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1.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204389

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Biallelic pathogenic variants in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes cause a recessive childhood cancer predisposition syndrome known as constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD). Family members with a heterozygous MMR variant have Lynch syndrome. We aimed at estimating cancer risk in these heterozygous carriers as a novel approach to avoid complicated statistical methods to correct for ascertainment bias. METHODS: Cumulative colorectal cancer incidence was estimated in a cohort of PMS2- and MSH6-associated families, ascertained by the CMMRD phenotype of the index, by using mutation probabilities based on kinship coefficients as analytical weights in a proportional hazard regression on the cause-specific hazards. Confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained by bootstrapping at the family level. RESULTS: The estimated cumulative colorectal cancer risk at age 70 years for heterozygous PMS2 variant carriers was 8.7% (95% CI 4.3-12.7%) for both sexes combined, and 9.9% (95% CI 4.9-15.3%) for men and 5.9% (95% CI 1.6-11.1%) for women separately. For heterozygous MSH6 variant carriers these estimates are 11.8% (95% CI 4.5-22.7%) for both sexes combined, 10.0% (95% CI 1.83-24.5%) for men and 11.7% (95% CI 2.10-26.5%) for women. CONCLUSION: Our findings are consistent with previous reports that used more complex statistical methods to correct for ascertainment bias. These results underline the need for MMR gene-specific surveillance protocols for Lynch syndrome.

2.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1632019 May 20.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140768

RESUMO

Genetic testing in patients with cancer; new developments About 5% of patients with cancer have a causative germline mutation. When a germline mutation is detected, this may have major implications for treatment and follow-up of the patient, as well as for relatives who are at risk of carrying the mutation. Increasingly, DNA-testing of tumor tissue is being performed to identify potential druggable targets, aiming at personalized medicine. Both germline testing and tissue testing may have consequences for the patient, for treatment and for family members. Currently there is a trend towards mainstreaming of genetic testing, which implies that treating physicians will increasingly be the ones to order DNA tests. This implies that they need to be aware of the (family) consequences and pitfalls of genetic testing. It calls for close collaboration between clinical genetics and regional treating physicians, and adequate referral of patients with abnormal DNA results and those with other clues for a genetic predisposition. The aim being optimal tailored treatment for each patient and adequate cancer prevention for their relatives.

3.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(4): e00603, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline mutations affecting the exonuclease domains of POLE and POLD1 predispose to colorectal adenomas and carcinoma. Here, we aimed to screen the exonuclease domains to find the genetic causes of multiple colorectal polyps in unexplained cases. METHODS: Using a custom next-generation sequencing panel, we sequenced the exonuclease domains of POLE and POLD1 in 332 index patients diagnosed with multiple colorectal polyps without germline alteration in colorectal polyposis predisposing genes. RESULTS: We identified two variants of unknown significance. One germline POLD1 c.961G>A, p.(Gly321Ser) variant was found in two cases. The first patient was diagnosed with multiple polyps at age 35 and colorectal cancer (CRC) at age 37, with no known family history of CRC. The second patient was diagnosed with CRC at age 44 and cumulatively developed multiple polyps; this patient had two sisters with endometrial cancer who did not carry the variant. Furthermore, we identified a novel POLD1 c.955 T>G, p.(Cys319Gly) variant in a patient diagnosed with multiple colorectal adenomas at age 40. Co-segregation analysis showed that one sister who cumulatively developed multiple adenomas from age 34, and another sister who developed CRC at age 38 did not carry the variant. We did not identify pathogenic variants in POLE and POLD1. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the low frequency of causal variants in these genes in the predisposition for multiple colorectal polyps, and also establishes that these genes are a rare cause of the disease.


