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1.
J Urol ; 205(1): 94-99, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716672

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Treatment for muscle invasive bladder cancer includes radical cystectomy, a major surgery that can be associated with significant toxicity. Limited data exist related to changes in patient global health status and recovery following radical cystectomy. We used geriatric assessment to longitudinally compare health related impairments in older and younger patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer who undergo radical cystectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Older and younger patients (70 or older and younger than 70 years) with muscle invasive bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy at an academic institution were enrolled between 2012 and 2019. Patients completed the geriatric assessment before radical cystectomy, and 1, 3 and 12 months after radical cystectomy. For each geriatric assessment measure the Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare score distribution between age groups at each time point. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare distributions between time points within each age group. RESULTS: A total of 80 patients (42 younger and 38 older) were enrolled. Before radical cystectomy 78% of patients were impaired on at least 1 geriatric assessment measure. Both age groups had worsening physical function and nutrition at 1 month after radical cystectomy, with older patients having a greater decline in function than younger patients. Both groups recovered to baseline at 3 months after radical cystectomy and maintained this status at 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: High rates of impairments were found across age groups in the short term after radical cystectomy, followed by recovery to baseline.


Assuntos
Cistectomia/efeitos adversos , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Avaliação Geriátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Recuperação Pós-Cirúrgica Melhorada , Feminino , Fragilidade/etiologia , Fragilidade/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Período Pré-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
2.
Urol Oncol ; 39(4): 237.e7-237.e14, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308978

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and identified the predictive factors associated with PTSD symptoms in a population of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) survivors. METHODS: A random sample of 2,000 NMIBC survivors, identified through the North Carolina Central Cancer Registry, were sent postal mail survey. PTSD symptoms were measured using the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). Descriptive statistics and hierarchical multiple linear regression were used to examine the prevalence of PTSD and to identify the factors associated with PTSD. RESULTS: A total of 376 participants were included in the analysis. The average PCL-5 score was 7.1 (standard deviation [SD] = 10.9, range: 0-66), where higher scores represent higher levels of PTSD symptoms. The prevalence of the provisional PTSD diagnosis was 5.3% or 6.9% (after adjusting for nonresponse). In addition, 28.7% of participants met criteria for at least one PTSD symptom cluster. After controlling for other variables, participants who were younger, had active disease or unsure of status, had more comorbidities, had lower social support, and had higher cognitive concerns reported significantly higher PTSD symptoms. CONCLUSION: More than one-fourth of NMIBC survivors had PTSD symptoms. Thus, healthcare providers should assess PTSD symptoms and provide supportive care for NMIBC survivors in the survivorship phase of care.

3.
Urology ; 149: 103-109, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352164

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patient-reported health status, more so than comorbidity, influences treatment in men with localized prostate cancer. METHODS: Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data linked with Medicare claims and CAHPS surveys, we identified men aged 65-84 diagnosed with localized prostate cancer from 2004 to 2013 and ascertained their National Cancer Institute (NCI) comorbidity score and patient-reported health status. Adjusting for demographics and cancer risk, we examined the relationship between these measures and treatment for the overall cohort, low-risk men aged 65-74, intermediate/high-risk men aged 65-74, and men aged 75-84. RESULTS: Among 2724 men, 43.0% rated their overall health as Excellent/Very Good, while 62.7% had a comorbidity score of 0. Beyond age and cancer risk, patient-reported health status was significantly associated with treatment. Compared to men reporting Excellent/Very Good health, men in Poor/Fair health less often received treatment (odds ratio [OR] 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.90). Younger men with intermediate/high-risk cancer in Good (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.41-0.88) or Fair/Poor (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.30-0.79) health less often underwent prostatectomy vs radiation compared to men in Excellent/Very Good health. In contrast, men with NCI comorbidity score of 1 more often received treatment (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.11-1.70) compared to men with NCI comorbidity score of 0. CONCLUSION: Patient-reported health status drives treatment for prostate cancer in an appropriate direction whereas comorbidity has an inconsistent relationship. Greater understanding of this interplay between subjective and empiric assessments may facilitate more shared decision-making in prostate cancer care.

