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1.
Cancer Med ; 8(12): 5609-5618, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407530

RESUMO

Women who inherit a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation have an increased risk of breast cancer. Preliminary evidence suggests they may also have defects in bone marrow function. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a multicenter, retrospective, matched cohort study, comparing women with localized breast cancer requiring cytotoxic chemotherapy who carried an inherited BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation to similar wild-type patients treated between 1995 and 2017 and matched based on age, race, site, and chemotherapy regimen. The proportion who developed specific hematologic toxicities, timing of these toxicities, and patterns of blood count fluctuations over time were compared among BRCA1 carriers vs matched wild-type patients and among BRCA2 carriers vs matched wild-type patients. 88 BRCA1 carriers and 75 BRCA2 carriers were matched to 226 and 242 wild-type patients, respectively. The proportions and timing of experiencing any grade or grade 3/4 cytopenias during chemotherapy were not significantly different for BRCA1 carriers or BRCA2 carriers vs matched wild-type patients. Proportions requiring treatment modifications and time to first modification were also similar. Patterns of blood count fluctuations over time in mutation carriers mirrored those in wild-type patients overall and by the most common regimens. Women with an inherited mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 experience similar frequency, severity, and timing of hematologic toxicities during curative intent breast cancer chemotherapy as matched wild-type patients. Our findings suggest that BRCA1 or BRCA2 haploinsufficiency is sufficient for adequate bone marrow reserve in the face of short-term repetitive hematopoietic stressors.

2.
J Genet Couns ; 27(6): 1405-1410, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29946849

RESUMO

Prior to 2013, genetic testing for Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) individuals primarily consisted of the three-site BRCA1/BRCA2 AJ panel, full sequencing of BRCA1/2, or the Lynch syndrome mismatch repair genes. Multigene panel testing became more widely available in 2013, but limited data are available regarding the impact of multigene panel testing for AJ individuals. Here, we report the frequency of cancer susceptibility gene mutations in a cohort of 427 AJ individuals seen in the Cancer Risk Clinic at The University of Chicago. We found that 29% of affected and 37% of unaffected individuals carried a pathogenic mutation (32% of overall cohort), primarily known familial mutations in BRCA1/2. A minority of mutations were identified in non-BRCA1/2 genes and consisted mainly of AJ founder mutations in CHEK2, APC, and the mismatch repair genes. A panel of AJ founder mutations would have identified the majority (94%) of mutations in clinically actionable genes in both affected and unaffected patients. Based on recent cost-effectiveness studies, offering all AJ individuals a founder mutation panel may be a cost-effective cancer prevention strategy.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Efeito Fundador , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Testes Genéticos , Judeus/genética , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Fam Cancer ; 17(4): 495-505, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29445900

RESUMO

Comprehensive genomic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) helps patients, family members, and providers make informed choices about cancer screening, surgical and chemotherapeutic risk reduction, and genetically targeted cancer therapies. The increasing availability of multigene panel tests for clinical applications allows testing of well-defined high-risk genes, as well as moderate-risk genes, for which the penetrance and spectrum of cancer risk are less well characterized. Moderate-risk genes are defined as genes that, when altered by a pathogenic variant, confer a 2 to fivefold relative risk of cancer. Two such genes included on many comprehensive cancer panels are the DNA repair genes ATM and CHEK2, best known for moderately increased risk of breast cancer development. However, the impact of screening and preventative interventions and spectrum of cancer risk beyond breast cancer associated with ATM and/or CHEK2 variants remain less well characterized. We convened a large, multidisciplinary, cross-sectional panel of GCRA clinicians to review challenging, peer-submitted cases of patients identified with ATM or CHEK2 variants. This paper summarizes the inter-professional case discussion and recommendations generated during the session, the level of concordance with respect to recommendations between the academic and community clinician participants for each case, and potential barriers to implementing recommended care in various practice settings.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Mastectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Médicos
4.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(4): 414-424, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29236593

