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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775018

RESUMO

We describe the first case of MAN2B2 deficiency in a patient with immune dysregulation, developmental delay, and stroke. Altered mannosylation profile was restored in patient cells upon transduction of wild-type MAN2B2.

2.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2000, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507602

RESUMO

Interleukin-2-inducible T cell kinase (ITK) is critical for T cell signaling and cytotoxicity, and control of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). We identified a patient with a novel homozygous missense mutation (D540N) in a highly conserved residue in the kinase domain of ITK who presented with EBV-positive lymphomatoid granulomatosis. She was treated with interferon and chemotherapy and her disease went into remission; however, she has persistent elevation of EBV DNA in the blood, low CD4 T cells, low NK cells, and nearly absent iNKT cells. Molecular modeling predicts that the mutation increases the flexibility of the ITK kinase domain impairing phosphorylation of the protein. Stimulation of her T cells resulted in reduced phosphorylation of ITK, PLCγ, and PKC. The CD8 T cells were moderately impaired for cytotoxicity and degranulation. Importantly, addition of magnesium to her CD8 T cells in vitro restored cytotoxicity and degranulation to levels similar to controls. Supplemental magnesium in patients with mutations in another protein important for T cell signaling, MAGT1, was reported to restore EBV-specific cytotoxicity. Our findings highlight the critical role of ITK for T cell activation and suggest the potential for supplemental magnesium to treat patients with ITK deficiency.

4.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1193, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31191551

RESUMO

Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is caused by germline or somatic loss of function FAS mutations resulting in impaired apoptosis and consequent expansion of T-lymphocytes causing organomegaly and autoimmune anemia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Herein, we report on a case of disseminated varicella zoster infection after post-partum vaccination in a patient found to have CD4 lymphopenia and eventually diagnosed with ALPS caused by a novel germline missense mutation in FAS death-domain. A subsequent retrospective analysis of 169 patients of the NIH ALPS-FAS cohort, revealed that CD4-T-cells lymphopenia (< 300 cells/µl) may occur in 5% of ALPS-FAS patients irrespectively of the underlying genetic defect, organomegaly or immunosuppressive treatment. Although immunophenotyping did not show depletion of specific CD4-T-cells subpopulations, CD4-lymphopenic ALPS-FAS subjects had an expansion of a subset of circulating T-follicular-helper (cTfh) cells, associated with autoantibody production (CCR7lowPD-1high). Furthermore, autoantibodies binding on CD4-T-cells were detected in 50% of the CD4-lymphopenic ALPS-FAS patients and caused cytotoxicity in a natural killer (NK)-mediated antibody-dependent-cellular cytotoxicity assay. Such autoantibodies can therefore be associated with CD4-T-cell death, impaired activation induced proliferation or impaired trafficking. The expansion of autoreactive T-cells in ALPS-FAS is known to be associated with autoimmune clinical manifestations, however our study reveals that ALPS-FAS can also be associated with a paradoxical depletion of CD4-T-cells due to the presence of autoantibodies on the surface of CD4-T-cells which can in turn result in increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. These novel findings have implications for the diagnosis, clinical monitoring, and management of patients with ALPS-FAS.

5.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(495)2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167928