4.
Urology ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217455

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To implement Standard Opioid Prescribing Schedules (SOPS) based on opioid use following urologic surgeries and to evaluate how evidence-based prescribing schedules affect opioid use and patient reported outcomes. METHODS: Patients who underwent urologic surgeries within 6 procedure subtypes at UNC Health during the 2 study time periods ("pre-SOPS": 7/2017-1/2018, "post-SOPS": 7/2018-1/2019) were invited to complete a survey analyzing postoperative opioid usage, storage and disposal, and patient reported outcomes (including pain interference using a validated questionnaire). A pharmacy database provided medication prescribing data and patient demographics. During the pre-SOPS time period, baseline outcomes were measured. Following the pre-SOPS period, usage amounts were analyzed and Standard Opioid Prescribing Schedules were developed to guide prescriptions during the post-SOPS period. Descriptive summary statistics and appropriate t test or r2 were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 438 patients within 6 procedure types completed the survey (pre-SOPS: 282 patients, post-SOPS: 156 patients). Pre-SOPS, patients were prescribed significantly more 5-mg oxycodone tablets than used (20.9 vs 7.8, P <.001). Post-SOPS, compared to pre-SOPS amounts, patients were prescribed significantly fewer tablets (12.7 vs 20.9, P <.001) and used fewer tablets (5.3 vs 7.8, P = .003). No difference was observed in pain interference (average t-score (standard deviation): 54.33 (10.9) pre-SOPS vs 55.89 (9.1) post-SOPS, P = .125) or patient satisfaction (95% pre-SOPS vs 94% post-SOPS). CONCLUSION: Adherence to data-driven postoperative opioid prescribing schedules reduce opioid prescriptions and use without compromising pain interference or patient satisfaction. These results have important implications for urologists' ability to decrease opioid prescriptions and fight the opioid epidemic.

5.
Cancer ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has heterogeneous recurrence and progression outcomes. Available risk calculators estimate recurrence and progression but do not predict the recurrence stage or grade, which may influence downstream treatment. The objective of this study was to predict risk-stratified NMIBC recurrence and progression based on recurrence tumor classification and grade. METHODS: In total, 2956 patients with NMIBC (

6.
J Urol ; : 101097JU0000000000001355, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909877

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Life expectancy has become a core consideration in prostate cancer care. While multiple prediction tools exist to support decision making, their discriminative ability remains modest, which hampers usage and utility. We examined whether combining patient reported and claims based health measures into prediction models improves performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results)-CAHPS (Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems) we identified men 65 years old or older diagnosed with prostate cancer from 2004 to 2013 and extracted 4 types of data, including demographics, cancer information, claims based health measures and patient reported health measures. Next, we compared the performance of 5 nested competing risk regression models for other cause mortality. Additionally, we assessed whether adding new health measures to established prediction models improved discriminative ability. RESULTS: Among 3,240 cases 246 (7.6%) died of prostate cancer while 631 (19.5%) died of other causes. The National Cancer Institute Comorbidity Index score was associated but weakly correlated with patient reported overall health (p <0.001, r=0.21). For predicting other cause mortality the 10-year area under the receiver operating characteristic curve improved from 0.721 (demographics only) to 0.755 with cancer information and to 0.777 and 0.812 when adding claims based and patient reported health measures, respectively. The full model generated the highest value of 0.820. Models based on existing tools also improved in their performance with the incorporation of new data types as predictor variables (p <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Prediction models for life expectancy that combine patient reported and claims based health measures outperform models that incorporate these measures separately. However, given the modest degree of improvement, the implementation of life expectancy tools should balance model performance with data availability and fidelity.

