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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028509

RESUMO

The 15th Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (SCCT) annual scientific meeting (ASM) welcomed 770 digital attendees from 44 countries, over 2 days, with a program that included 30 sessions across three simultaneously streaming channels, 10 exhibitors and a diverse range of scientific abstracts. In addition, #SCCT2020 generated >5900 tweets from nearly 700 engaged social media participants resulting in an estimated 38 million digital impressions and becoming #1 trending medical meeting in social media in the world during the meeting time period. This article summarizes the many themes and topics of presentation and discussion in this meeting, and the many technical advances that are likely to impact future clinical practice in cardiovascular computed tomography.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CT coronary angiography (CTA) with Fractional Flow Reserve as determined by CT (FFRCT) is a safe alternative to invasive coronary angiography. A negative FFRCT has been shown to have low cardiac event rates compared to those with a positive FFRCT. However, the clinical utility of FFRCT according to age is not known. METHODS: Patients' in the ADVANCE (Assessing Diagnostic Value of Non-invasive FFRCT in Coronary Care) registry, were stratified into those ≥65 or <65 years of age. The impact of FFRCT on clinical decision-making, as assessed by patient age, was determined by evaluating patient management using CTA results alone, followed by site investigators submitting a report on the treatment plan based upon the newly provided FFRCT data. Outcomes at 1-year post CTA were assessed, including major adverse cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, all-cause mortality or unplanned hospitalization for ACS leading to revascularisation) and total revascularisation. Positive FFRCT was deemed to be ≤ 0.8. RESULTS: FFRCT was calculated in 1849 (40.6%) subjects aged <65 and 2704 (59.4%) ≥ 65 years of age. Subjects ≥65 years were more likely to have anatomic obstructive disease on CTA (≥50% stenosis), compared to those aged <65 (69.7% and 73.2% respectively, p = 0.008). There was a similar graded increase in recommended and actual revascularisation with either CABG or PCI, with declining FFRCT strata for subjects above and below the age of 65. MACE and revascularisation rates were not significantly different for those ≥ or <65, regardless of FFRCT positivity or stenosis severity <50% or ≥50%. With a negative FFRCT result, and anatomical stenosis ≥50%, those ≥ and <65 years of age, had similar rates of MACE (0.2% for both, p = 0.1) and revascularisation (8.7% and 10.4% respectively p = 0.4). Logistic regression analysis, with age as a continuous variable, and adjustment for Diamond Forrester Risk, baseline FFRCT and treatment (CABG, PCI, medical therapy), indicated a statistically significant, but small increase in the odds of a MACE event with increasing age (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.006-1.08, p = 0.02). Amongst patients with a FFRCT > 0.80, there was no effect of age on the odds of revascularisation. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study point to a low risk of MACE events or need for revascularisation in those aged ≥ or <65 with a FFRCT>0.80, despite the higher incidence of anatomic obstructive CAD in those ≥65 years. The findings show the clinical usefulness and outcomes of FFRCT are largely constant regardless of age.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034862

RESUMO

High wall shear stress (WSS) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) detected lipid-rich plaque (LRP) are both known to be associated with plaque destabilization and future adverse cardiovascular events. However, knowledge of spatial co-localization of LRP and high WSS is lacking. This study investigated the co-localization of LRP based on NIRS and high WSS. Fifty-three patients presenting acute coronary syndrome underwent NIRS-intravascular-ultrasound (NIRS-IVUS) imaging of a non-culprit coronary artery. WSS was obtained using WSS profiling in 3D-reconstructions of the coronary arteries based on fusion of IVUS-segmented lumen and CT-derived 3D-centerline. Thirty-eight vessels were available for final analysis and divided into 0.5 mm/45° sectors. LRP sectors, as identified by NIRS, were more often colocalized with high WSS than sectors without LRP. Moreover, there was a dose-dependent relationship between lipid content and high WSS exposure. This study is a first step in understanding the evolution of LRPs to vulnerable plaques. Graphical Abstract.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029616