RESUMO

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), a monogenic disorder caused by AIRE mutations, presents with several autoimmune diseases. Among these, endocrine organ failure is widely recognized, but the prevalence, immunopathogenesis, and treatment of non-endocrine manifestations such as pneumonitis remain poorly characterized. We enrolled 50 patients with APECED in a prospective observational study and comprehensively examined their clinical and radiographic findings, performed pulmonary function tests, and analyzed immunological characteristics in blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and endobronchial and lung biopsies. Pneumonitis was found in >40% of our patients, presented early in life, was misdiagnosed despite chronic respiratory symptoms and accompanying radiographic and pulmonary function abnormalities, and caused hypoxemic respiratory failure and death. Autoantibodies against BPIFB1 and KCNRG and the homozygous c.967_979del13 AIRE mutation are associated with pneumonitis development. APECED pneumonitis features compartmentalized immunopathology, with accumulation of activated neutrophils in the airways and lymphocytic infiltration in intraepithelial, submucosal, peribronchiolar, and interstitial areas. Beyond APECED, we extend these observations to lung disease seen in other conditions with secondary AIRE deficiency (thymoma and RAG deficiency). Aire-deficient mice had similar compartmentalized cellular immune responses in the airways and lung tissue, which was ameliorated by deficiency of T and B lymphocytes. Accordingly, T and B lymphocyte-directed immunomodulation controlled symptoms and radiographic abnormalities and improved pulmonary function in patients with APECED pneumonitis. Collectively, our findings unveil lung autoimmunity as a common, early, and unrecognized manifestation of APECED and provide insights into the immunopathogenesis and treatment of pulmonary autoimmunity associated with impaired central immune tolerance.

7.
Front Immunol ; 10: 77, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891027

RESUMO

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) plays an integral role in lymphocyte function. Mutations in PIK3CD and PIK3R1, encoding the PI3K p110δ and p85α subunits, respectively, cause increased PI3K activity and result in immunodeficiency with immune dysregulation. We describe here the first cases of disseminated and congenital toxoplasmosis in a mother and child who share a pathogenic mutation in PIK3R1 and review the mechanisms underlying susceptibility to severe Toxoplasma gondii infection in activated PI3Kδ syndrome (APDS) and in other forms of primary immunodeficiency.

8.
Front Immunol ; 10: 23, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778343

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) represents one of the most severe forms of primary immunodeficiency (PID) disorders characterized by impaired cellular and humoral immune responses. Here, we report the clinical, immunological, and molecular findings in 57 patients diagnosed with SCID from India. Majority of our patients (89%) presented within 6 months of age. The most common clinical manifestations observed were recurrent pneumonia (66%), failure to thrive (60%), chronic diarrhea (35%), gastrointestinal infection (21%), and oral candidiasis (21%). Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative therapy available for treating these patients. Four patients underwent HSCT in our cohort but had a poor survival outcome. Lymphopenia (absolute lymphocyte counts/µL <2,500) was noted in 63% of the patients. Based on immunophenotypic pattern, majority of the cases were T-B- SCID (39%) followed by T-B+ SCID (28%). MHC class II deficiency accounted for 10.5% of our patient group. A total of 49 patients were molecularly characterized in this study and 32 novel variants were identified in our cohort. The spectrum of genetic defects in our cohort revealed a wide genetic heterogeneity with the major genetic cause being RAG1/2 gene defect (n = 12) followed by IL2RG (n = 9) and JAK3 defects (n = 9). Rare forms of SCID like Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency, reticular dysgenesis, DNA-Protein Kinase (DNA-PKcs) deficiency, six cases of MHC class II deficiency and two ZAP70 deficiency were also identified in our cohort. Fourteen percent of the defects still remained uncharacterized despite the application of next generation sequencing. With the exception of MHC class II deficiency and ZAP70 deficiency, all SCID patients had extremely low T cell receptor excision (TRECs) (<18 copies/µL).

9.
J Clin Invest ; 128(7): 3071-3087, 2018 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29889099

RESUMO

Ikaros/IKZF1 is an essential transcription factor expressed throughout hematopoiesis. IKZF1 is implicated in lymphocyte and myeloid differentiation and negative regulation of cell proliferation. In humans, somatic mutations in IKZF1 have been linked to the development of B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children and adults. Recently, heterozygous germline IKZF1 mutations have been identified in patients with a B cell immune deficiency mimicking common variable immunodeficiency. These mutations demonstrated incomplete penetrance and led to haploinsufficiency. Herein, we report 7 unrelated patients with a novel early-onset combined immunodeficiency associated with de novo germline IKZF1 heterozygous mutations affecting amino acid N159 located in the DNA-binding domain of IKZF1. Different bacterial and viral infections were diagnosed, but Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia was reported in all patients. One patient developed a T cell ALL. This immunodeficiency was characterized by innate and adaptive immune defects, including low numbers of B cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, and myeloid dendritic cells, as well as T cell and monocyte dysfunctions. Notably, most T cells exhibited a naive phenotype and were unable to evolve into effector memory cells. Functional studies indicated these mutations act as dominant negative. This defect expands the clinical spectrum of human IKZF1-associated diseases from somatic to germline, from haploinsufficient to dominant negative.