7.
Urol Oncol ; 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819814

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of enrollment and collecting patient-reported outcome (PRO) data as part of routine clinical urologic care for bladder and prostate cancer patients and examine overall patterns and racial variations in PRO use and symptom reports over time. SUBJECTS/PATIENTS AND METHODS: We recruited 76 patients (n = 29 Black and n = 47 White) with prostate or bladder cancer at a single, comprehensive cancer center. The majority of prostate cancer patients had intermediate risk (57%) disease and underwent either radiation or prostatectomy. Over half (58%) of bladder cancer patients had muscle invasive disease and underwent cystectomy. Patients were asked to complete PRO symptom surveys using their preferred mode [web- or phone-based interactive voice response (IVR)]. Symptom summary reports were shared with providers during visits. Surveys were completed at 3 time points and assessed urinary, sexual, gastrointestinal, anxiety/depression, and sleep symptoms. Feasibility of enrollment and survey completion were calculated, and linear mixed effects models estimated differences in outcomes by race and time. RESULTS: Sixty three percent of study participants completed all PRO measures at all 3 time points. Black patients were more likely to select IVR as their survey mode (40% vs. 13%, P < 0.05), and less likely to complete all surveys (55% vs. 74%, P = 0.13). Patients using IVR were also less likely to complete all surveys (41% vs. 69%, P = 0.046). CONCLUSIONS: Reported preferences for survey mode and completion rates differ by race, which may influence survey completion rates and highlight potential obstacles for equitable implementation of PROs into clinical care.

8.
Can Urol Assoc J ; 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745004

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Increasing severity of hematuria is instinctively associated with higher likelihood of urological malignancy. However, the robustness of the evidentiary base for this assertion is unclear, particularly as it relates to the likelihood of upper urinary tract pathology. Thus, the value of axial imaging in the diagnostic workup of hematuria is unclear due to differences in the underlying patient populations, raising concern for sampling bias. We performed a systematic review to characterize the literature and association between severity of hematuria and likelihood of upper urinary tract cancer based on axial imaging. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane were systematically searched for all studies reporting on adult patients presenting with hematuria. We used Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) for reporting of this systematic review and meta-analysis and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for risk of bias assessment. Degree of hematuria was classified as "microscopic," "gross," or "unspecified." Three urologic malignancies (bladder, upper tract urothelial, and renal cancer) were considered both individually and in aggregate. Random effects model with pairwise comparisons was employed to arrive at the axial imaging diagnostic yields. RESULTS: Twenty-nine studies were included, of which six (20.7%) reported on patients with gross hematuria only, four (13.8%) reported on patients with microscopic hematuria only, seven (24.1%) included both, and 12 (41.4%) did not define or specify the severity of hematuria. Of 29 studies, two (6.9%) were at high-risk of bias, 21 (72.4%) at intermediate-risk, and six (20.7%) at low-risk of bias using the Newcastle-Ottawa criteria. Based on axial imaging, rates of diagnoses of renal, upper tract urothelial, and bladder cancers differed with differing severity of hematuria. Notably, rates of renal and upper tract urothelial carcinoma were higher in studies of patients with unspecified hematuria severity (3.6% and 10.4%, respectively) than among patients with gross hematuria (1.5% and 1.3%, respectively). When all urological malignancies were pooled, patients with unspecified hematuria were diagnosed more frequently (19.5%) compared to those with gross (15.3%) and microscopic hematuria (4.5%, difference = 1.51%; 99% confidence interval 3.6-26.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Lack of granularity in the available literature, particularly with regards to patients with unspecified hematuria severity, limits the generalizability of these results and highlights the need for future studies that provide sufficient baseline information allowing for firmer conclusions to be drawn.