RESUMO

AIMS: Assessment of haemodynamically significant coronary artery disease (CAD) using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging perfusion or dynamic stress myocardial perfusion imaging by computed tomography (CT perfusion) may aid patient selection for invasive coronary angiography (ICA). We evaluated the diagnostic performance and incremental value of qualitative CMR perfusion and quantitative CT perfusion complementary to cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) for the diagnosis of haemodynamically significant CAD using fractional flow reserve (FFR) and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) as reference standard. METHODS AND RESULTS: CCTA, qualitative visual CMR perfusion, visual CT perfusion, and quantitative relative myocardial blood flow (CT-MBF) were performed in patients with stable angina pectoris. FFR was measured in coronary vessels with stenosis visually estimated between 30% and 90% diameter reduction on ICA. Haemodynamically significant CAD was defined as FFR <0.80, or QCA ≥80% in those cases where FFR could not be performed. A total of 218 vessels from 93 patients were assessed. An optimal cut-off of 0.72 for relative CT-MBF was determined. The diagnostic performances (area under the receiver-operating characteristics curves, 95% CI) of visual CMR perfusion (0.84, 0.77-0.90) and relative CT-MBF (0.86, 0.81-0.92) were comparable and outperformed visual CT perfusion (0.64, 0.57-0.71). In combination with CCTA ≥50%, CCTA + visual CMR perfusion (0.91, 0.86-0.96), CCTA + relative CT-MBF (0.92, 0.88-0.96), and CCTA + visual CT perfusion (0.82, 0.75-0.90) improved discrimination compared with CCTA alone (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Visual CMR perfusion and relative CT-MBF outperformed visual CT perfusion and provided incremental discrimination compared with CCTA alone for the diagnosis of haemodynamically significant CAD.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861656

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study is to determine the management and clinical outcomes of patients investigated with coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA)-derived fractional flow reserve (FFRCT) according to sex. BACKGROUND: Women are underdiagnosed with conventional ischemia testing, have lower rates of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) at invasive coronary angiography (ICA), yet higher mortality compared to men. Whether FFRCT improves sex-based patient management decisions compared to CCTA alone is unknown. METHODS: Subjects with symptoms and CAD on CCTA were enrolled (2015 to 2017). Demographics, symptom status, CCTA anatomy, coronary volume to myocardial mass ratio (V/M), lowest FFRCT values, and management plans were captured. Endpoints included reclassification rate between CCTA and FFRCT management plans, incidence of ICA demonstrating obstructive CAD (≥50% stenosis) and revascularization rates. RESULTS: A total of 4,737 patients (n = 1,603 females, 33.8%) underwent CCTA and FFRCT. Women were older (age 68 ± 10 years vs. 65 ± 10 years; p < 0.0001) with more atypical symptoms (41.5% vs. 33.9%; p < 0.0001). Women had less obstructive CAD (65.4% vs. 74.7%; p < 0.0001) at CCTA, higher FFRCT (0.76 ± 0.10 vs. 0.73 ± 0.10; p < 0.0001), and lower likelihood of positive FFRCT ≤ 0.80 for the same degree stenosis (p < 0.0001). A positive FFRCT less than or equal to 0.80 resulted in equal referral to ICA (n = 510 [54.5%] vs. n = 1,249 [56.5%]; p = 0.31), but more nonobstructive CAD (n = 208 [32.1%] vs. n = 354 [24.5%]; p = 0.0003) and less revascularization (n = 294 [31.4%] vs. n = 800 [36.2%]; p < 0.0001) in women, unless the FFRCT was ≤0.75 where revascularization rates were similar (n = 253 [41.9%] vs. n = 715 [46.4%]; p = 0.06). Women have a higher V/M ratio (26.17 ± 7.58 mm3/g vs. 24.76 ± 7.22 mm3/g; p < 0.0001) that is associated with higher FFRCT independent of degree stenosis (p < 0.001). Predictors of revascularization included stenosis severity, FFRCT, symptoms, and V/M ratio (p < 0.001) but not female sex (p = 0.284). CONCLUSIONS: FFRCT differs between the sexes, as women have a higher FFRCT for the same degree of stenosis. In FFRCT-positive CAD, women have less obstructive CAD at ICA and less revascularization, which is associated with higher V/M ratio. The findings suggest that CAD and FFRCT variations by sex need specific interpretation as these differences may affect therapeutic decision making and clinical outcomes. (Assessing Diagnostic Value of Non-invasive FFRCT in Coronary Care [ADVANCE]; NCT02499679).