11.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 77(4): 612-619, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29358286

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterise the clinical features, immune manifestations and molecular mechanisms in a recently described autoinflammatory disease caused by mutations in TRNT1, a tRNA processing enzyme, and to explore the use of cytokine inhibitors in suppressing the inflammatory phenotype. METHODS: We studied nine patients with biallelic mutations in TRNT1 and the syndrome of congenital sideroblastic anaemia with immunodeficiency, fevers and developmental delay (SIFD). Genetic studies included whole exome sequencing (WES) and candidate gene screening. Patients' primary cells were used for deep RNA and tRNA sequencing, cytokine profiling, immunophenotyping, immunoblotting and electron microscopy (EM). RESULTS: We identified eight mutations in these nine patients, three of which have not been previously associated with SIFD. Three patients died in early childhood. Inflammatory cytokines, mainly interleukin (IL)-6, interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and IFN-induced cytokines were elevated in the serum, whereas tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-1ß were present in tissue biopsies of patients with active inflammatory disease. Deep tRNA sequencing of patients' fibroblasts showed significant deficiency of mature cytosolic tRNAs. EM of bone marrow and skin biopsy samples revealed striking abnormalities across all cell types and a mix of necrotic and normal-appearing cells. By immunoprecipitation, we found evidence for dysregulation in protein clearance pathways. In 4/4 patients, treatment with a TNF inhibitor suppressed inflammation, reduced the need for blood transfusions and improved growth. CONCLUSIONS: Mutations of TRNT1 lead to a severe and often fatal syndrome, linking protein homeostasis and autoinflammation. Molecular diagnosis in early life will be crucial for initiating anti-TNF therapy, which might prevent some of the severe disease consequences.

12.
J Immunol ; 200(1): 110-118, 2018 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29187589

RESUMO

Understanding the control of Ag restimulation-induced T cell death (RICD), especially in cancer immunotherapy, where highly proliferating T cells will encounter potentially large amounts of tumor Ags, is important now more than ever. It has been known that growth cytokines make T cells susceptible to RICD, but the precise molecular mediators that govern this in T cell subsets is unknown until now. STAT proteins are a family of transcription factors that regulate gene expression programs underlying key immunological processes. In particular, STAT5 is known to favor the generation and survival of memory T cells. In this study, we report an unexpected role for STAT5 signaling in the death of effector memory T (TEM) cells in mice and humans. TEM cell death was prevented with neutralizing anti-IL-2 Ab or STAT5/JAK3 inhibitors, indicating that STAT5 signaling drives RICD in TEM cells. Moreover, we identified a unique patient with a heterozygous missense mutation in the coiled-coil domain of STAT5B that presented with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome-like features. Similar to Stat5b-/- mice, this patient exhibited increased CD4+ TEM cells in the peripheral blood. The mutant STAT5B protein dominantly interfered with STAT5-driven transcriptional activity, leading to global downregulation of STAT5-regulated genes in patient T cells upon IL-2 stimulation. Notably, CD4+ TEM cells from the patient were strikingly resistant to cell death by in vitro TCR restimulation, a finding that was recapitulated in Stat5b-/- mice. Hence, STAT5B is a crucial regulator of RICD in memory T cells in mice and humans.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Síndrome Linfoproliferativa Autoimune/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Sobrevivência Celular , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/metabolismo , Síndrome Linfoproliferativa Autoimune/genética , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Interleucina-2/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Transcrição Genética
13.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2944, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30619304