9.
Behav Ecol ; 31(4): 1031-1039, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760178

RESUMO

Warning coloration should be under strong stabilizing selection but often displays considerable intraspecific variation. Opposing selection on color by predators and temperature is one potential explanation for this seeming paradox. Despite the importance of behavior for both predator avoidance and thermoregulation, its role in mediating selection by predators and temperature on warning coloration has received little attention. Wood tiger moth caterpillars, Arctia plantaginis, have aposematic coloration, an orange patch on the black body. The size of the orange patch varies considerably: individuals with larger patches are safer from predators, but having a small patch is beneficial in cool environments. We investigated microhabitat preference by these caterpillars and how it interacted with their coloration. We expected caterpillar behavior to reflect a balance between spending time exposed to maximize basking and spending time concealed to avoid detection by predators. Instead, we found that caterpillars preferred exposed locations regardless of their coloration. Whether caterpillars were exposed or concealed had a strong effect on both temperature and predation risk, but caterpillars in exposed locations were both much warmer and less likely to be attacked by a bird predator (great tits, Parus major). This shared optimum may explain why we observed so little variation in caterpillar behavior and demonstrates the important effects of behavior on multiple functions of coloration.

10.
J Cancer Surviv ; 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681304

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the feasibility of an enhanced survivorship care plan (ESCP) that integrated the web-based program Patient Education Resources for Couples (PERC) into a standardized survivorship care plan (SCP) and estimated the outcomes of ESCPs versus SCPs. METHODS: In this randomized pilot trial, localized prostate cancer (PC) patients and partners (i.e., couple) were randomly assigned to ESCP that contained a link to PERC or to SCP that contained a link to general PC information on the National Cancer Institute website. Couples completed assessments measuring quality of life (QOL), appraisal of symptoms, and coping resources at baseline (T1) and 4-6 months later (T2). We examined feasibility (e.g., recruitment and retention) using descriptive statistics. Linear mixed models examined changes in couples' outcomes over time and Poisson regression examined differences in patient healthcare utilization. RESULTS: Sixty-two couples completed T1 surveys (recruitment rate 41.6%) and were randomly assigned to receive ESCP (n = 31) or SCP (n = 31). Twenty-eight (ESCP) and 25 (SCP) couples completed T2 surveys (retention rates = 90.3% vs. 80.7%). ESCP participants (70%) reviewed webpages consistent with patients' symptoms. ESCP patients reported greater program satisfaction (p = 0.02) and better urinary symptom scores (p < 0.01) than SCP patients. CONCLUSIONS: Delivering ESCPs that embed a web-link to a couple-focused, tailored program is feasible and can potentially improve patient outcomes. The promising results need to be validated in a larger definitive trial using a diverse sample. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: SCPs, enhanced using a web-based intervention (e.g., PERC), may help PC cancer survivors better manage their urinary symptoms. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04350788.

11.
J Urol ; 204(4): 778-786, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698717

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients presenting with microhematuria represent a heterogeneous population with a broad spectrum of risk for genitourinary malignancy. Recognizing that patient-specific characteristics modify the risk of underlying malignant etiologies, this guideline sought to provide a personalized diagnostic testing strategy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The systematic review incorporated evidence published from January 2010 through February 2019, with an updated literature search to include studies published up to December 2019. Evidence-based statements were developed by the expert Panel, with statement type linked to evidence strength, level of certainty, and the Panel's judgment regarding the balance between benefits and risks/burdens. RESULTS: Microhematuria should be defined as ≥ 3 red blood cells per high power field on microscopic evaluation of a single specimen. In patients diagnosed with gynecologic or non-malignant genitourinary sources of microhematuria, clinicians should repeat urinalysis following resolution of the gynecologic or non-malignant genitourinary cause. The Panel created a risk classification system for patients with microhematuria, stratified as low-, intermediate-, or high-risk for genitourinary malignancy. Risk groups were based on factors including age, sex, smoking and other urothelial cancer risk factors, degree and persistence of microhematuria, as well as prior gross hematuria. Diagnostic evaluation with cystoscopy and upper tract imaging was recommended according to patient risk and involving shared decision-making. Statements also inform follow-up after a negative microhematuria evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with microhematuria should be classified based on their risk of genitourinary malignancy and evaluated with a risk-based strategy. Future high-quality studies are required to improve the care of these patients.