RESUMO

Purpose Guidelines are limited for genetic testing for prostate cancer (PCA). The goal of this conference was to develop an expert consensus-driven working framework for comprehensive genetic evaluation of inherited PCA in the multigene testing era addressing genetic counseling, testing, and genetically informed management. Methods An expert consensus conference was convened including key stakeholders to address genetic counseling and testing, PCA screening, and management informed by evidence review. Results Consensus was strong that patients should engage in shared decision making for genetic testing. There was strong consensus to test HOXB13 for suspected hereditary PCA, BRCA1/2 for suspected hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, and DNA mismatch repair genes for suspected Lynch syndrome. There was strong consensus to factor BRCA2 mutations into PCA screening discussions. BRCA2 achieved moderate consensus for factoring into early-stage management discussion, with stronger consensus in high-risk/advanced and metastatic setting. Agreement was moderate to test all men with metastatic castration-resistant PCA, regardless of family history, with stronger agreement to test BRCA1/2 and moderate agreement to test ATM to inform prognosis and targeted therapy. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive, multidisciplinary consensus statement to address a genetic evaluation framework for inherited PCA in the multigene testing era. Future research should focus on developing a working definition of familial PCA for clinical genetic testing, expanding understanding of genetic contribution to aggressive PCA, exploring clinical use of genetic testing for PCA management, genetic testing of African American males, and addressing the value framework of genetic evaluation and testing men at risk for PCA-a clinically heterogeneous disease.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/normas , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Fatores de Risco
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517176

RESUMO

Purpose: To describe a snapshot of international genetic testing practices, specifically regarding the use of multigene panels, for hereditary breast/ovarian cancers. We conducted a survey through the Evidence-Based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles (ENIGMA) consortium, covering questions about 16 non-BRCA1/2 genes. Methods: Data were collected via in-person and paper/electronic surveys. ENIGMA members from around the world were invited to participate. Additional information was collected via country networks in the United Kingdom and in Italy. Results: Responses from 61 cancer genetics practices across 20 countries showed that 16 genes were tested by > 50% of the centers, but only six (PALB2, TP53, PTEN, CHEK2, ATM, and BRIP1) were tested regularly. US centers tested the genes most often, whereas United Kingdom and Italian centers with no direct ENIGMA affiliation at the time of the survey were the least likely to regularly test them. Most centers tested the 16 genes through multigene panels; some centers tested TP53, PTEN, and other cancer syndrome-associated genes individually. Most centers reported (likely) pathogenic variants to patients and would test family members for such variants. Gene-specific guidelines for breast and ovarian cancer risk management were limited and differed among countries, especially with regard to starting age and type of imaging and risk-reducing surgery recommendations. Conclusion: Currently, a small number of genes beyond BRCA1/2 are routinely analyzed worldwide, and management guidelines are limited and largely based on expert opinion. To attain clinical implementation of multigene panel testing through evidence-based management practices, it is paramount that clinicians (and patients) participate in international initiatives that share panel testing data, interpret sequence variants, and collect prospective data to underpin risk estimates and evaluate the outcome of risk intervention strategies.

6.
Neurologist ; 21(5): 73-8, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27564075

RESUMO

Von Hippel-Lindau disease is a genetic condition due to mutation of the Von Hippel-Lindau gene, which leads to an increased risk in the development of hemangioblastomas of the brain and spinal cord. The pathophysiology of disease and its clinical manifestations, as they pertain to the general neurologist, are discussed. Therapeutic management of central nervous system hemangioblastomas ranging from neurosurgical resection, radiation therapy, and systemic therapies is reviewed.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/terapia , Hemangioblastoma/terapia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Radiocirurgia , Doença de von Hippel-Lindau/terapia , Terapia Genética , Humanos
7.
J Clin Oncol ; 34(18): 2172-81, 2016 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27114602

