterozygous mutations within STAT1 were identified in 35 of 57 CMC patients (61%). Out of 39 familial cases from 11 families, 26 patients (67%) from 9 families and out of 18 sporadic cases, 9 patients (50%) were shown to have heterozygous mutations within STAT1. Thirteen distinct STAT1 mutations are reported in this paper. Eight of these mutations are known to cause CMC (p.M202V, p.A267V, p.R274W, p.R274Q, p.T385M, p.K388E, p.N397D, and p.F404Y). However, five STAT1 variants (p.F172L, p.Y287D, p.P293S, p.T385K and p.S466R) have not been reported before in CMC patients. CONCLUSION: STAT1 mutations are frequently observed in patients suffering from CMC. Thus, sequence analysis of STAT1 in CMC patients is advised. Measurement of IFN- or IL-induced STAT1 phosphorylation in PBMC provides a fast and reliable diagnostic tool and should be carried out in addition to genetic testing.


Assuntos
Candidíase Mucocutânea Crônica/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Mutação/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo , Adulto , Candidíase Mucocutânea Crônica/genética , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/genética
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