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1.
Water Environ Res ; 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645226

RESUMO

Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for wastewater treatment show great potentials in the sustainable development of urban environments. However, fouling of membranes remains the largest challenge of MBR technology. Dissolved extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are often assumed be the main foulant in MBRs. However, single bacterial cells are often erroneously measured as EPS in traditional spectrophotometric analysis of EPS in activated sludge, so we hypothesized that single cells in many cases could be the true foulants in MBRs for wastewater treatment. To study this, raw MBR sludge and sludge supernatant with varying concentrations of planktonic cells were filtered on microfiltration (MF) membranes, and we found a direct correlation between the cell count and rate of flux decline. Addition of planktonic cells to fresh MBR sludge dramatically increased the flux decline. The identity of the most abundant planktonic cells in a full-scale MBR water resource recovery facility was determined by DNA fingerprinting. Many of these genera are known to be abundant in influent wastewater suggesting that the influent bacterial cells may have a direct effect on the fouling propensity in MBR systems. This new knowledge may lead to new anti-fouling strategies targeting incoming planktonic bacteria from the wastewater feed. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Planktonic cells constituted up to 60% of the total protein content of "soluble extracellular polymeric substances" in membrane bioreactor sludge. Planktonic cells are hidden under a surrogate concentration of extracellular polymeric substances which is often associated with fouling. Membrane fouling rate is directly proportional to amount of free planktonic cells suspended in sludge. Several influent bacterial genera are enriched in the water phase of membrane bioreactor sludge. Removing these may mitigate fouling.

2.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(9)2020 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111585

RESUMO

Pathogenic bacteria in wastewater are generally considered to be efficiently removed in biological wastewater treatment plants. This understanding is almost solely based on culture-based control measures, and here we show, by applying culture-independent methods, that the removal of species in the genus Arcobacter was less effective than for many other abundant genera in the influent wastewater. Arcobacter was one of the most abundant genera in influent wastewater at 14 municipal wastewater treatment plants and was also abundant in the "clean" effluent from all the plants, reaching up to 30% of all bacteria as analyzed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Metagenomic analyses, culturing, genome sequencing of Arcobacter isolates, and visualization by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed the presence of the human-pathogenic Arcobacter cryaerophilus and A. butzleri in both influent and effluent. The main reason for the high relative abundance in the effluent was probably that Arcobacter cells, compared to those of other abundant genera in the influent, did not flocculate and attach well to the activated sludge flocs, leaving a relatively large fraction dispersed in the water phase. The study shows there is an urgent need for new standardized culture-independent measurements of pathogens in effluent wastewaters, e.g., amplicon sequencing, and an investigation of the problem on a global scale to quantify the risk for humans and livestock.IMPORTANCE The genus Arcobacter was unexpectedly abundant in the effluent from 14 Danish wastewater treatment plants treating municipal wastewater, and the species included the human-pathogenic A. cryaerophilus and A. butzleri Recent studies have shown that Arcobacter is common in wastewater worldwide, so the study indicates that discharge of members of the genus Arcobacter may be a global problem, and further studies are needed to quantify the risk and potentially minimize the discharge. The study also shows that culture-based analyses are insufficient for proper effluent quality control, and new standardized culture-independent measurements of effluent quality encompassing most pathogens should be considered.

3.
ISME J ; 14(4): 906-918, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896784

RESUMO

Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) degradation is an important process in methanogenic ecosystems, and is usually catalyzed by SCFA-oxidizing bacteria in syntrophy with methanogens. Current knowledge of this functional guild is mainly based on isolates or enrichment cultures, but these may not reflect the true diversity and in situ activities of the syntrophs predominating in full-scale systems. Here we obtained 182 medium to high quality metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from the microbiome of two full-scale anaerobic digesters. The transcriptomic response of individual MAG was studied after stimulation with low concentrations of acetate, propionate, or butyrate, separately. The most pronounced response to butyrate was observed for two MAGs of the recently described genus Candidatus Phosphitivorax (phylum Desulfobacterota), expressing a butyrate beta-oxidation pathway. For propionate, the largest response was observed for an MAG of a novel genus in the family Pelotomaculaceae, transcribing a methylmalonyl-CoA pathway. All three species were common in anaerobic digesters at Danish wastewater treatment plants as shown by amplicon analysis, and this is the first time their syntrophic features involved in SCFA oxidation were revealed with transcriptomic evidence. Further, they also possessed unique genomic features undescribed in well-characterized syntrophs, including the metabolic pathways for phosphite oxidation, nitrite and sulfate reduction.