Assuntos
Hematúria/diagnóstico , Algoritmos , Hematúria/etiologia , Humanos , Medição de Risco
12.
Urol Oncol ; 38(9): 737.e17-737.e23, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) disproportionately affects older adults who often have coexisting chronic conditions such as metabolic syndrome (MetS). Although prior research suggests that MetS is a risk factor for NMIBC, limited data exists on whether MetS is associated with NMIBC recurrence. Our objective was to evaluate the association between MetS and recurrence in older adults treated for NMIBC. METHODS: We identified 1,485 older (age ≥60 years) NMIBC patients (American Joint Committee on Cancer Stage ≤1) from 2community-based health systems. Using data from the health systems' electronic medical record, MetS was defined as the presence of three of the following: diagnosis codes indicating hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, or body mass index >30. Follow up time was determined by date of the last follow up in the tumor registry and censored at 10 years. Cox proportional hazards regression of time to recurrence that accounts for the competing risk of death included adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, health system, NMIBC stage/grade, tumor size, and number of specimens with cancer. RESULTS: Overall, 341 patients (23%) met MetS criteria. Median follow up was 5.9 years and 582 patients (39.2%) died. Patients with MetS were more frequently male (84.2%), and mostly current/former smokers (82.6%). By 10 years, 34.1% of the cohort had experienced a recurrence. After accounting for the competing risk of death, there was no association between MetS and time to recurrence (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.70-1.11, P = 0.28). Patients without MetS had more 0a/low grade recurrences (49.1% vs. 41.4%), though differences were not significant. CONCLUSION: We found no association between MetS and risk of NMIBC recurrence in this large, multisite cohort of older adults with NMIBC. In order to design personalized care for older NMIBC patients, future research is needed to evaluate associations between common chronic conditions and a variety of oncologic outcomes.

13.
Ecol Lett ; 23(7): 1129-1136, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333476

RESUMO

Anthropogenic climate change alters seasonal conditions without altering photoperiod and can thus create a cue-environment mismatch for organisms that use photoperiod as a cue for seasonal plasticity. We investigated whether evolution of the photoperiodic reaction norm has compensated for this mismatch in Colias eurytheme. This butterfly's wing melanization has a thermoregulatory function and changes seasonally. In 1971, Hoffmann quantified how larval photoperiod determines adult wing melanization. We recreated his experiment 47 years later using a contemporary population. Comparing our results to his, we found decreased melanization at short photoperiods but no change in melanization at long photoperiods, which is consistent with the greater increase in spring than summer temperatures recorded for this region. Our study shows that evolution can help correct cue-environment mismatches but not in the same way under all conditions. Studies of contemporary evolution may miss important changes if they focus on only a limited range of conditions.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Animais , Mudança Climática , Sinais (Psicologia) , Fotoperíodo , Estações do Ano , Asas de Animais
14.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 18(5): 378-386.e1, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147364

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Computed tomography (CT) has limited diagnostic accuracy for staging of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a novel imaging modality incorporating functional imaging with improved soft tissue characterization. This pilot study evaluated the use of preoperative FDG-PET/MRI for staging of MIBC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-one patients with MIBC with planned radical cystectomy were enrolled. Two teams of radiologists reviewed FDG-PET/MRI scans to determine: (1) presence of primary bladder tumor; and (2) lymph node involvement and distant metastases. FDG-PET/MRI was compared with cystectomy pathology and computed tomography (CT). RESULTS: Eighteen patients were included in the final analysis, most (72.2%) of whom received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Final pathology revealed 10 (56%) patients with muscle invasion and only 3 (17%) patients with lymph node involvement. Clustered analysis of FDG-PET/MRI radiology team reads revealed a sensitivity of 0.80 and a specificity of 0.56 for detection of the primary tumor with a sensitivity of 0 and a specificity of 1.00 for detection of lymph node involvement when compared with cystectomy pathology. CT imaging demonstrated similar rates in evaluation of the primary tumor (sensitivity, 0.91; specificity, 0.43) and lymph node involvement (sensitivity, 0; specificity, 0.93) when compared with pathology. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot single-institution experience of FDG-PET/MRI for preoperative staging of MIBC performed similar to CT for the detection of the primary tumor; however, the determination of lymph node status was limited by few patients with true pathologic lymph node involvement. Further studies are needed to evaluate the potential role for FDG-PET/MRI in the staging of MIBC.