10.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 13(7): 1615-1626, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646721
11.
Heart ; 106(18): 1387-1393, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561589

RESUMO

CT-derived fractional flow reserve (CT-FFR) uses computational fluid dynamics to derive non-invasive FFR to determine the haemodynamic significance of coronary artery lesions. Studies have demonstrated good diagnostic accuracy of CT-FFR and reassuring short-term clinical outcome data.As a prerequisite, high-quality CT coronary angiography (CTCA) images are required with good heart rate control and pre-treatment with glyceryl trinitrate, which would otherwise render CTCA as unsuitable for CT-FFR. CT-FFR can determine the functional significance of CAD lesions, and there are supportive data for its use in clinical decision-making. However, the downstream impact on myocardial ischaemic burden or viability cannot be obtained.Several challenges remain with implementation of CT-FFR, including interpretation, training, availability, resource utilisation and funding. Further research is required to determine which cases should be considered for clinical CT-FFR analysis, with additional practical guidance on how to implement this emerging technique in clinical practice. Furthermore, long-term prognostic data are required before widespread clinical implementation of CT-FFR can be recommended.While there are several potential opportunities for CT-FFR, at present there remain important systemic and technical limitations and challenges that need to be overcome prior to routine integration of CT-FFR into clinical practice.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ADVANCE registry is a large prospective study of outcomes and resource utilization in patients undergoing coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and CT-based fractional flow reserve (FFRCT). As experience with new technologies and practices develops over time, we investigated temporal changes in the use of FFRCT within the ADVANCE registry. METHODS: 5083 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) on CCTA were prospectively enrolled in the ADVANCE registry and were divided into 3 equally sized cohorts based on the temporal order of enrollment per site. Demographics, CCTA and FFRCT findings, and clinical outcomes through 1-year follow-up, were recorded and compared between tertiles. RESULTS: The number of patients with a ≥70% stenosis on CCTA was similar over time (33.6%, 30.9%, and 33.8% for cohort 1-3). The rate of positive FFRCT ≤0.80 was higher for cohorts 2 (67.3%) and 3 (74.6%) than for cohort 1 (57.1%, p < 0.001). Invasive FFR rates decreased from 25.8% to 22.4% between cohort 1 and 3 (p = 0.023). Moreover, patients with a FFRCT ≤0.80 were less frequently referred for invasive coronary angiography (ICA) (from 62.9% to 52.9%, p < 0.001), and underwent fewer revascularizations between cohort 1 and 3 (from 41.9% to 32.0%, p < 0.001). The prevalence of major events was low (1.2%) and similar between cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Growing experience with FFRCT improved the likelihood of identifying hemodynamically significant CAD and safely reduced the need for ICA and revascularization in patients with anatomically significant disease even in the instance of an abnormal FFRCT.