RESUMO

CARD11 is a lymphocyte-specific scaffold molecule required for proper activation of B- and T-cells in response to antigen. Germline gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in the CARD11 gene cause a unique B cell lymphoproliferative disorder known as B cell Expansion with NF-κB and T cell Anergy (BENTA). In contrast, patients carrying loss-of-function (LOF), dominant negative (DN) CARD11 mutations present with severe atopic disease. Interestingly, both GOF and DN CARD11 variants cause primary immunodeficiency, with recurrent bacterial and viral infections, likely resulting from impaired adaptive immune responses. This report describes a unique four-generation family harboring a novel heterozygous germline indel mutation in CARD11 (c.701-713delinsT), leading to one altered amino acid and a deletion of 4 others (p.His234_Lys238delinsLeu). Strikingly, affected members exhibit both moderate B cell lymphocytosis and atopic dermatitis/allergies. Ectopic expression of this CARD11 variant stimulated constitutive NF-κB activity in T cell lines, similar to other BENTA patient mutations. However, unlike other GOF mutants, this variant significantly impeded the ability of wild-type CARD11 to induce NF-κB activation following antigen receptor ligation. Patient lymphocytes display marked intrinsic defects in B cell differentiation and reduced T cell responsiveness in vitro. Collectively, these data imply that a single heterozygous CARD11 mutation can convey both GOF and DN signaling effects, manifesting in a blended BENTA phenotype with atopic features. Our findings further emphasize the importance of balanced CARD11 signaling for normal immune responses.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/genética , Mutação com Ganho de Função , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Guanilato Ciclase/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/genética , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/metabolismo , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Guanilato Ciclase/metabolismo , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/metabolismo , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/patologia , Lactente , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/patologia , Masculino , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Linhagem , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
15.
Blood ; 130(13): 1553-1564, 2017 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28778864

RESUMO

NF-κB signaling through its NFKB1-dependent canonical and NFKB2-dependent noncanonical pathways plays distinctive roles in a diverse range of immune processes. Recently, mutations in these 2 genes have been associated with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). While studying patients with genetically uncharacterized primary immunodeficiencies, we detected 2 novel nonsense gain-of-function (GOF) NFKB2 mutations (E418X and R635X) in 3 patients from 2 families, and a novel missense change (S866R) in another patient. Their immunophenotype was assessed by flow cytometry and protein expression; activation of canonical and noncanonical pathways was examined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and transfected HEK293T cells through immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, luciferase activity, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and multiplex assays. The S866R change disrupted a C-terminal NF-κΒ2 critical site affecting protein phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, resulting in CVID with adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency, growth hormone deficiency, and mild ectodermal dysplasia as previously described. In contrast, the nonsense mutations E418X and R635X observed in 3 patients led to constitutive nuclear localization and activation of both canonical and noncanonical NF-κΒ pathways, resulting in a combined immunodeficiency (CID) without endocrine or ectodermal manifestations. These changes were also found in 2 asymptomatic relatives. Thus, these novel NFKB2 GOF mutations produce a nonfully penetrant CID phenotype through a different pathophysiologic mechanism than previously described for mutations in NFKB2.


Assuntos
Códon sem Sentido , Subunidade p52 de NF-kappa B/genética , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Insuficiência Adrenal/genética , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/genética , Displasia Ectodérmica/genética , Hormônio do Crescimento/deficiência , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fenótipo
16.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 3702, 2017 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28623346

RESUMO

Syndromic primary immunodeficiencies are rare genetic disorders that affect both the immune system and other organ systems. More often, the immune defect is not the major clinical problem and is sometimes only recognized after a diagnosis has been made based on extra-immunological abnormalities. Here, we report two sibling pairs with syndromic primary immunodeficiencies that exceptionally presented with a phenotype resembling early-onset common variable immunodeficiency, while extra-immunological characteristics were not apparent at that time. Additional features not typically associated with common variable immunodeficiency were diagnosed only later, including skeletal and organ anomalies and mild facial dysmorphism. Whole exome sequencing revealed KMT2A-associated Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome in one sibling pair and their mother. In the other sibling pair, targeted testing of the known disease gene for Roifman syndrome (RNU4ATAC) provided a definite diagnosis. With this study, we underline the importance of an early-stage and thorough genetic assessment in paediatric patients with a common variable immunodeficiency phenotype, to establish a conclusive diagnosis and guide patient management. In addition, this study extends the mutational and immunophenotypical spectrum of Wiedemann-Steiner and Roifman syndromes and highlights potential directions for future pathophysiological research.

