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1.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596048

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the effect of diabetes duration on glycaemic control, measured according to mean glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level, and mortality risk within different age, sex and clinically relevant, comorbidity-defined subgroups in an elderly population with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: We studied older (≥ 65 years) primary care patients with T2D, who had three successive annual measurements of HbA1c taken between 2005 and 2013. The primary exposure was the mean of all three HbA1c measurements. Follow-up began on the date of the third measurement. Individual mean HbA1c levels were categorized into clinically relevant groups (<48 mmol/mol [<6.5%]; 48-52 mmol/mol [6.5%-6.9 %]; 53-63 mmol/mol [7%-7.9%]; 64-74 mmol/mol [8%-8.9%]; and ≥ 75 mmol/mol [≥ 9%]). We used multiple Cox regression to study the effect of glycaemic control on the hazard of all-cause mortality, adjusted for age, sex, use of concomitant medication, and age- and disease-related comorbidities. RESULTS: A total of 9734 individuals were included. During a median (interquartile range) follow-up of 7.3 (4.6-8.7) years, 3320 individuals died. We found that the effect of mean HbA1c on all-cause mortality depended on the duration of diabetes (P for interaction <0.001). For individuals with short diabetes duration (<5 years), the risk of death increased with poorer glycaemic control (increasing HbA1c), whereas for individuals with longstanding diabetes (≥ 5 years), we found a J-shaped association, where a mean HbA1c level between 48 and 63 mmol/mol (6.5% and 7.9%) was associated with the lowest risk of death. For individuals with longstanding diabetes, both low (< 48 mmol/mol [<6.5 %]; hazard ratio [HR] 1.21, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.37, P = 0.002), and high mean HbA1c levels ( ≥ 75 mmol/mol [≥9.0 %]; HR 1.60, 95 % CI 1.28-1.99, P < 0.001) were associated with an increased risk of death. We also calculated 5-year absolute risks of all-cause mortality, separately for short and long diabetes duration, and found similar risk patterns across different age groups, sex and comorbidity strata. CONCLUSIONS: In elderly individuals with T2D, the effect of glycaemic control (measured by HbA1c) on all-cause mortality depended on the duration of diabetes. Of particular clinical importance, we found that strict glycaemic control was associated with an increased risk of death among individuals with long (>5 years) diabetes duration. This was not the case for individuals with short diabetes duration where strict glycaemic control was associated with the lowest risk of death. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Am J Med ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Fourth Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction defines electrocardiographic (ECG) Q waves as duration ≥30ms and amplitude ≥1mm or QS complex in two contiguous leads. However, current taskforce criteria may be overly restrictive. Therefore, we investigated the association of isolated, lenient, or strict Q waves with long-term outcome. METHODS: From 2001-2015, we included Danish primary care patients with digital ECGs that were evaluated for Q waves. If none occurred, patients had no Q waves. If no other contiguous Q wave occurred, patients had isolated Q waves. If another contiguous Q wave occurred meeting only one criterion (≥30ms and <1mm or <30ms and ≥1mm), patients had lenient Q waves. If another contiguous Q wave occurred, patients had strict Q waves. RESULTS: Of 365,206 patients, 87,957 had isolated, lenient, or strict Q waves (24%; median age, 61 years; male, 48%), and 277,249 had no Q waves (76%; median age, 53 years; male, 42%). Mortality risk was increased with isolated (all-cause adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29-1.37; cardiovascular-cause aHR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.70-1.87), lenient (all-cause aHR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.33-1.50; cardiovascular-cause aHR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.63-1.94), or strict (all-cause aHR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.57-1.72; cardiovascular-cause aHR, 2.70; 95% CI, 2.52-2.89) Q waves compared with no Q waves. Highest mortality risk was associated with anteroseptal lenient or strict Q waves. CONCLUSIONS: This large contemporary analysis suggests that less stringent Q-wave criteria carry prognostic value in predicting adverse outcome among primary care patients.