15.
Urol Oncol ; 38(2): 39.e21-39.e27, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711836

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To externally validate the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) risk calculator and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines in a contemporary population of U.S. non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients treated in a community-based setting and compare our findings to those from another U.S. health system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 1,491 NMIBC patients with a median follow-up of 2.1 years (recurrence) and 4.1 years (progression). We calculated NCCN risk groupings and EORTC prognostic index for recurrence and progression. We followed Royston and Altman's guidelines for the external validation of prognostic calculators. RESULTS: For predicting recurrence using the EORTC framework, Harrell's C (a measure of discrimination) was smaller in our sample (0.66) than in the European Association of Urology sample (0.61), whereas for progression, Harrell's C was larger in our sample (0.78 vs. 0.75). The EORTC calculator overestimated progression risk in the highest stratum for our sample; calibration and discrimination were adequate for all groups except the highest risk group. For NCCN risk groupings, Harrell's C was 0.54 for recurrence and 0.62 for progression, suggesting poor to fair discrimination in our sample. The NCCN framework had slightly better performance for predicting progression vs. recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Existing NMIBC risk-stratification frameworks have acceptable accuracy to predict outcomes. However, further innovation in NMIBC care will require predictive tools with more granularity to reflect the differential risks of subgroups of NMIBC recurrence, prior treatment histories, and other prognostic variables.

16.
BJU Int ; 125(1): 38-48, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381249

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) diagnosis and treatment on survivors' quality of life (QoL). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Of the 5979 patients with NMIBC diagnosed between 2010 and 2014 in North Carolina, 2000 patients were randomly selected to be invited to enroll in this cross-sectional study. Data were collected by postal mail survey. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core (QLQ-C30) and the NMIBC-specific module were included in the survey to measure QoL. Descriptive statistics, t-tests, anova, and Pearson's correlation were used to describe demographics and to assess how QoL varied by sex, cancer stage, time since diagnosis, and treatment. RESULTS: A total of 398 survivors returned questionnaires (response rate: 23.6%). The mean QoL score for QLQ-C30 (range 0-100, higher = better QoL in all domains but symptoms) for global health status was 73.6, function domain scores ranged from 83.9 to 86.5, and scores for the top five symptoms (insomnia, fatigue, dyspnoea, pain, and financial difficulties) ranged from 14.1 to 24.3. The lowest NMIBC-specific QoL domain was sexual issues including sexual function, enjoyment, problems, and intimacy. Women had worse bowel problems, sexual function, and sexual enjoyment than men but better sexual intimacy and fewer concerns about contaminating their partner. Stage Ta had the highest global health status, followed by T1 and Tis. QoL did not vary by time since diagnosis except for sexual function. The cystectomy group (n = 21) had worse QoL in sexual function, discomfort with sexual intimacy, sexual enjoyment, and male sexual problems than the non-cystectomy group (n = 336). CONCLUSION: Survivors of NMIBC face a unique burden associated with their diagnosis and the often-lifelong surveillance and treatment regimens. The finding has important implications for the design of tailored supportive care interventions to improve QoL for NMIBC survivors.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Estudos Transversais , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , North Carolina , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/terapia
17.
J Urol ; 203(3): 552, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769722
18.
Perm J ; 232019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among the approximately 53,000 patients newly diagnosed with early-stage (superficial) bladder cancer each year, there is substantial variability in the progression to muscle-invasive disease. Enhancing risk stratification and risk-stratified surveillance could minimize risks and harms to patients, as well as unnecessary costs to health systems. OBJECTIVES: As a preliminary step in developing and validating a risk assessment tool for superficial bladder cancer in a population-based clinical cohort, we interviewed urologists who might use such a tool to assess need, determine potential use cases, and identify key features to include. METHODS: Using an opportunistic and purposeful sampling design, we invited 13 urologists from a variety of practice settings and with a wide range of clinical experience to take part in qualitative interviews; 9 (5 urologic oncologists and 4 general urologists) participated. RESULTS: All urologists reported using some form of risk stratification to determine surveillance schedules for patients with bladder cancer. The following use cases were endorsed by 4 or more interviewees: 1) provide evidence to guide clinical management in specific situations, 2) generate patient-facing communication aids, 3) improve documentation about recurrence/progression risk, and 4) create scheduling and callback supports to improve the quality of follow-up care. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated several potential clinical-use cases for a risk calculator and clinical decision-support tool for patients with superficial bladder cancer. Clinicians stressed the potential utility of such a tool to improve patient communication, scheduling, and tracking in general urology practice.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Padrões de Prática Médica , Medição de Risco/métodos , Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/etiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Urologistas
19.
J Urol ; 202(5): 1042-1043, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433250
20.
JAMA Intern Med ; 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355874

