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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 135(41): 15595-608, 2013 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24041239

RESUMO

In the (salen)Co(III)-catalyzed hydrolytic kinetic resolution (HKR) of terminal epoxides, the rate- and stereoselectivity-determining epoxide ring-opening step occurs by a cooperative bimetallic mechanism with one Co(III) complex acting as a Lewis acid and another serving to deliver the hydroxide nucleophile. In this paper, we analyze the basis for the extraordinarily high stereoselectivity and broad substrate scope observed in the HKR. We demonstrate that the stereochemistry of each of the two (salen)Co(III) complexes in the rate-determining transition structure is important for productive catalysis: a measurable rate of hydrolysis occurs only if the absolute stereochemistry of each of these (salen)Co(III) complexes is the same. Experimental and computational studies provide strong evidence that stereochemical communication in the HKR is mediated by the stepped conformation of the salen ligand, and not the shape of the chiral diamine backbone of the ligand. A detailed computational analysis reveals that the epoxide binds the Lewis acidic Co(III) complex in a well-defined geometry imposed by stereoelectronic rather than steric effects. This insight serves as the basis of a complete stereochemical and transition structure model that sheds light on the reasons for the broad substrate generality of the HKR.


Assuntos
Álcoois/síntese química , Cobalto/química , Compostos de Epóxi/química , Etilenodiaminas/química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Álcoois/química , Catálise , Compostos de Epóxi/síntese química , Hidrólise , Cinética , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Teoria Quântica , Estereoisomerismo
2.
J Org Chem ; 77(5): 2486-95, 2012 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22292515

RESUMO

The (salen)Co(III)-catalyzed hydrolytic kinetic resolution (HKR) of terminal epoxides is a bimetallic process with a rate controlled by partitioning between a nucleophilic (salen)Co-OH catalyst and a Lewis acidic (salen)Co-X catalyst. The commonly used (salen)Co-OAc and (salen)Co-Cl precatalysts undergo complete and irreversible counterion addition to epoxide during the course of the epoxide hydrolysis reaction, resulting in quantitative formation of weakly Lewis acidic (salen)Co-OH and severely diminished reaction rates in the late stages of HKR reactions. In contrast, (salen)Co-OTs maintains high reactivity over the entire course of HKR reactions. We describe here an investigation of catalyst partitioning with different (salen)Co-X precatalysts and demonstrate that counterion addition to epoxide is reversible in the case of the (salen)Co-OTs. This reversible counterion addition results in stable partitioning between nucleophilic and Lewis acidic catalyst species, allowing highly efficient catalysis throughout the course of the HKR reaction.


Assuntos
Cobalto/química , Compostos de Epóxi/química , Etilenodiaminas/química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Hidrólise , Cinética , Estrutura Molecular
3.
J Biol Chem ; 281(38): 28210-21, 2006 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16854981

RESUMO

The uptake of Urd into the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is mediated by Fui1p, a Urd-specific nucleoside transporter encoded by the FUI1 gene and a member of the yeast Fur permease family, which also includes the uracil, allantoin, and thiamine permeases. When Fui1p was produced in a double-permease knock-out strain (fur4Deltafui1Delta) of yeast, Urd uptake was stimulated at acidic pH and sensitive to the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Electrophysiological analysis of recombinant Fui1p produced in Xenopus oocytes demonstrated that Fui1p-mediated Urd uptake was dependent on proton cotransport with a 1:1 stoichiometry. Mutagenesis analysis of three charged amino acids (Glu(259), Lys(288), and Asp(474) in putative transmembrane segments 3, 4, and 7, respectively) revealed that only Lys(288) was required for maintaining high Urd transport efficiency. Analysis of binding energies between Fui1p and different Urd analogs indicated that Fuip1 interacted with C(3')-OH, C(2')-OH, C(5)-H, and N(3)-H of Urd. Fui1p-mediated transport of Urd was inhibited by analogs with modifications at C-5', but was not inhibited significantly by analogs with modifications at C-3', C-5, and N-3 or inversions of configuration at C-2' and C-3'. This characterization of Fui1p contributes to the emerging knowledge of the structure and function of the Fur family of permeases, including the Fui1p orthologs of pathogenic fungi.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Animais , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/química , Proteínas de Transporte de Nucleosídeos , Transporte Proteico , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Uridina/metabolismo , Xenopus
4.
Mol Pharmacol ; 68(3): 830-9, 2005 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15955867

RESUMO

Human concentrative nucleoside transporters 1, 2, and 3 (hCNT1, hCNT2, and hCNT3) exhibit different functional characteristics, and a better understanding of their permeant selectivities is critical for development of nucleoside analog drugs with optimal pharmacokinetic properties. In this study, the sensitivity of a high-throughput yeast expression system used previously for hCNT1 and hCNT3 was improved and used to characterize determinants for interaction of uridine (Urd) with hCNT2. The observed changes of binding energy between hCNT2 and different Urd analogs suggested that it interacts with C3'-OH, C5'-OH, and N3-H of Urd. The C2' and C5 regions of Urd played minor but significant roles for Urd-hCNT2 binding, possibly through Van der Waals interactions. Because the yeast assay only provided information about potential transportability, the permeant selectivities of recombinant hCNT1, hCNT2, and hCNT3 produced in Xenopus laevis oocytes were investigated using a two-electrode voltage clamp assay. hCNT1-mediated transport was sensitive to modifications of the N3, C3', and C5' positions of Urd. hCNT2 showed some tolerance for transporting Urd analogs with C2' or C5 modifications, little tolerance for N3 modifications, and no tolerance for any modifications at C3' or C5' of Urd. Although hCNT3 was sensitive to C3' modifications, it transported a broad range of variously substituted Urd analogs. The transportability profiles identified in this study, which reflected the binding profiles well, should prove useful in the development of anticancer and antiviral therapies with nucleoside drugs that are permeants of members of the hCNT protein family.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Uridina/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Primers do DNA , Humanos , Moduladores de Transporte de Membrana , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/antagonistas & inibidores , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15043160