3.
Blood ; 134(19): 1645-1657, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420334

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality. To advance our understanding of the biology contributing to VTE, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of VTE and a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) based on imputed gene expression from whole blood and liver. We meta-analyzed GWAS data from 18 studies for 30 234 VTE cases and 172 122 controls and assessed the association between 12 923 718 genetic variants and VTE. We generated variant prediction scores of gene expression from whole blood and liver tissue and assessed them for association with VTE. Mendelian randomization analyses were conducted for traits genetically associated with novel VTE loci. We identified 34 independent genetic signals for VTE risk from GWAS meta-analysis, of which 14 are newly reported associations. This included 11 newly associated genetic loci (C1orf198, PLEK, OSMR-AS1, NUGGC/SCARA5, GRK5, MPHOSPH9, ARID4A, PLCG2, SMG6, EIF5A, and STX10) of which 6 replicated, and 3 new independent signals in 3 known genes. Further, TWAS identified 5 additional genetic loci with imputed gene expression levels differing between cases and controls in whole blood (SH2B3, SPSB1, RP11-747H7.3, RP4-737E23.2) and in liver (ERAP1). At some GWAS loci, we found suggestive evidence that the VTE association signal for novel and previously known regions colocalized with expression quantitative trait locus signals. Mendelian randomization analyses suggested that blood traits may contribute to the underlying risk of VTE. To conclude, we identified 16 novel susceptibility loci for VTE; for some loci, the association signals are likely mediated through gene expression of nearby genes.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3503, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409809

RESUMO

Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) affects 10-20% of the population and is associated with substantial functional deficits. Here, we identify 42 loci for self-reported daytime sleepiness in GWAS of 452,071 individuals from the UK Biobank, with enrichment for genes expressed in brain tissues and in neuronal transmission pathways. We confirm the aggregate effect of a genetic risk score of 42 SNPs on daytime sleepiness in independent Scandinavian cohorts and on other sleep disorders (restless legs syndrome, insomnia) and sleep traits (duration, chronotype, accelerometer-derived sleep efficiency and daytime naps or inactivity). However, individual daytime sleepiness signals vary in their associations with objective short vs long sleep, and with markers of sleep continuity. The 42 sleepiness variants primarily cluster into two predominant composite biological subtypes - sleep propensity and sleep fragmentation. Shared genetic links are also seen with obesity, coronary heart disease, psychiatric diseases, cognitive traits and reproductive ageing.

5.
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol ; 24(6): e12661, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abnormal P-wave morphology (PWM) has been associated with a history of atrial fibrillation (AF) in earlier studies. Although lone AF is believed to have substantial genetic basis, studies on associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) linked to lone AF and PWM have not been reported. We aimed to assess whether SNPs previously associated with lone AF (rs2200733, rs13376333, rs3807989, and rs11047543) are also linked to P-wave abnormalities. METHODS: Four SNPs were studied in 176 unrelated individuals with early-onset lone AF (age at onset <50 years), median age 38 years (19-63 years), 149 men. Using sinus rhythm ECG, orthogonal PWM was classified as Type 1-positive in leads X and Y and negative in lead Z, Type 2-positive in leads X and Y and biphasic (-/+) in lead Z, Type 3-positive in lead X and biphasic in lead Y (+/-), and the remaining as atypical. RESULTS: Two SNPs were found to be significantly associated with altered P-wave morphology distribution: rs3807989 near the gene CAV1/CAV2 and rs11047543 near the gene SOX5. Both SNPs were associated with a higher risk of non-Type 1 P-wave morphology (rs3807989: OR = 4.8, 95% CI = 2.3-10.2, p < 0.001; rs11047543: OR = 4.7, 95% CI = 1.1-20.5, p = 0.04). No association was observed for rs2200733 and rs13376333. CONCLUSION: In this study, the two variants rs3807989 and rs11047543, previously associated with PR interval and lone AF, were associated with altered P-wave morphology distribution in patients with early-onset lone AF. These findings suggest that common genetic variants may modify atrial conduction properties.