4.
Environ Microbiol ; 21(10): 3831-3854, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271506

RESUMO

Marine sponges represent one of the few eukaryotic groups that frequently harbour symbiotic members of the Thaumarchaeota, which are important chemoautotrophic ammonia-oxidizers in many environments. However, in most studies, direct demonstration of ammonia-oxidation by these archaea within sponges is lacking, and little is known about sponge-specific adaptations of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). Here, we characterized the thaumarchaeal symbiont of the marine sponge Ianthella basta using metaproteogenomics, fluorescence in situ hybridization, qPCR and isotope-based functional assays. 'Candidatus Nitrosospongia ianthellae' is only distantly related to cultured AOA. It is an abundant symbiont that is solely responsible for nitrite formation from ammonia in I. basta that surprisingly does not harbour nitrite-oxidizing microbes. Furthermore, this AOA is equipped with an expanded set of extracellular subtilisin-like proteases, a metalloprotease unique among archaea, as well as a putative branched-chain amino acid ABC transporter. This repertoire is strongly indicative of a mixotrophic lifestyle and is (with slight variations) also found in other sponge-associated, but not in free-living AOA. We predict that this feature as well as an expanded and unique set of secreted serpins (protease inhibitors), a unique array of eukaryotic-like proteins, and a DNA-phosporothioation system, represent important adaptations of AOA to life within these ancient filter-feeding animals.


Assuntos
Amônia/metabolismo , Archaea/genética , Archaea/metabolismo , Poríferos/microbiologia , Animais , Archaea/isolamento & purificação , Crescimento Quimioautotrófico/fisiologia , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Nitrificação/fisiologia , Nitritos/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo
6.
Curr Opin Biotechnol ; 57: 111-118, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959426

RESUMO

We have critically assessed some of the dogmas in the microbiology of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) and argue that the genus Tetrasphaera can be as important as Ca. Accumulibacter for phosphorus removal; and that proliferation of their competitors, the glycogen accumulating organisms, does not appear to be a practical problem for EBPR efficiency even under tropical conditions. An increasing number of EBPR-related genomes are changing our understanding of their physiology, for example, their potential to participate in denitrification. Rather than trying to identify organisms that adhere to strict phenotype metabolic models, we advocate for broader analyses of the whole microbial communities in EBPR plants by iterative studies with isolates, lab enrichments, and full-scale systems.


Assuntos
Fósforo/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia da Água , Biodegradação Ambiental , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Polifosfatos/metabolismo
7.
Water Res ; 157: 346-355, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30965161

RESUMO

Polyphosphate (poly-P) is a major constituent in activated sludge from wastewater treatment plants with enhanced biological phosphorus removal due to poly-P synthesis by poly-P accumulating organisms where it plays an important role for recovery of phosphorus from waste water. Our aim was to develop a reliable protocol for poly-P quantification by 31P NMR spectroscopy. This has so far been complicated by the risks of inefficient extraction and poly-P hydrolysis in the extracts. A protocol for complete extraction, identification and quantification of poly-P in activated sludge from a waste water treatment plant was identified based on test and evaluation of existing extraction protocols in combination with poly-P determination and quantification by solution and solid state 31P NMR spectroscopy. The total poly-P middle group content was quantified by solid state NMR for comparison with the poly-P middle groups quantified by solution NMR, which is novel. Three different extraction protocols previously used in literature were compared: 1) a single 0.25 M NaOH-0.05 M EDTA extraction, 2) a 0.05 M EDTA pre-extraction followed by a 0.25 M NaOH main extraction and 3) a 0.05 M EDTA pre-extraction followed by a 0.25 M NaOH-0.05 M EDTA main extraction. The results showed that the extraction protocol 2 was optimal for fresh activated sludge, extracting 10.8 ±â€¯0.4 to 11.4 ±â€¯1.2 mgP/gDW poly-P. Extraction protocols 1 and 3 extracted less than 9.4 ±â€¯0.5 mgP/gDW poly-P. A comparison of the quantification of poly-P by 31P solution NMR and by 31P solid state NMR spectroscopy of lyophilised activated sludge showed 86 ±â€¯9% extraction efficiency of poly-P, which confirms that the extraction protocol recovered most of the poly-P from the samples without pronounced poly-P degradation.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Purificação da Água , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Fósforo , Polifosfatos , Águas Residuárias , Água
8.
Proteomes ; 7(2)2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027192