RESUMO

The sugar moiety of nucleosides has been shown to play a major role in permeant-transporter interaction with human equilibrative nucleoside transporters 1 and 2 (hENT1 and hENT2). To better understand the structural requirements for interactions with hENT1 and hENT2, a series of uridine analogs with sugar modifications were subjected to an assay that tested their abilities to inhibit [3H]uridine transport mediated by recombinant hENT1 and hENT2 produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. hENT1 displayed higher affinity for uridine than hENT2. Both transporters barely tolerated modifications or inversion of configuration at C(3'). The C(2')-OH at uridine was a structural determinant for uridine-hENT1, but not for uridine-hENT2, interactions. Both transporters were sensitive to modifications at C(5') and hENT2 displayed more tolerance to removal of C(5')-OH than hENT1; addition of an O-methyl group at C(5') greatly reduced interaction with either hENT1 or hENT2. The changes in binding energies between transporter proteins and the different uridine analogs suggested that hENT1 formed strong interactions with C(3')-OH and moderate interactions with C(2')-OH and C(5')-OH of uridine, whereas hENT2 formed strong interactions with C(3')-OH, weak interactions with C(5')-OH, and no interaction with C(2')-OH.


Assuntos
Transportador Equilibrativo 1 de Nucleosídeo/metabolismo , Transportador Equilibrativo 2 de Nucleosídeo/metabolismo , Uridina/metabolismo , Motivos de Aminoácidos/fisiologia , Clonagem Molecular , Transportador Equilibrativo 1 de Nucleosídeo/química , Transportador Equilibrativo 2 de Nucleosídeo/química , Humanos , Cinética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Termodinâmica
6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 126(5): 1360-2, 2004 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14759192

RESUMO

The mechanism of the hydrolytic kinetic resolution (HKR) of terminal epoxides was investigated by kinetic analysis using reaction calorimetry. The chiral (salen)Co-X complex (X = OAc, OTs, Cl) undergoes irreversible conversion to (salen)Co-OH during the course of the HKR and thus serves as both precatalyst and cocatalyst in a cooperative bimetallic catalytic mechanism. This insight led to the identification of more active catalysts for the HKR of synthetically useful terminal epoxides.


Assuntos
Compostos de Epóxi/síntese química , Cobalto/química , Etilenodiaminas/química , Hidrólise , Cinética , Compostos Organometálicos/química
7.
Mol Pharmacol ; 64(6): 1512-20, 2003 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14645682

RESUMO

An extensive series of structural analogs of uridine that differed in substituents in the sugar and/or base moieties were subjected to inhibitor-sensitivity assays in a yeast expression system to define uridine structural determinants for inhibitors of human concentrative nucleoside transporters 1 and 3 (hCNT1 and hCNT3). The production of recombinant hCNT1 and hCNT3 in a nucleoside-transporter deficient strain of yeast was confirmed by immunoblotting, and uridine transport parameters (Km, Vmax) were determined by defining the concentration dependence of initial rates of uptake of [3H]uridine by intact yeast. The Ki values of uridine analogs were obtained from inhibitory-effect curves and converted to binding energies. hCNT1 and hCNT3 recognized uridine through distinguishable binding motifs. hCNT1 was sensitive to modifications at C(3), less sensitive at C(5') or N(3), and much less sensitive at C(2'). hCNT3 was sensitive to modifications at C(3'), but much less sensitive at N(3), C(5') or C(2'). The changes of binding energy between transporter proteins and different uridine analogs suggested that hCNT1 formed hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) with C(3')-OH, C(5')-OH, or N(3)-H of uridine, but not with C(2')-OH, whereas hCNT3 formed H-bonds to C(3')-OH, but not to N(3)-H, C(5')-OH, and C(2')-OH. Both transporters barely tolerated modifications at C(3') or inversion of configurations at C(2')orC(3'). The binding profiles identified in this study can be used to predict the potential transportability of nucleoside analogs, including anticancer or antiviral nucleoside drugs, by hCNT1 and hCNT3.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Uridina/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Proteínas de Transporte de Nucleosídeos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Uridina/farmacologia
8.
J Org Chem ; 67(23): 8258-60, 2002 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12423165

RESUMO

Treatment of homoadenosine [9-(5-deoxy-beta-D-ribo-hexofuranosyl)adenine] with thionyl chloride and pyridine in acetonitrile gave 6'-chloro-6'-deoxyhomoadenosine, which underwent nucleophilic displacement with L-cysteine or L-homocysteine to give homologated analogues of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. Each amino acid in aqueous sodium hydroxide at 60 degrees C gave excellent conversion from the chloronucleoside, and adsorption on Amberlite XAD-4 resin provided more convenient isolation than prior methods. Weak binding of these non-hydrolyzed analogues to S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase was observed.


Assuntos
Cisteína/síntese química , Cisteína/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Homocisteína/síntese química , Homocisteína/farmacologia , Hidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , Adenosil-Homocisteinase , Cisteína/análogos & derivados , Homocisteína/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Cinética , Placenta/enzimologia , Ligação Proteica , S-Adenosilmetionina/análogos & derivados
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