6.
Schizophr Bull ; 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on electrocardiogram (ECG) characteristics and their association with psychotropic drugs in schizophrenia. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, we included Danish primary care patients with first-time digital ECGs from 2001 to 2015. Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia before ECG recording were matched 1:5 on age, sex, and ECG recording year to controls without psychiatric disease. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: We included 4486 patients with schizophrenia matched with 22 430 controls (median age, 47 years; male, 55%). Between groups, the prevalence of abnormal ECGs was similar (54%, P = .536), but patients with schizophrenia demonstrated higher median heart rate (79 vs 69 beats per minute, P < .001) and Fridericia-corrected QT (QTc) interval (416 vs 412 ms, P < .001) than controls. QTc prolongation was also more prevalent among patients with schizophrenia (3.4% vs 1.1%, P < .001), and so were pathological Q waves (5.3% vs 3.9%, P < .001). Patients with schizophrenia less frequently demonstrated left ventricular hypertrophy (6.1% vs 9.6%, P < .001) and atrial fibrillation or flutter (0.7% vs 1.4%, P < .001). Among patients with schizophrenia only, particularly antipsychotics were associated with abnormal ECGs (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.04-1.39). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with schizophrenia demonstrate a different cardiovascular risk profile than matched controls without psychiatric disease, with higher prevalence of elevated heart rate, QTc prolongation, and pathological Q waves, and lower prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy and atrial fibrillation or flutter. Particularly antipsychotics were associated with abnormal ECGs. This underscores an integrated care approach when ECG abnormalities are detected in this group.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1847, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015462

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing health burden currently affecting 10-15% of adults worldwide. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as a marker of kidney function is commonly used to diagnose CKD. We analyze eGFR data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study and Michigan Genomics Initiative and perform a GWAS meta-analysis with public summary statistics, more than doubling the sample size of previous meta-analyses. We identify 147 loci (53 novel) associated with eGFR, including genes involved in transcriptional regulation, kidney development, cellular signaling, metabolism, and solute transport. Additionally, sex-stratified analysis identifies one locus with more significant effects in women than men. Using genetic risk scores constructed from these eGFR meta-analysis results, we show that associated variants are generally predictive of CKD with only modest improvements in detection compared with other known clinical risk factors. Collectively, these results yield additional insight into the genetic factors underlying kidney function and progression to CKD.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Feminino , Carga Global da Doença , Humanos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
8.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 387-393, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804566

RESUMO

Insomnia is a common disorder linked with adverse long-term medical and psychiatric outcomes. The underlying pathophysiological processes and causal relationships of insomnia with disease are poorly understood. Here we identified 57 loci for self-reported insomnia symptoms in the UK Biobank (n = 453,379) and confirmed their effects on self-reported insomnia symptoms in the HUNT Study (n = 14,923 cases and 47,610 controls), physician-diagnosed insomnia in the Partners Biobank (n = 2,217 cases and 14,240 controls), and accelerometer-derived measures of sleep efficiency and sleep duration in the UK Biobank (n = 83,726). Our results suggest enrichment of genes involved in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and of genes expressed in multiple brain regions, skeletal muscle, and adrenal glands. Evidence of shared genetic factors was found between frequent insomnia symptoms and restless legs syndrome, aging, and cardiometabolic, behavioral, psychiatric, and reproductive traits. Evidence was found for a possible causal link between insomnia symptoms and coronary artery disease, depressive symptoms, and subjective well-being.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/genética , Sono/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteólise , Autorrelato , Ubiquitina/genética
9.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(5): 462-476, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793809