RESUMO

The activated sludge in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) designed for enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) experiences periodically changing nutrient and oxygen availability. Tetrasphaera is the most abundant genus in Danish WWTP and represents up to 20-30% of the activated sludge community based on 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses, although the genus is in low abundance in the influent wastewater. Here we investigated how Tetrasphaera can successfully out-compete most other microorganisms in such highly dynamic ecosystems. To achieve this, we analyzed the physiological adaptations of the WWTP isolate T. elongata str. LP2 during an aerobic to anoxic shift by label-free quantitative proteomics and NMR-metabolomics. Escherichia coli was used as reference organism as it shares several metabolic capabilities and is regularly introduced to wastewater treatment plants without succeeding there. When compared to E. coli, only minor changes in the proteome of T. elongata were observed after the switch to anoxic conditions. This indicates that metabolic pathways for anaerobic energy harvest were already expressed during the aerobic growth. This allows continuous growth of Tetrasphaera immediately after the switch to anoxic conditions. Metabolomics furthermore revealed that the substrates provided were exploited far more efficiently by Tetrasphaera than by E. coli. These results suggest that T. elongata prospers in the dynamic WWTP environment due to adaptation to the changing environmental conditions.

9.
ISME J ; 13(8): 1933-1946, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894691

RESUMO

Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is a globally important biotechnological process and relies on the massive accumulation of phosphate within special microorganisms. Candidatus Accumulibacter conform to the classical physiology model for polyphosphate accumulating organisms and are widely believed to be the most important player for the process in full-scale EBPR systems. However, it was impossible till now to quantify the contribution of specific microbial clades to EBPR. In this study, we have developed a new tool to directly link the identity of microbial cells to the absolute quantification of intracellular poly-P and other polymers under in situ conditions, and applied it to eight full-scale EBPR plants. Besides Ca. Accumulibacter, members of the genus Tetrasphaera were found to be important microbes for P accumulation, and in six plants they were the most important. As these Tetrasphaera cells did not exhibit the classical phenotype of poly-P accumulating microbes, our entire understanding of the microbiology of the EBPR process has to be revised. Furthermore, our new single-cell approach can now also be applied to quantify storage polymer dynamics in individual populations in situ in other ecosystems and might become a valuable tool for many environmental microbiologists.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Actinobacteria/metabolismo , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/métodos , Fósforo/metabolismo , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Actinobacteria/classificação , Actinobacteria/genética , Betaproteobacteria/classificação , Betaproteobacteria/genética , Betaproteobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Betaproteobacteria/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Esgotos/microbiologia
10.
Proteomics ; 19(9): e1800330, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865376

RESUMO

Neomegalonema perideroedes (formerly Meganema perideroedes) str. G1 is the type strain and only described isolate of the genus Neomegalonema (formerly Meganema) which belongs to the Alphaproteobacteria. N. perideroedes is distinguished by the ability to accumulate high amounts of polyhydroxyalkanoates and has been associated with bulking problems in wastewater treatment plants due to its filamentous morphology. In 2013, its genome was sequenced as part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA), which aims to improve the sequencing coverage of the poorly represented regions of the bacterial and archaeal branches of the tree of life. As N. perideroedes str. G1 is relatively distantly related to well described species-being the only sequenced member of its proposed family-the in silico prediction of genes by nucleotide homology to reference genes might be less reliable. Here, a proteomic dataset for the refinement of the N. perideroedes genome annotations is generated which clearly indicates the shortcomings of high-throughput in silico genome annotation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Methylobacteriaceae/genética , Proteômica , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Proteogenômica/métodos , Esgotos/microbiologia
11.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 95(2)2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476032

RESUMO

Filamentous bacteria belonging to the phylum Chloroflexi have received considerable attention in wastewater treatment systems for their suggested role in the operational problem of impaired sludge settleability known as bulking. Their consistently high abundance in full-scale systems, even in the absence of bulking, indicates that they make a substantial contribution to the nutrient transformations during wastewater treatment. In this study, extensive 16S rRNA amplicon surveys of Danish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with nutrient removal were screened to identify numerically important Chloroflexi genera. Fluorescence in situ hybridization probes were designed for their in situ characterization. All abundant Chloroflexi phylotypes were putatively identified as facultative anaerobic chemoorganotrophs involved in sugar fermentation. They were all filamentous but differed in their morphology and spatial arrangement. 'Candidatus Villigracilis' was predominantly located within the activated sludge flocs, where they possibly have structural importance, and their abundance was relatively stable. Conversely, the abundance of 'Candidatus Amarolinea' was highly dynamic, relative to other genera, sometimes reaching abundances in excess of 30% of the biovolume, suggesting their likely role in bulking episodes. This study gives an important insight into the role of Chloroflexi in WWTPs, thus contributing to the broader goal of understanding the ecology of these biotechnologically important systems.