Assuntos
Pólipos do Colo/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , DNA Polimerase III/genética , DNA Polimerase II/genética , Taxa de Mutação , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Domínio Catalítico , DNA Polimerase II/química , DNA Polimerase III/química , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose/química
4.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(6): 1010-1014, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PMS2-associated Lynch syndrome is characterized by a relatively low colorectal cancer penetrance compared with other Lynch syndromes. However, age at colorectal cancer diagnosis varies widely, and a strong genetic anticipation effect has been suggested for PMS2 families. In this study, we examined proposed genetic anticipation in a sample of 152 European PMS2 families. METHODS: The 152 families (637 family members) that were eligible for analysis were mainly clinically ascertained via clinical genetics centers. We used weighted Cox-type random effects model, adjusted by birth cohort and sex, to estimate the generational effect on the age of onset of colorectal cancer. Probands and young birth cohorts were excluded from the analyses. Weights represented mutation probabilities based on kinship coefficients, thus avoiding testing bias. RESULTS: Family data across three generations, including 123 colorectal cancers, were analyzed. When compared with the first generation, the crude HR for anticipation was 2.242 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.162-4.328] for the second generation and 2.644 (95% CI, 1.082-6.464) for the third generation. However, after correction for birth cohort and sex, the effect vanished [HR = 1.302 (95% CI, 0.648-2.619) and HR = 1.074 (95% CI, 0.406-2.842) for second and third generations, respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: Our study did not confirm previous reports of genetic anticipation in PMS2-associated Lynch syndrome. Birth-cohort effect seems the most likely explanation for observed younger colorectal cancer diagnosis in subsequent generations, particularly because there is currently no commonly accepted biological mechanism that could explain genetic anticipation in Lynch syndrome. IMPACT: This new model for studying genetic anticipation provides a standard for rigorous analysis of families with dominantly inherited cancer predisposition.

5.
Cancer Cell ; 35(2): 256-266.e5, 2019 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753826

RESUMO

Biallelic germline mutations affecting NTHL1 predispose carriers to adenomatous polyposis and colorectal cancer, but the complete phenotype is unknown. We describe 29 individuals carrying biallelic germline NTHL1 mutations from 17 families, of which 26 developed one (n = 10) or multiple (n = 16) malignancies in 14 different tissues. An unexpected high breast cancer incidence was observed in female carriers (60%). Mutational signature analysis of 14 tumors from 7 organs revealed that NTHL1 deficiency underlies the main mutational process in all but one of the tumors (93%). These results reveal NTHL1 as a multi-tumor predisposition gene with a high lifetime risk for extracolonic cancers and a typical mutational signature observed across tumor types, which can assist in the recognition of this syndrome.

6.
J Med Genet ; 2018 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415209

RESUMO

Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) is a rare childhood cancer predisposition syndrome caused by biallelic germline mutations in one of four mismatch-repair genes. Besides very high tumour risks, CMMRD phenotypes are often characterised by the presence of signs reminiscent of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Because NF1 signs may be present prior to tumour onset, CMMRD is a legitimate differential diagnosis in an otherwise healthy child suspected to have NF1/Legius syndrome without a detectable underlying NF1/SPRED1 germline mutation. However, no guidelines indicate when to counsel and test for CMMRD in this setting. Assuming that CMMRD is rare in these patients and that expected benefits of identifying CMMRD prior to tumour onset should outweigh potential harms associated with CMMRD counselling and testing in this setting, we aimed at elaborating a strategy to preselect, among children suspected to have NF1/Legius syndrome without a causative NF1/SPRED1 mutation and no overt malignancy, those children who have a higher probability of having CMMRD. At an interdisciplinary workshop, we discussed estimations of the frequency of CMMRD as a differential diagnosis of NF1 and potential benefits and harms of CMMRD counselling and testing in a healthy child with no malignancy. Preselection criteria and strategies for counselling and testing were developed and reviewed in two rounds of critical revisions. Existing diagnostic CMMRD criteria were adapted to serve as a guideline as to when to consider CMMRD as differential diagnosis of NF1/Legius syndrome. In addition, counselling and testing strategies are suggested to minimise potential harms.

7.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(29): 2961-2968, 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30161022

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lynch syndrome due to pathogenic variants in the DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 is predominantly associated with colorectal and endometrial cancer, although extracolonic cancers have been described within the Lynch tumor spectrum. However, the age-specific cumulative risk (penetrance) of these cancers is still poorly defined for PMS2-associated Lynch syndrome. Using a large data set from a worldwide collaboration, our aim was to determine accurate penetrance measures of cancers for carriers of heterozygous pathogenic PMS2 variants. METHODS: A modified segregation analysis was conducted that incorporated both genotyped and nongenotyped relatives, with conditioning for ascertainment to estimates corrected for bias. Hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% CIs were estimated for each cancer site for mutation carriers compared with the general population, followed by estimation of penetrance. RESULTS: In total, 284 families consisting of 4,878 first- and second-degree family members were included in the analysis. PMS2 mutation carriers were at increased risk for colorectal cancer (cumulative risk to age 80 years of 13% [95% CI, 7.9% to 22%] for males and 12% [95% CI, 6.7% to 21%] for females) and endometrial cancer (13% [95% CI, 7.0%-24%]), compared with the general population (6.6%, 4.7%, and 2.4%, respectively). There was no clear evidence of an increased risk of ovarian, gastric, hepatobiliary, bladder, renal, brain, breast, prostate, or small bowel cancer. CONCLUSION: Heterozygous PMS2 mutation carriers were at small increased risk for colorectal and endometrial cancer but not for any other Lynch syndrome-associated cancer. This finding justifies that PMS2-specific screening protocols could be restricted to colonoscopies. The role of risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for PMS2 mutation carriers needs further discussion.