RESUMO

With the availability of large-scale biobanks, genome-wide scale phenome-wide association studies are being instrumental in discovering novel genetic variants associated with clinical phenotypes. As increasing number of such association results from different biobanks become available, methods to meta-analyse those association results is of great interest. Because the binary phenotypes in biobank-based studies are mostly unbalanced in their case-control ratios, very few methods can provide well-calibrated tests for associations. For example, traditional Z-score-based meta-analysis often results in conservative or anticonservative Type I error rates in such unbalanced scenarios. We propose two meta-analysis strategies that can efficiently combine association results from biobank-based studies with such unbalanced phenotypes, using the saddlepoint approximation-based score test method. Our first method involves sharing the overall genotype counts from each study, and the second method involves sharing an approximation of the distribution of the score test statistic from each study using cubic Hermite splines. We compare our proposed methods with a traditional Z-score-based meta-analysis strategy using numerical simulations and real data applications, and demonstrate the superior performance of our proposed methods in terms of Type I error control.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Simulação por Computador , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Análise Numérica Assistida por Computador , Reino Unido
10.
Int J Cardiol ; 2018 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aortic valve stenosis (AVS) and coronary artery disease (CAD) have a significant genetic contribution and commonly co-exist. To compare and contrast genetic determinants of the two diseases, we investigated associations of the LPA and 9p21 loci, i.e. the two strongest CAD risk loci, with risk of AVS. METHODS: We genotyped the CAD-associated variants at the LPA (rs10455872) and 9p21 loci (rs1333049) in the GeneCAST (Genetics of Calcific Aortic STenosis) Consortium and conducted a meta-analysis for their association with AVS. Cases and controls were stratified by CAD status. External validation of findings was undertaken in five cohorts including 7880 cases and 851,152 controls. RESULTS: In the meta-analysis including 4651 cases and 8231 controls the CAD-associated allele at the LPA locus was associated with increased risk of AVS (OR 1.37; 95%CI 1.24-1.52, p = 6.9 × 10-10) with a larger effect size in those without CAD (OR 1.53; 95%CI 1.31-1.79) compared to those with CAD (OR 1.27; 95%CI 1.12-1.45). The CAD-associated allele at 9p21 was associated with a trend towards lower risk of AVS (OR 0.93; 95%CI 0.88-0.99, p = 0.014). External validation confirmed the association of the LPA risk allele with risk of AVS (OR 1.37; 95%CI 1.27-1.47), again with a higher effect size in those without CAD. The small protective effect of the 9p21 CAD risk allele could not be replicated (OR 0.98; 95%CI 0.95-1.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the association of the LPA locus with risk of AVS, with a higher effect in those without concomitant CAD. Overall, 9p21 was not associated with AVS.

11.
Diabetes Care ; 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352898

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study whether visit-to-visit variability of glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is associated with incident major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), all-cause mortality, and type 2 diabetes in people without diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We included primary care patients with no history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease and with three annual HbA1c measurements within normal range (<6.5% [48 mmol/mol]). For each individual, we measured the HbA1c variability as the SD of the residuals obtained from a linear regression on the three HbA1c measurements. From the linear regression, we also obtained the estimated index HbA1c (intercept) and the trend over time (slope). Follow-up began at the date of the third measurement. Associations between HbA1c variability and outcome were analyzed using Cox regression, adjusted for traditional risk factors, intercept, and trend, and reported as hazard ratio per SD increase in variability (HRSD). RESULTS: In total, 6,756 individuals were included. During a median follow-up time of 6.3 years, 996 developed MACE, 856 died, and 1,267 developed type 2 diabetes. We found a significant association between increasing HbA1c variability and incident MACE (HRSD 1.09 [95% CI 1.03-1.15]) and all-cause mortality (HRSD 1.13 [95% CI 1.07-1.20]), whereas there were no associations with type 2 diabetes (HRSD 1.00 [95% CI 0.95-1.05]). We calculated 5-year absolute risks of MACE and all-cause mortality and found clinically relevant differences across several age, sex, and comorbidity subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: In a primary care population free of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, high HbA1c variability was associated with increased risks of MACE and all-cause mortality.

12.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4316, 2018 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30333491

RESUMO

A family history of atrial fibrillation constitutes a substantial risk of developing the disease, however, the pathogenesis of this complex disease is poorly understood. We perform whole-exome sequencing on 24 families with at least three family members diagnosed with atrial fibrillation (AF) and find that titin-truncating variants (TTNtv) are significantly enriched in these patients (P = 1.76 × 10-6). This finding is replicated in an independent cohort of early-onset lone AF patients (n = 399; odds ratio = 36.8; P = 4.13 × 10-6). A CRISPR/Cas9 modified zebrafish carrying a truncating variant of titin is used to investigate TTNtv effect in atrial development. We observe compromised assembly of the sarcomere in both atria and ventricle, longer PR interval, and heterozygous adult zebrafish have a higher degree of fibrosis in the atria, indicating that TTNtv are important risk factors for AF. This aligns with the early onset of the disease and adds an important dimension to the understanding of the molecular predisposition for AF.