17.
Nat Genet ; 49(8): 1192-1201, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28628108

RESUMO

Few monogenic causes for severe manifestations of common allergic diseases have been identified. Through next-generation sequencing on a cohort of patients with severe atopic dermatitis with and without comorbid infections, we found eight individuals, from four families, with novel heterozygous mutations in CARD11, which encodes a scaffolding protein involved in lymphocyte receptor signaling. Disease improved over time in most patients. Transfection of mutant CARD11 expression constructs into T cell lines demonstrated both loss-of-function and dominant-interfering activity upon antigen receptor-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Patient T cells had similar defects, as well as low production of the cytokine interferon-γ (IFN-γ). The mTORC1 and IFN-γ production defects were partially rescued by supplementation with glutamine, which requires CARD11 for import into T cells. Our findings indicate that a single hypomorphic mutation in CARD11 can cause potentially correctable cellular defects that lead to atopic dermatitis.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/genética , Dermatite Atópica/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Guanilato Ciclase/genética , Sistema ASC de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Dermatite Atópica/imunologia , Feminino , Genes Dominantes , Glutamina/metabolismo , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/metabolismo , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Linhagem , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
18.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 4(2): ofx082, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28638843

RESUMO

Idiopathic CD4+ lymphopenia (ICL) predisposes to opportunistic infections (OIs) but can often remain asymptomatic and does not have a strong association with monogenic mutations. Likewise, cryptococcal meningoencephalitis, the most common OI in ICL, is not strongly associated with monogenic mutations. In this study, we describe 2 patients with ICL plus an additional immune defect: one from an E57K genetic mutation in the nuclear factor-κß essential modulator, and the other with acquired autoantibodies to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Thus, these cases may exemplify a "multi-hit model" in patients with ICL who acquire OIs.

20.
JCI Insight ; 1(13)2016 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27588307

RESUMO

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder typically caused by homozygous AIRE mutations. It classically presents with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and autoimmunity that primarily targets endocrine tissues; hypoparathyroidism and adrenal insufficiency are most common. Developing any two of these classic triad manifestations establishes the diagnosis. Although widely recognized in Europe, where nonendocrine autoimmune manifestations are uncommon, APECED is less defined in patients from the Western Hemisphere. We enrolled 35 consecutive American APECED patients (33 from the US) in a prospective observational natural history study and systematically examined their genetic, clinical, autoantibody, and immunological characteristics. Most patients were compound heterozygous; the most common AIRE mutation was c.967_979del13. All but one patient had anti-IFN-ω autoantibodies, including 4 of 5 patients without biallelic AIRE mutations. Urticarial eruption, hepatitis, gastritis, intestinal dysfunction, pneumonitis, and Sjögren's-like syndrome, uncommon entities in European APECED cohorts, affected 40%-80% of American cases. Development of a classic diagnostic dyad was delayed at mean 7.38 years. Eighty percent of patients developed a median of 3 non-triad manifestations before a diagnostic dyad. Only 20% of patients had their first two manifestations among the classic triad. Urticarial eruption, intestinal dysfunction, and enamel hypoplasia were prominent among early manifestations. Patients exhibited expanded peripheral CD4+ T cells and CD21loCD38lo B lymphocytes. In summary, American APECED patients develop a diverse syndrome, with dramatic enrichment in organ-specific nonendocrine manifestations starting early in life, compared with European patients. Incorporation of these new manifestations into American diagnostic criteria would accelerate diagnosis by approximately 4 years and potentially prevent life-threatening endocrine complications.

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