8.
J Mol Diagn ; 20(5): 600-611, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29936257

RESUMO

BRCA1/2 variant analysis in tumor tissue could streamline the referral of patients with epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer to genetic counselors and select patients who benefit most from targeted treatment. We investigated the sensitivity of BRCA1/2 variant analysis in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue using a combination of next-generation sequencing and copy number variant multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. After optimization using a training cohort of known BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, validation was performed in a prospective cohort in which screening of BRCA1/2 tumor DNA and leukocyte germline DNA was performed in parallel. BRCA1 promoter hypermethylation and pedigree analysis were also performed. In the training cohort, 45 of 46 germline BRCA1/2 variants were detected (sensitivity, 98%). In the prospective cohort (n = 62), all six germline variants were identified (sensitivity, 100%), together with five somatic BRCA1/2 variants and eight cases with BRCA1 promoter hypermethylation. In four BRCA1/2 variant-negative patients, surveillance or prophylactic management options were offered on the basis of positive family histories. We conclude that BRCA1/2 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue analysis reliably detects BRCA1/2 variants. When taking family history of BRCA1/2 variant-negative patients into account, tumor BRCA1/2 variant screening allows more efficient selection of epithelial ovarian cancer patients for genetic counseling and simultaneously selects patients who benefit most from targeted treatment.

9.
Gastroenterology ; 155(3): 844-851, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29758216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Germline variants in mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2 (EPCAM), MSH6, or PMS2 cause Lynch syndrome. Patients with these variants have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancers (CRCs) that differ from sporadic CRCs in genetic and histologic features. It has been a challenge to study CRCs associated with PMS2 variants (PMS2-associated CRCs) because these develop less frequently and in older patients than CRCs with variants in other mismatch repair genes. METHODS: We analyzed 20 CRCs associated with germline variants in PMS2, 22 sporadic CRCs, 18 CRCs with germline variants in MSH2, and 24 CRCs from patients with germline variants in MLH1. Tumor tissue blocks were collected from Dutch pathology departments in 2017. After extraction of tumor DNA, we used a platform designed to detect approximately 3,000 somatic hotspot variants in 55 genes (including KRAS, APC, CTNNB1, and TP53). Somatic variant frequencies were compared using the Fisher exact test. RESULTS: None of the PMS2-associated CRCs contained any somatic variants in the catenin-ß1 gene (CTNNB1), which encodes ß-catenin, whereas 14 of 24 MLH1-associated CRCs (58%) contained variants in CTNNB1. Half the PMS2-associated CRCs contained KRAS variants, but only 20% of these were in hotspots that encoded G12D or G13D. These hotspot variants occurred more frequently in CRCs associated with variants in MLH1 (37.5%; P = .44) and MSH2 (71.4%; P = .035) than in those associated with variants in PMS2. CONCLUSIONS: In a genetic analysis of 84 colorectal tumors, we found tumors from patients with PMS2-associated Lynch syndrome to be distinct from colorectal tumors associated with defects in other mismatch repair genes. This might account for differences in development and less frequent occurrence.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Molécula de Adesão da Célula Epitelial/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , beta Catenina/genética
12.
Fam Cancer ; 17(3): 415-420, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29124495