13.
Commun Biol ; 1: 68, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30271950

RESUMO

Most sequence variants identified hitherto in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of atrial fibrillation are common, non-coding variants associated with risk through unknown mechanisms. We performed a meta-analysis of GWAS of atrial fibrillation among 29,502 cases and 767,760 controls from Iceland and the UK Biobank with follow-up in samples from Norway and the US, focusing on low-frequency coding and splice variants aiming to identify causal genes. We observe associations with one missense (OR = 1.20) and one splice-donor variant (OR = 1.50) in RPL3L, the first ribosomal gene implicated in atrial fibrillation to our knowledge. Analysis of 167 RNA samples from the right atrium reveals that the splice-donor variant in RPL3L results in exon skipping. We also observe an association with a missense variant in MYZAP (OR = 1.38), encoding a component of the intercalated discs of cardiomyocytes. Both discoveries emphasize the close relationship between the mechanical and electrical function of the heart.

14.
Nat Genet ; 50(9): 1234-1239, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061737

RESUMO

To identify genetic variation underlying atrial fibrillation, the most common cardiac arrhythmia, we performed a genome-wide association study of >1,000,000 people, including 60,620 atrial fibrillation cases and 970,216 controls. We identified 142 independent risk variants at 111 loci and prioritized 151 functional candidate genes likely to be involved in atrial fibrillation. Many of the identified risk variants fall near genes where more deleterious mutations have been reported to cause serious heart defects in humans (GATA4, MYH6, NKX2-5, PITX2, TBX5)1, or near genes important for striated muscle function and integrity (for example, CFL2, MYH7, PKP2, RBM20, SGCG, SSPN). Pathway and functional enrichment analyses also suggested that many of the putative atrial fibrillation genes act via cardiac structural remodeling, potentially in the form of an 'atrial cardiomyopathy'2, either during fetal heart development or as a response to stress in the adult heart.

15.
Nat Genet ; 50(9): 1335-1341, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30104761

RESUMO

In genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for thousands of phenotypes in large biobanks, most binary traits have substantially fewer cases than controls. Both of the widely used approaches, the linear mixed model and the recently proposed logistic mixed model, perform poorly; they produce large type I error rates when used to analyze unbalanced case-control phenotypes. Here we propose a scalable and accurate generalized mixed model association test that uses the saddlepoint approximation to calibrate the distribution of score test statistics. This method, SAIGE (Scalable and Accurate Implementation of GEneralized mixed model), provides accurate P values even when case-control ratios are extremely unbalanced. SAIGE uses state-of-art optimization strategies to reduce computational costs; hence, it is applicable to GWAS for thousands of phenotypes by large biobanks. Through the analysis of UK Biobank data of 408,961 samples from white British participants with European ancestry for > 1,400 binary phenotypes, we show that SAIGE can efficiently analyze large sample data, controlling for unbalanced case-control ratios and sample relatedness.

16.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2252, 2018 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29899519

RESUMO

Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) is an endogenous inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase that modulates lipid levels, coronary atherosclerosis risk, and nutrient partitioning. We hypothesize that loss of ANGPTL4 function might improve glucose homeostasis and decrease risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We investigate protein-altering variants in ANGPTL4 among 58,124 participants in the DiscovEHR human genetics study, with follow-up studies in 82,766 T2D cases and 498,761 controls. Carriers of p.E40K, a variant that abolishes ANGPTL4 ability to inhibit lipoprotein lipase, have lower odds of T2D (odds ratio 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.85-0.92, p = 6.3 × 10-10), lower fasting glucose, and greater insulin sensitivity. Predicted loss-of-function variants are associated with lower odds of T2D among 32,015 cases and 84,006 controls (odds ratio 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.49-0.99, p = 0.041). Functional studies in Angptl4-deficient mice confirm improved insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. In conclusion, genetic inactivation of ANGPTL4 is associated with improved glucose homeostasis and reduced risk of T2D.