13.
Can J Cardiol ; 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noncompaction cardiomyopathy (NCCM) is characterized by a thickened myocardial wall with excessive trabeculations of the left ventricle, and ∼30% is explained by a (likely) pathogenic variant [(L)PV] in a cardiomyopathy gene. Diagnosing an (L)PV is important because it allows accurate identification of which relatives are at risk and helps predicting prognosis. The goal of this study was to assess which specific clinical and morphologic characteristics of the myocardium may predict an (L)PV and which of the cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) diagnostic criteria for NCCM can best be used for that purpose. METHODS: Sixty-two patients with NCCM, diagnosed by means of echocardiographic Jenni criteria, underwent CMR imaging that was evaluated according the Petersen, Stacey, Jacquier, Captur, and Choi diagnostic CMR criteria for NCCM. Patients also underwent DNA testing and were stratified according to having an (L)PV. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients (53%) with NCCM had an (L)PV. The apical and mid-lateral segments were the dominant locations for meeting Petersen and/or Stacey criteria. Correlation between different CMR criteria varied from moderate to very strong. In multivariate binary logistic regression analysis with CMR and non-CMR parameters, independent positive predictors for an (L)PV were familial cardiomyopathy, trabecular mass, and meeting Petersen criteria in ≥ 2 out of 3 long-axis views, whereas left bundle branch block and hypertension were negative predictors. The receiver operating characteristic curve of this multivariate model had an area under the curve of 0.89 (95% confidence interval 0.82-0.97). CONCLUSIONS: CMR criteria together with family history help to distinguish those patients in whom an (L)PV can be identified, consequently leading to referral for genetic diagnostics and cascade screening.

14.
J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr ; 14(2): 101-104, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-108683

RESUMO

The world is currently suffering through a pandemic outbreak of severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) known as Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The United States (US) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) currently advises medical facilities to "reschedule non-urgent outpatient visits as necessary". The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, the United Kingdom National Health Service and several other international agencies covering Asia, North America and most regions of the world have recommended similar "social distancing" measures. The Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (SCCT) offers guidance for cardiac CT (CCT) practitioners to help implement these international recommendations in order to decrease the risk of COVID-19 transmission in their facilities while deciding on the timing of outpatient and inpatient CCT exams. This document also emphasizes SCCT's commitment to the health and well-being of CCT technologists, imagers, trainees, and research community, as well as the patients served by CCT.


Assuntos
Agendamento de Consultas , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Profissional para o Paciente/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/efeitos adversos
15.
Am J Cardiol ; 126: 16-22, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345472

RESUMO

Identifying coronary artery disease (CAD) in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients improves risk stratification and defines clinical management. However, the value of screening for subclinical CAD with cardiac CT in AF patients is unknown. Between 2011 and 2015, 94 consecutive patients without known or suspected CAD (66 (57-73) years, 68% male), who were referred for AF evaluation, underwent a noncontrast-enhanced coronary calcium scan and a coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) at our center. We retrospectively evaluated the coronary calcium score, the prevalence of obstructive CAD (≥50% stenosis) determined by CCTA, compared clinical management and 5-year outcome in patients with and without obstructive CAD on CCTA, and examined the potential impact of a coronary calcium score and obstructive CAD on CCTA as a manifestation of vascular disease on the CHA2Ds2VASc score and for the cardiovascular risk stratification of AF patients. The median coronary calcium score was 57 (0-275) and 24 patients (26%) had obstructive CAD on CCTA. At baseline, patients with obstructive CAD more often used statins than those without obstructive CAD (54% vs 26%, p = 0.011). After a median clinical follow-up of 2.4 (0.5-4.5) years, patients with obstructive CAD more frequently used oral anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet drugs, statins, angiotensin-II-receptor blockers and/or angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, and less often used class I antiarrhythmic drugs than patients without obstructive CAD (all p <0.050). After a median follow-up of 5.7 (4.8-6.8) years, mortality was higher in patients with obstructive CAD than in those without obstructive CAD (29% vs 11%, log-rank test: p = 0.034). Implementation of a coronary calcium score and/or obstructive CAD on CCTA elevated the CHA2Ds2VASc score and cardiovascular risk stratification in 42 patients (p <0.001) and 47 patients (p = 0.006), respectively. In conclusion, we observed a high prevalence of obstructive CAD on CCTA in AF patients without known or suspected CAD. AF patients with obstructive CAD were managed differently and had a worse prognosis than those without obstructive CAD. Cardiac CT could enhance cardiovascular risk stratification of AF patients.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Estenose Coronária/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Coronária/terapia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Calcificação Vascular/mortalidade , Calcificação Vascular/terapia
16.
J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr ; 14(2): 101-104, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317235