RESUMO

Importance: Existing recommendations for the diagnostic testing of hematuria range from uniform evaluation of varying intensity to patient-level risk stratification. Concerns have been raised about not only the costs and advantages of computed tomography (CT) scans but also the potential harms of CT radiation exposure. Objective: To compare the advantages, harms, and costs associated with 5 guidelines for hematuria evaluation. Design, Setting, and Participants: A microsimulation model was developed to assess each of the following guidelines (listed in order of increasing intensity) for initial evaluation of hematuria: Dutch, Canadian Urological Association (CUA), Kaiser Permanente (KP), Hematuria Risk Index (HRI), and American Urological Association (AUA). Participants comprised a hypothetical cohort of patients (n = 100 000) with hematuria aged 35 years or older. This study was conducted from August 2017 through November 2018. Exposures: Under the Dutch and CUA guidelines, patients received cystoscopy and ultrasonography if they were 50 years or older (Dutch) or 40 years or older (CUA). Under the KP and HRI guidelines, patients received different combinations of cystoscopy, ultrasonography, and CT urography or no evaluation on the basis of risk factors. Under the AUA guidelines, all patients 35 years or older received cystoscopy and CT urography. Main Outcomes and Measures: Urinary tract cancer detection rates, radiation-induced secondary cancers (from CT radiation exposure), procedural complications, false-positive rates per 100 000 patients, and incremental cost per additional urinary tract cancer detected. Results: The simulated cohort included 100 000 patients with hematuria, aged 35 years or older. A total of 3514 patients had urinary tract cancers (estimated prevalence, 3.5%; 95% CI, 3.0%-4.0%). The AUA guidelines missed detection for the fewest number of cancers (82 [2.3%]) compared with the detection rate of the HRI (116 [3.3%]) and KP (130 [3.7%]) guidelines. However, the simulation model projected 108 (95% CI, 34-201) radiation-induced cancers under the KP guidelines, 136 (95% CI, 62-229) under the HRI guidelines, and 575 (95% CI, 184-1069) under the AUA guidelines per 100 000 patients. The CUA and Dutch guidelines missed detection for a larger number of cancers (172 [4.9%] and 251 [7.1%]) but had 0 radiation-induced secondary cancers. The AUA guidelines cost approximately double the other 4 guidelines ($939/person vs $443/person for Dutch guidelines), with an incremental cost of $1 034 374 per urinary tract cancer detected compared with that of the HRI guidelines. Conclusions and Relevance: In this simulation study, uniform CT imaging for patients with hematuria was associated with increased costs and harms of secondary cancers, procedural complications, and false positives, with only a marginal increase in cancer detection. Risk stratification may optimize the balance of advantages, harms, and costs of CT.

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