RESUMO

Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) is one of the most common inherited neoplasia syndromes and is characterized by highly vascular tumors of the eyes, brain, and spine, as well as benign and malignant tumors and/or cysts of the kidneys, adrenal medullae and sympathetic paraganglia, endolymphatic sac, epididymis, and broad ligament. Since the discovery of the VHL gene in 1993, more than 900 families with VHL have been identified and examined. Genetic testing for VHL is widely available and will detect a disease-causing mutation in rate 95% to 100% of individuals who have a clinical diagnosis of VHL, making it the standard of care for diagnosis of VHL. Furthermore, genetic testing for VHL is indicated in some individuals with seemingly sporadic VHL-related tumor types, as ≤ 10% of pheochromocytoma or early-onset renal cell carcinoma and ≤ 40% of CNS hemangioblastoma harbor germline VHL mutations without a family history or additional features of VHL disease. The majority of VHL mutations are private, but there are also well-characterized founder mutations. VHL is a complex, multiorgan disease that spans the breadth of oncology subspecialties, and, as such, providers in these subspecialties should be aware of when to consider a diagnosis of VHL, when to refer a patient to a genetics specialist for consideration of gene testing, and, perhaps most importantly, how to communicate this sensitive information in an age-appropriate manner to at-risk families. This review will provide state-of-the-art information regarding the genetics of VHL and will serve as a key reference for nongenetics professionals who encounter patients with VHL.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento Genético , Doença de von Hippel-Lindau/genética , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Mutação , Proteína Supressora de Tumor Von Hippel-Lindau/genética , Doença de von Hippel-Lindau/psicologia
8.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 25(2): 231-8, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26908594

RESUMO

Rates of thyroid cancer in women with a history of breast cancer are higher than expected. Similarly, rates of breast cancer in those with a history of thyroid cancer are increased. Explanations for these associations include detection bias, shared hormonal risk factors, treatment effect, and genetic susceptibility. With increasing numbers of breast and thyroid cancer survivors, clinicians should be particularly cognizant of this association. Here, we perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature utilizing PubMed and Scopus search engines to identify all publications studying the incidence of breast cancer as a secondary malignancy following a diagnosis of thyroid cancer or thyroid cancer following a diagnosis of breast cancer. This demonstrated an increased risk of thyroid cancer as a secondary malignancy following breast cancer [OR = 1.55; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.44-1.67] and an increased risk of breast cancer as a secondary malignancy following thyroid cancer (OR = 1.18; 95% CI, 1.09-1.26). There is a clear increase in the odds of developing either thyroid or breast cancer as a secondary malignancy after diagnosis with the other. Here, we review this association and current hypothesis as to the cause of this correlation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/mortalidade
9.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 23(3): 171-9, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26699384

RESUMO

Germline mutations in the PTEN gene, which cause Cowden syndrome, are known to be one of the genetic factors for primary thyroid and breast cancers; however, PTEN mutations are found in only a small subset of research participants with non-syndrome breast and thyroid cancers. In this study, we aimed to identify germline variants that may be related to genetic risk of primary thyroid and breast cancers. Genomic DNAs extracted from peripheral blood of 14 PTEN WT female research participants with primary thyroid and breast cancers were analyzed by whole-exome sequencing. Gene-based case-control association analysis using the information of 406 Europeans obtained from the 1000 Genomes Project database identified 34 genes possibly associated with the phenotype with P < 1.0 × 10(-3). Among them, rare variants in the PARP4 gene were detected at significant high frequency (odds ratio = 5.2; P = 1.0 × 10(-5)). The variants, G496V and T1170I, were found in six of the 14 study participants (43%) while their frequencies were only 0.5% in controls. Functional analysis using HCC1143 cell line showed that knockdown of PARP4 with siRNA significantly enhanced the cell proliferation, compared with the cells transfected with siControl (P = 0.02). Kaplan-Meier analysis using Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), European Genome-phenome Archive (EGA) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets showed poor relapse-free survival (P < 0.001, Hazard ratio 1.27) and overall survival (P = 0.006, Hazard ratio 1.41) in a PARP4 low-expression group, suggesting that PARP4 may function as a tumor suppressor. In conclusion, we identified PARP4 as a possible susceptibility gene of primary thyroid and breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Adulto , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
10.
Int J Cancer ; 136(7): 1559-67, 2015 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25123297