RESUMO

The world is currently suffering through a pandemic outbreak of severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) known as Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The United States (US) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) currently advises medical facilities to "reschedule non-urgent outpatient visits as necessary". The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, the United Kingdom National Health Service and several other international agencies covering Asia, North America and most regions of the world have recommended similar "social distancing" measures. The Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (SCCT) offers guidance for cardiac CT (CCT) practitioners to help implement these international recommendations in order to decrease the risk of COVID-19 transmission in their facilities while deciding on the timing of outpatient and inpatient CCT exams. This document also emphasizes SCCT's commitment to the health and well-being of CCT technologists, imagers, trainees, and research community, as well as the patients served by CCT.


Assuntos
Agendamento de Consultas , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Profissional para o Paciente/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/efeitos adversos
17.
Eur Radiol ; 30(7): 3692-3701, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166492

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the potential impact of on-site CT-derived fractional flow reserve (CT-FFR) on the diagnostic efficiency and effectiveness of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) in patients with obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) on CCTA. METHODS: This observational cohort study included patients with suspected CAD who had been randomized to cardiac CT in the CRESCENT I and II trials. On-site CT-FFR was blindly performed in all patients with at least one ≥ 50% stenosis on CCTA and no exclusion criteria for CT-FFR. We retrospectively assessed the effect of adding CT-FFR to the CT protocol in patients with a stenosis ≥ 50% on CCTA in terms of diagnostic effectiveness, i.e., the number of additional tests required to determine the final diagnosis, reclassification of the initial management strategy, and invasive coronary angiography (ICA) efficiency, i.e., ICA rate without ≥ 50% CAD. RESULTS: Fifty-three patients out of the 372 patients (14%) had at least one ≥ 50% stenosis on CCTA of whom 42/53 patients (79%) had no exclusion criteria for CT-FFR. CT-FFR showed a hemodynamically significant stenosis (≤ 0.80) in 27/53 patients (51%). The availability of CT-FFR would have reduced the number of patients requiring additional testing by 57%-points compared with CCTA alone (37/53 vs. 7/53, p < 0.001). The initial management strategy would have changed for 30 patients (57%, p < 0.001). Reserving ICA for patients with a CT-FFR ≤ 0.80 would have reduced the number of ICA following CCTA by 13%-points (p = 0.016). CONCLUSION: Implementation of on-site CT-FFR may change management and improve diagnostic efficiency and effectiveness in patients with obstructive CAD on CCTA. KEY POINTS: • The availability of on-site CT-FFR in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with obstructive CAD on CCTA would have significantly reduced the number of patients requiring additional testing compared with CCTA alone. • The implementation of on-site CT-FFR would have changed the initial management strategy significantly in the patients with obstructive CAD on CCTA. • Restricting ICA to patients with a positive CT-FFR would have significantly reduced the ICA rate in patients with obstructive CAD on CCTA.

19.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 36(7): 1351-1362, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32180079

RESUMO

One of the foundations of the management of patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) is to avoid unnecessary invasive coronary angiography (ICA) referrals. However, the diagnostic yield of ICA following abnormal conventional stress testing is low. The ability of ischemia testing to predict subsequent myocardial infarction and death is currently being challenged, and more than half of cardiac events among stable patients with suspected CAD occur in those with normal functional tests. The optimal management of patients with stable CAD remains controversial and ischemia-driven interventions, though improving anginal symptoms, have failed to reduce the risk of hard cardiovascular events. In this context, there is an ongoing debate whether the initial diagnostic test among patients with stable suspected CAD should be a functional test or coronary computed tomography angiography. Aside from considering the specific characteristics of individual patients and local availability and conditions, the choice of the initial test relates to whether the objective concerns its role as gatekeeper for ICA, prognosis, or treatment decision-making. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide a contemporary overview of these issues and discuss the emerging role of CCTA as the upfront imaging tool for most patients with suspected CAD.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Teste de Esforço , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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