Assuntos
Chloroflexi/isolamento & purificação , Esgotos/microbiologia , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Purificação da Água , Biomassa , Chloroflexi/classificação , Chloroflexi/genética , Fermentação , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(3): 1536-1544, 2019 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30589545

RESUMO

The individual cellular level and quantitative Polyphosphate (PolyP)-metal compositions in EBPR (enhanced biological phosphorus removal) systems have hardly been investigated and its potential link to EBPR performance therefore remain largely unknown. In this study, we applied scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) method that enabled detection and semiquantification of metal elemental compositions in intact intracellular PolyP granules in individual PAO (polyphosphate accumulating organism) cells. We, for the first time, revealed diverse and dynamic distributions of different metals ions in the PolyP-metal granules in different EBPR systems operated with the same influent metal composition but varying SRT of 5-30 days. We further demonstrated that the PolyP-metal composition diversity correlated with 16S rRNA gene based PAO phylogenetic diversity, suggesting the possible phylogeny-dependent PolyP-metal composition variation. The impact of PolyP metal composition in EBPR system, especially the Mg content in PolyP granules, was evidenced by the significant and strong positive correlation between PolyP-Mg content and the long-term stability of the four EBPR systems with varying SRTs. The PolyP-Mg content can therefore possibly serve as an indicator for EBPR performance monitoring. The results demonstrated that phenotyping techniques, such as PolyP-metal-based profiling, in compliment, or combined with genotyping techniques such as phylogenetic and functional gene sequencing, can provide more insights into the mechanisms and performance prediction of this important microbial ecosystem.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Fósforo , Reatores Biológicos , Metais , Filogenia , Polifosfatos , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Esgotos
13.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 2729, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30483237

RESUMO

The genera Methanospirillum and Methanosaeta contain species of anaerobic archaea that grow and divide within proteinaceous tubular sheaths that protect them from environmental stressors. The sheaths of Methanosaeta thermophila PT are composed of the 60.9 kDa major sheath protein MspA. In this study we show that sheaths purified from Methanospirillum hungatei JF-1 are regularly striated tubular structures with amyloid-like properties similar to those of M. thermophila PT. Depolymerizing the sheaths from M. hungatei JF-1 allowed us to identify a 40.6 kDa protein (WP_011449234.1) that shares 23% sequence similarity to MspA from M. thermophila PT (ABK14853.1), indicating that they might be distant homologs. The genome of M. hungatei JF-1 encodes six homologs of the identified MspA protein. Several homologs also exist in the related strains Methanospirillum stamsii Pt1 (7 homologs, 28-66% sequence identity), M. lacunae Ki8-1 C (15 homologs, 29-60% sequence identity) and Methanolinea tarda NOBI-1 (2 homologs, 31% sequence identity). The MspA protein discovered here could accordingly represent a more widely found sheath protein than the MspA from M. thermophila PT, which currently has no homologs in the NCBI Reference Sequence database (RefSeq).

14.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0206255, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30383873

RESUMO

Anaerobic digestion is a key process for the conversion of waste organics to biogas for energy and is reliant on the synergistic activities of complex microbial communities. Members of the phylum Chloroflexi are often found to be abundant in these systems, yet little is known of their role, with most members yet to be cultured or identified. The aim of this study was to characterize the Chloroflexi communities present in full-scale anaerobic digesters receiving excess sludge from wastewater treatment plants. The core genus-level-phylotypes were identified from extensive 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing surveys of 19 full-scale systems over a 6 year period. The T78 and Leptolinea, and the RB349 and SJA-170, were found to be the most abundant genera of mesophilic and thermophilic digesters, respectively. With the exception of Leptolinea, these phylotypes are known only by their 16S rRNA gene sequence, and their morphology and metabolic potentials are not known. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) probes were designed for these phylotypes, with their application revealing a similar thin filamentous morphology, indicating a possible role for these organisms in maintaining floc structure. The new FISH probes provide a useful tool for future efforts to characterize these organisms in situ. FISH also suggests that immigrating Chloroflexi species die off in the anaerobic digester environment and their high abundance in anaerobic digesters, observed with DNA based sequencing surveys, was quite possibly due to the persistence of their DNA after their death. This observation is important for the interpretation of popular DNA-based sequencing methods applied for the characterisation of communities with substantial immigration rates, such as anaerobic digesters.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Chloroflexi/genética , Filogenia , Esgotos , Anaerobiose/genética , Archaea/química , Archaea/metabolismo , Biocombustíveis , Reatores Biológicos , Chloroflexi/crescimento & desenvolvimento , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Digestão/fisiologia , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Águas Residuárias/química
15.
mBio ; 9(4)2018 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29991589