17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(11)2018 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29848496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The electrocardiographic interatrial block (IAB) has been associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). We aimed to test whether IAB can improve risk prediction of AF for the individual person. METHODS AND RESULTS: Digital ECGs of 152 759 primary care patients aged 50 to 90 years were collected from 2001 to 2011. We identified individuals with P-wave ≥120 ms and the presence of none, 1, 2, or 3 biphasic P-waves in inferior leads. Data on comorbidity, medication, and outcomes were obtained from nationwide registries. We observed a dose-response relationship between the number of biphasic P-waves in inferior leads and the hazard of AF during follow-up. Discrimination of the 10-year outcome of AF, measured by time-dependent area under the curve, was increased by 1.09% (95% confidence interval 0.43-1.74%) for individuals with cardiovascular disease at baseline (CVD) and 1.01% (95% confidence interval 0.40-1.62%) for individuals without CVD, when IAB was added to a conventional risk model for AF. The highest effect of IAB on the absolute risk of AF was observed in individuals aged 60 to 70 years with CVD. In this subgroup, the 10-year risk of AF was 50% in those with advanced IAB compared with 10% in those with a normal P-wave. In general, individuals with advanced IAB and no CVD had a higher risk of AF than patients with CVD and no IAB. CONCLUSIONS: IAB improves risk prediction of AF when added to a conventional risk model. Clinicians may consider monitoring patients with IAB more closely for the occurrence of AF, especially for high-risk subgroups.

18.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 987, 2018 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29511194

RESUMO

Aortic valve stenosis (AS) is the most common valvular heart disease, and valve replacement is the only definitive treatment. Here we report a large genome-wide association (GWA) study of 2,457 Icelandic AS cases and 349,342 controls with a follow-up in up to 4,850 cases and 451,731 controls of European ancestry. We identify two new AS loci, on chromosome 1p21 near PALMD (rs7543130; odds ratio (OR) = 1.20, P = 1.2 × 10-22) and on chromosome 2q22 in TEX41 (rs1830321; OR = 1.15, P = 1.8 × 10-13). Rs7543130 also associates with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) (OR = 1.28, P = 6.6 × 10-10) and aortic root diameter (P = 1.30 × 10-8), and rs1830321 associates with BAV (OR = 1.12, P = 5.3 × 10-3) and coronary artery disease (OR = 1.05, P = 9.3 × 10-5). The results implicate both cardiac developmental abnormalities and atherosclerosis-like processes in the pathogenesis of AS. We show that several pathways are shared by CAD and AS. Causal analysis suggests that the shared risk factors of Lp(a) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol contribute substantially to the frequent co-occurence of these diseases.

19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(1): 103-115, 2018 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29290336

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia and a major risk factor for stroke, heart failure, and premature death. The pathogenesis of AF remains poorly understood, which contributes to the current lack of highly effective treatments. To understand the genetic variation and biology underlying AF, we undertook a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 6,337 AF individuals and 61,607 AF-free individuals from Norway, including replication in an additional 30,679 AF individuals and 278,895 AF-free individuals. Through genotyping and dense imputation mapping from whole-genome sequencing, we tested almost nine million genetic variants across the genome and identified seven risk loci, including two novel loci. One novel locus (lead single-nucleotide variant [SNV] rs12614435; p = 6.76 × 10-18) comprised intronic and several highly correlated missense variants situated in the I-, A-, and M-bands of titin, which is the largest protein in humans and responsible for the passive elasticity of heart and skeletal muscle. The other novel locus (lead SNV rs56202902; p = 1.54 × 10-11) covered a large, gene-dense chromosome 1 region that has previously been linked to cardiac conduction. Pathway and functional enrichment analyses suggested that many AF-associated genetic variants act through a mechanism of impaired muscle cell differentiation and tissue formation during fetal heart development.

20.
Nat Genet ; 49(12): 1752-1757, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29083406

RESUMO

Asthma, hay fever (or allergic rhinitis) and eczema (or atopic dermatitis) often coexist in the same individuals, partly because of a shared genetic origin. To identify shared risk variants, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS; n = 360,838) of a broad allergic disease phenotype that considers the presence of any one of these three diseases. We identified 136 independent risk variants (P < 3 × 10-8), including 73 not previously reported, which implicate 132 nearby genes in allergic disease pathophysiology. Disease-specific effects were detected for only six variants, confirming that most represent shared risk factors. Tissue-specific heritability and biological process enrichment analyses suggest that shared risk variants influence lymphocyte-mediated immunity. Six target genes provide an opportunity for drug repositioning, while for 36 genes CpG methylation was found to influence transcription independently of genetic effects. Asthma, hay fever and eczema partly coexist because they share many genetic risk variants that dysregulate the expression of immune-related genes.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Eczema/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Hipersensibilidade/genética , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
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