RESUMO

Patients synchronously or metachronously presenting with ovarian and colon cancer can pose diagnostic challenges. A primary colon carcinoma can metastasize to one or both ovaries, two independent primary tumors can arise or an ovarian carcinoma can metastasize to the colon. Clinical and immunohistochemical characterization can aid the diagnosis. Recently, we reported that in difficult cases finding pathogenic APC variants supports a colonic origin.In this case report we describe the clinical history of a female patient suspected for Lynch syndrome. She was diagnosed with a bilateral ovarian cancer at age 44, followed by the detection of a colon carcinoma 12.5 months later. Lesions of both sites showed a DNA mismatch repair deficiency with immunohistochemical loss of MLH1 and PMS2 expression without MLH1 promoter hypermethylation. In absence of germline MMR gene variants identical somatic MLH1 and CTNNB1 gene variants were found, indicating a clonal relation. MMR germline mosaicism was made unlikely by ultra deep sequencing of the MLH1 variant in DNA isolated from normal mucosa, blood, urine and saliva. Although initially being suspect for Lynch syndrome it was eventually concluded that a metachronously diagnosed colon carcinoma that metastasized to both ovaries was most likely.

13.
Fam Cancer ; 17(4): 507-515, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29147930

RESUMO

Lynch syndrome (LS) patients are at high risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Phenotypic variability might in part be explained by common susceptibility loci identified in Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS). Previous studies focused mostly on MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 carriers, with conflicting results. We aimed to determine the role of GWAS SNPs in PMS2 mutation carriers. A cohort study was performed in 507 PMS2 carriers (124 CRC cases), genotyped for 24 GWAS SNPs, including SNPs at 11q23.1 and 8q23.3. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using a weighted Cox regression analysis to correct for ascertainment bias. Discrimination was assessed with a concordance statistic in a bootstrap cross-validation procedure. Individual SNPs only had non-significant associations with CRC occurrence with HRs lower than 2, although male carriers of allele A at rs1321311 (6p21.31) may have increased risk of CRC (HR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.0). A polygenic risk score (PRS) based on 24 HRs had an HR of 2.6 (95% CI 1.5-4.6) for the highest compared to the lowest quartile, but had no discriminative ability (c statistic 0.52). Previously suggested SNPs do not modify CRC risk in PMS2 carriers. Future large studies are needed for improved risk stratification among Lynch syndrome patients.

14.
Br J Cancer ; 117(6): 1215-1223, 2017 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28742792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A substantial fraction of familial colorectal cancer (CRC) and polyposis heritability remains unexplained. This study aimed to identify predisposing loci in patients with these disorders. METHODS: Homozygosity mapping was performed using 222 563 SNPs in 302 index patients with various colorectal neoplasms and 3367 controls. Linkage analysis, exome and whole-genome sequencing were performed in a family affected by microsatellite stable CRCs. Candidate variants were genotyped in 10 554 cases and 21 480 controls. Gene expression was assessed at the mRNA and protein level. RESULTS: Homozygosity mapping revealed a disease-associated region at 1q32.3 which was part of the linkage region 1q32.2-42.2 identified in the CRC family. This includes a region previously associated with risk of CRC. Sequencing identified the p.Asp1432Glu variant in the MIA3 gene (known as TANGO1 or TANGO) and 472 additional rare, shared variants within the linkage region. In both cases and controls the population frequency was 0.02% for this MIA3 variant. The MIA3 mutant allele showed predominant mRNA expression in normal, cancer and precancerous tissues. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed increased expression of MIA3 in adenomatous tissues. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our two independent strategies associate genetic variations in chromosome 1q loci and predisposition to familial CRC and polyps, which warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Translocador Nuclear Receptor Aril Hidrocarboneto/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Translocador Nuclear Receptor Aril Hidrocarboneto/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/metabolismo , Ligação Genética , Genótipo , Homozigoto , Humanos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/genética , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
15.
Gastroenterology ; 152(3): 546-549.e3, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27816598

RESUMO

We investigated the presence and patterns of mosaicism in the APC gene in patients with colon neoplasms not associated with any other genetic variants; we performed deep sequence analysis of APC in at least 2 adenomas or carcinomas per patient. We identified mosaic variants in APC in adenomas from 9 of the 18 patients with 21 to approximately 100 adenomas. Mosaic variants of APC were variably detected in leukocyte DNA and/or non-neoplastic intestinal mucosa of these patients. In a comprehensive sequence analysis of 1 patient, we found no evidence for mosaicism in APC in non-neoplastic intestinal mucosa. One patient was found to carry a mosaic c.4666dupA APC variant in only 10 of 16 adenomas, indicating the importance of screening 2 or more adenomas for genetic variants.