RESUMO

Nitrification is a key process of the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle and of biological wastewater treatment. The second step, nitrite oxidation to nitrate, is catalyzed by phylogenetically diverse, chemolithoautotrophic nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). Uncultured NOB from the genus "Candidatus Nitrotoga" are widespread in natural and engineered ecosystems. Knowledge about their biology is sparse, because no genomic information and no pure "Ca Nitrotoga" culture was available. Here we obtained the first "Ca Nitrotoga" isolate from activated sludge. This organism, "Candidatus Nitrotoga fabula," prefers higher temperatures (>20°C; optimum, 24 to 28°C) than previous "Ca Nitrotoga" enrichments, which were described as cold-adapted NOB. "Ca Nitrotoga fabula" also showed an unusually high tolerance to nitrite (activity at 30 mM NO2-) and nitrate (up to 25 mM NO3-). Nitrite oxidation followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with an apparent Km (Km(app)) of ~89 µM nitrite and a Vmax of ~28 µmol of nitrite per mg of protein per h. Key metabolic pathways of "Ca Nitrotoga fabula" were reconstructed from the closed genome. "Ca Nitrotoga fabula" possesses a new type of periplasmic nitrite oxidoreductase belonging to a lineage of mostly uncharacterized proteins. This novel enzyme indicates (i) separate evolution of nitrite oxidation in "Ca Nitrotoga" and other NOB, (ii) the possible existence of phylogenetically diverse, unrecognized NOB, and (iii) together with new metagenomic data, the potential existence of nitrite-oxidizing archaea. For carbon fixation, "Ca Nitrotoga fabula" uses the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle. It also carries genes encoding complete pathways for hydrogen and sulfite oxidation, suggesting that alternative energy metabolisms enable "Ca Nitrotoga fabula" to survive nitrite depletion and colonize new niches.IMPORTANCE Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) are major players in the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle and critical for wastewater treatment. However, most NOB remain uncultured, and their biology is poorly understood. Here, we obtained the first isolate from the environmentally widespread NOB genus "Candidatus Nitrotoga" and performed a detailed physiological and genomic characterization of this organism ("Candidatus Nitrotoga fabula"). Differences between key phenotypic properties of "Ca Nitrotoga fabula" and those of previously enriched "Ca Nitrotoga" members reveal an unexpectedly broad range of physiological adaptations in this genus. Moreover, genes encoding components of energy metabolisms outside nitrification suggest that "Ca Nitrotoga" are ecologically more flexible than previously anticipated. The identification of a novel nitrite-oxidizing enzyme in "Ca Nitrotoga fabula" expands our picture of the evolutionary history of nitrification and might lead to discoveries of novel nitrite oxidizers. Altogether, this study provides urgently needed insights into the biology of understudied but environmentally and biotechnologically important microorganisms.


Assuntos
Gallionellaceae/metabolismo , Genoma Bacteriano , Nitratos/metabolismo , Nitritos/metabolismo , Esgotos/microbiologia , Evolução Molecular , Gallionellaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gallionellaceae/isolamento & purificação , Cinética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Oxirredução , Temperatura
16.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 1004, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29875741