RESUMO

We sought to describe the spectrum of potential and confirmed germline genomic events incidentally identified during routine medium-throughput somatic tumor DNA sequencing, and to provide a framework for pre- and post-test consent and counseling for patients and families. Targeted tumor-only next-generation sequencing (NGS) had been used to evaluate for possible druggable genomic events obtained from consecutive new patients with metastatic gastroesophageal, hepatobiliary or colorectal cancer seen at the University of Chicago. A panel of medical oncologists, cancer geneticists and genetic counselors retrospectively grouped these patients (N = 111) based on probability of possessing a potentially inherited mutation in a cancer susceptibility gene, both prior to and after incorporating tumor-only NGS results. High-risk patients (determined from NGS results) were contacted and counseled in person by a genetic counselor (N = 21). When possible and indicated, germline genetic testing was offered. Of 8 evaluable high-risk patients, 7 underwent germline testing. Three (37.5%) had confirmed actionable germline mutations (all in the BRCA2 gene). NGS offers promise, but poses significant challenges for oncologists who are ill prepared to handle incidental findings that have clinical implications for at risk family members. In this relatively small cohort of patients undergoing tumor genomic testing for gastrointestinal malignancies, we incidentally identified 3 BRCA2 mutations carriers. This report underscores the need for oncologists to develop a framework for pre- and post-test communication of risks to patients undergoing routine tumor-only sequencing.


Assuntos
Genômica , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Família , Feminino , Aconselhamento Genético , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Fam Cancer ; 10(4): 701-7, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21713522

RESUMO

Although a large kindred with familial pheochromocytoma (Pheo) and paraganglioma (PGL) was discovered in 1962 and later found to represent von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) type 2A (mutation Y112H), the phenotype lacks current characterization. Branch-specific expressivity was suspected based on oral family history. Family pedigree analysis, prospective interviews, and extensive record review were used to extend the pedigree, determine phenotype, examine branch-specific expression, and analyze mortality rates over 5 decades. In its 3 known affected branches the kindred now comprises 107 people with or at-risk for VHL, of whom 49 have been diagnosed and 35/49 (71%) are clinically affected. Phenotypic cumulative lifetime risk was 71% for Pheo/PGL, 15% for hemangioblastoma, 33% for retinal angioma, 3% for renal cell carcinoma, and 3% for pancreatic cysts. The mean ages for VHL and Pheo/PGL diagnosis were younger in successive generations. Branch II-4 predominately expressed RA, while branch II-5 predominantly expressed Pheo/PGL. Disease-specific mortality occurred early and was less frequent in successive generations. This analysis of Y112H VHL confirms a high cumulative risk for pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma. Over time, both age at diagnosis and disease-specific mortality have decreased. The observed branch-specific expressivity prompts further study of genetic and environmental disease modifiers in this large family.


Assuntos
Paraganglioma/genética , Feocromocitoma/genética , Doença de von Hippel-Lindau/genética , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/genética , Idade de Início , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias , Paraganglioma/mortalidade , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Feocromocitoma/mortalidade , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor , Estados Unidos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor Von Hippel-Lindau , Doença de von Hippel-Lindau/mortalidade
12.
Am J Med Genet A ; 155A(1): 168-73, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21204227

RESUMO

Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease type 2A is an inherited tumor syndrome characterized by predisposition to pheochromocytoma (pheo), retinal hemangioma (RA), and central nervous system hemangioblastoma (HB). Specific VHL subtypes display genotype-phenotype correlations but, unlike other familial syndromes such as MEN-2, the phenotype in VHL has not yet been stratified at the codon level. Over decades, we have managed two very large VHL type 2A regional kindreds with nearly adjacent but distinct VHL missense mutations. We determined the phenotype of Family 2 and compared the clinical and pathologic parameters of pheo between 30 members of Family 1 (Y112H mutation) and 33 members of Family 2 (Y98H mutation) with mean follow-up of 15.5 and 12.1 years, respectively (P = 0.24). In Family 2, pheo was the most frequent VHL manifestation (79%) and all pheo diagnoses occurred by age 50. Age at first diagnosis was younger in Family 2 than in Family 1 (mean 19.7 vs. 28.8 years; P = 0.02). Pheo expressivity differed by genotype: Family 1 pheo was more likely to be multifocal (P = 0.04), as well as malignant (P < 0.01) and lethal (P = 0.02). Family 1 pheo was also more likely to secrete vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) alone (P = 0.05). This analysis of 130 pheochromocytomas in 63 VHL type 2A patients demonstrates that mutation-specific malignancy and expression patterns exist within the VHL type 2A subtype, and provides information that may help tailor the screening and management algorithms of affected members and those at risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Fenótipo , Feocromocitoma/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor Von Hippel-Lindau/genética , Doença de von Hippel-Lindau/genética , Fatores Etários , Família , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Linhagem , Penetrância , Análise de Sobrevida
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