Assuntos
Adenoma/genética , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Carcinoma/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Genes APC , Mosaicismo , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Via de Sinalização Wnt
16.
Hum Mutat ; 37(11): 1162-1179, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27435373

RESUMO

Monoallelic PMS2 germline mutations cause 5%-15% of Lynch syndrome, a midlife cancer predisposition, whereas biallelic PMS2 mutations cause approximately 60% of constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD), a rare childhood cancer syndrome. Recently improved DNA- and RNA-based strategies are applied to overcome problematic PMS2 mutation analysis due to the presence of pseudogenes and frequent gene conversion events. Here, we determined PMS2 mutation detection yield and mutation spectrum in a nationwide cohort of 396 probands. Furthermore, we studied concordance between tumor IHC/MSI (immunohistochemistry/microsatellite instability) profile and mutation carrier state. Overall, we found 52 different pathogenic PMS2 variants explaining 121 Lynch syndrome and nine CMMRD patients. In vitro mismatch repair assays suggested pathogenicity for three missense variants. Ninety-one PMS2 mutation carriers (70%) showed isolated loss of PMS2 in their tumors, for 31 (24%) no or inconclusive IHC was available, and eight carriers (6%) showed discordant IHC (presence of PMS2 or loss of both MLH1 and PMS2). Ten cases with isolated PMS2 loss (10%; 10/97) harbored MLH1 mutations. We confirmed that recently improved mutation analysis provides a high yield of PMS2 mutations in patients with isolated loss of PMS2 expression. Application of universal tumor prescreening methods will however miss some PMS2 germline mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/metabolismo , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/metabolismo , Países Baixos
17.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; 51(10): 1227-32, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27310819

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In 2014, a population-screening program using immuno-faecal occult blood testing (I-FOBT) has started in the Netherlands. The aims of this study were to evaluate the proportion of individuals in the Dutch screening program with a positive I-FOBT that fulfill the criteria for familial colorectal cancer (FCC) and to evaluate the proportion of participants that needs genetic counseling or colonoscopic surveillance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective observational study was performed in two large hospitals. Individuals aged between 55 and 75 years with a positive I-FOBT that underwent colonoscopy were included. A detailed family history was obtained in all individuals. RESULTS: A total of 657 individuals with a positive I-FOBT test underwent colonoscopy. A total of 120 (18.3%) participants were found to have a positive family history for CRC, 20 (3.0%) fulfilled the FCC criteria, 4 (0.6%) the Bethesda guidelines and 1 (0.2%) participant the Amsterdam criteria. Multiple adenomas (>10) were found in 21 (3.2%) participants. No cases of serrated polyposis were identified. Based on these criteria and guidelines, a total of 35 (5.3%) required referral to the clinical geneticist and the relatives of 20 (3.0%) participants should be referred for surveillance colonoscopy. CONCLUSION: Obtaining a detailed family history at the time of intake of participants with a positive I-FOBT in the Dutch surveillance program increased the identification of participants with familial CRC.


Assuntos
Adenoma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/epidemiologia , Idoso , Colonoscopia , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Sangue Oculto , Projetos Piloto , Vigilância da População , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Genet Med ; 18(4): 405-9, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26110232

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lynch syndrome (LS), a heritable disorder with an increased risk of primarily colorectal cancer (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC), can be caused by mutations in the PMS2 gene. We wished to establish whether genotype and/or parent-of-origin effects (POE) explain (part of) the reported variability in severity of the phenotype. METHODS: European PMS2 mutation carriers (n = 381) were grouped and compared based on RNA expression and whether the mutation was inherited paternally or maternally. RESULTS: Mutation carriers with loss of RNA expression (group 1) had a significantly lower age at CRC diagnosis (51.1 years vs. 60.0 years, P = 0.035) and a lower age at EC diagnosis (55.8 years vs. 61.0 years, P = 0.2, nonsignificant) compared with group 2 (retention of RNA expression). Furthermore, group 1 showed slightly higher, but nonsignificant, hazard ratios (HRs) for both CRC (HR: 1.31, P = 0.38) and EC (HR: 1.22, P = 0.72). No evidence for a significant parent-of-origin effect was found for either CRC or EC. CONCLUSIONS: PMS2 mutation carriers with retention of RNA expression developed CRC 9 years later than those with loss of RNA expression. If confirmed, this finding would justify a delay in surveillance for these cases. Cancer risk was not influenced by a parent-of-origin effect.Genet Med 18 4, 405-409.


Assuntos
Heterozigoto , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Mutação , Neoplasias/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Risco
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