RESUMO

Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) involves the cycling of biomass through carbon-rich (feast) and carbon-deficient (famine) conditions, promoting the activity of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). However, several alternate metabolic strategies, without polyphosphate storage, are possessed by other organisms, which can compete with the PAO for carbon at the potential expense of EBPR efficiency. The most studied are the glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs), which utilize aerobically stored glycogen to energize anaerobic substrate uptake and storage. In full-scale systems the Micropruina spp. are among the most abundant of the proposed GAO, yet little is known about their ecophysiology. In the current study, genomic and metabolomic studies were performed on Micropruina glycogenica str. Lg2T and compared to the in situ physiology of members of the genus in EBPR plants using state-of-the-art single cell techniques. The Micropruina spp. were observed to take up carbon, including sugars and amino acids, under anaerobic conditions, which were partly fermented to lactic acid, acetate, propionate, and ethanol, and partly stored as glycogen for potential aerobic use. Fermentation was not directly demonstrated for the abundant members of the genus in situ, but was strongly supported by the confirmation of anaerobic uptake of carbon and glycogen storage in the absence of detectable polyhydroxyalkanoates or polyphosphate reserves. This physiology is markedly different from the classical GAO model. The amount of carbon stored by fermentative organisms has potentially important implications for phosphorus removal - as they compete for substrates with the Tetrasphaera PAO and stored carbon is not made available to the "Candidatus Accumulibacter" PAO under anaerobic conditions. This study shows that the current models of the competition between PAO and GAO are too simplistic and may need to be revised to take into account the impact of potential carbon storage by fermentative organisms.

17.
ISME J ; 12(9): 2225-2237, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29884828

RESUMO

Members of the candidate phylum Acetothermia are globally distributed and detected in various habitats. However, little is known about their physiology and ecological importance. In this study, an operational taxonomic unit belonging to Acetothermia was detected at high abundance in four full-scale anaerobic digesters by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The first closed genome from this phylum was obtained by differential coverage binning of metagenomes and scaffolding with long nanopore reads. Genome annotation and metabolic reconstruction suggested an anaerobic chemoheterotrophic lifestyle in which the bacterium obtains energy and carbon via fermentation of peptides, amino acids, and simple sugars to acetate, formate, and hydrogen. The morphology was unusual and composed of a central rod-shaped cell with bipolar prosthecae as revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy, Raman microspectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. We hypothesize that these prosthecae allow for increased nutrient uptake by greatly expanding the cell surface area, providing a competitive advantage under nutrient-limited conditions.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , DNA Bacteriano , Fermentação , Metagenoma , Filogenia
18.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(15): 8596-8606, 2018 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29943965

RESUMO

This study reports a proof-of concept study to demonstrate the novel approach of phenotyping microbial communities in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems using single cell Raman microspectroscopy and link it with phylogentic structures. We use hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) of single-cell Raman spectral fingerprints and intracellular polymer signatures to separate and classify the functionally relevant populations in EBPR systems, namely polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs), as well as other microbial populations. We then investigated the link between Raman-based community phenotyping and 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic characterization of four lab-scale EBPR systems with varying solid retention time (SRT) to gain insights into possible genotype-function relationships. Combined and simultaneous phylogenetic and phenotypic evaluation of EBPR ecosystems revealed SRT-dependent phylogenetic and phenotypic characteristics of the PAOs and GAOs, and their association with EBPR performance. The phenotypic diversity and plasticity of PAO populations, which otherwise could not be obtained with phylogenetic analysis alone, showed complex but potentially crucial association with EBPR process stability.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Fósforo , Reatores Biológicos , Filogenia , Polifosfatos , RNA Ribossômico 16S
19.
Waste Manag ; 75: 280-288, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29478959

RESUMO

Foaming in anaerobic digestion (AD) systems for biogas generation can give serious operational problems. The cause of such foaming events is often unclear, and it is therefore not an easy task to predict and subsequently apply preventative measures. Methods for the measurement of the foaming potential of digester sludge are often implemented, but no standardized method is available. In this study, we investigated parameters influencing the foam formation during experimental aeration tests of full-scale digester sludge, including air flow, time, and total solids concentration, and proposed an optimized method for standard use. In a survey of 16 full-scale AD systems located at wastewater treatment plants in Denmark, all sludge samples were classified into three groups (non-foaming, pre-foaming, and actually foaming) according to their foam height/propensity and stability. Extensive surveillance of plants with the proposed classification system will enable the determination of cut-off values to help to identify foaming or pre-foaming sludge, and to associate these with operational conditions leading to foaming episodes.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias , Anaerobiose , Dinamarca , Esgotos
20.
Microb Biotechnol ; 10(5): 1102-1105, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28834251

RESUMO

Microbial biotechnology is essential for the development of circular economy in wastewater treatment by integrating energy production and resource recovery into the production of clean water. A comprehensive knowledge about identity, physiology, ecology, and population dynamics of process-critical microorganisms will improve process stability, reduce CO2 footprints, optimize recovery and bioenergy production, and help finding new approaches and solutions. Examples of research needs and perspectives are provided, demonstrating the great importance of microbial biotechnology.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Bactérias/genética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Águas Residuárias/economia , Purificação da Água/economia
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