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1.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395708

RESUMO

The COVID-19 illness can occur as an occupational disease or work-related accident. According to the German list of occupational diseases, recognition as an occupational disease 3101 requires occupational exposure of an insured person who has been exposed to an increased risk of infection compared to the general population as a result of their occupational activity in one of the four areas: (1) health service or (2) social welfare sector, (3) laboratory or (4) during activities with increased risk of infection comparable to (1) to (3). The insurance cover covers employees, self-employed people - if not exempted from insurance cover - and honorary workers. The COVID-19 disease is subject to legal notification, mostly in conjunction with a contemporary SARS-CoV-2 virus detection. Regarding insured people who are not included within the aforementioned areas (1) to (4), the COVID-19 illness can be acknowledged as an occupational accident if the intense and direct contact with infected people - not intended as in the case of occupational disease 3101 - but otherwise situationally results from the insured activity itself.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255337

RESUMO

Safety-engineered devices (SEDs) have been developed to protect healthcare personnel (HCP) from needlestick and sharps injuries (NSIs). The aim of this study was to analyze NSIs associated with SEDs and non-SEDs among HCP in hospitals, medical offices and care facilities. Records from online questionnaires on NSIs were used. Causes of NSIs were compared for SED use and healthcare setting. A sample of 835 files was included. Injuries with SEDs accounted for 35.0% of all NSIs, whereas the proportions were higher in medical offices and lower in care facilities. NSIs in nurses were more often associated with SEDs than NSIs in physicians. NSIs from intravenous needles were associated with SEDs in more than 60% of cases in hospitals and medical offices and in about 30.0% of cases in care facilities. In contrast, suturing was associated with every fourth NSI in hospitals, of which fewer than 10.0% were associated with SEDs. In care facilities, SEDs were involved in 36.1% of NSIs during subcutaneous injections. NSIs during disposal accounted for 29.2% of total NSIs, of which 36.1% were associated with SEDs. Frequent reasons for SED-associated NSIs were technical problems, unexpected patient movement and problems during disposal. Our analysis shows that many NSIs are associated with SEDs. Continuous training is necessary in the handling and disposal of SEDs.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dentists are at a higher risk of suffering from musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) than the general population. However, the latest study investigating MSD in the dental profession in Germany was published about 20 years ago. Therefore, the aim of this study was to reveal the current prevalence of MSD in dentists and dental students in Germany. METHODS: The final study size contained 450 (287 f/163 m) subjects of different areas of specialization. The age of the participants ranged from 23 to 75 years. The questionnaire consisted of a modified version of the Nordic Questionnaire, work-related questions from the latest questionnaire of German dentists, typical medical conditions and self-developed questions. RESULTS: The overall prevalence showed that dentists suffered frequently from MSD (seven days: 65.6%, twelve months: 92%, lifetime: 95.8%). The most affected body regions included the neck (42.7%-70.9%-78.4%), shoulders (29.8%-55.6%-66.2%) and lower back (22.9%-45.8%-58.7%). Overall, female participants stated that they suffered from pain significantly more frequently, especially in the neck, shoulders and upper back. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of MSD among dentists, especially in the neck, shoulder and back area, was significantly higher than in the general population. In addition, women suffered more frequently from MSD than men in almost all body regions.

4.
ERJ Open Res ; 6(4)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33263041

RESUMO

Background: A total of 5429 new cases of tuberculosis (TB) were reported in Germany in 2018; out of the 3780 TB cases for whom drug susceptibility testing was available, the proportion of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases was only 3.1% (118 cases). Methods: On the basis of the current therapy guidelines of the German Central Committee against Tuberculosis, this study estimates the mean direct outpatient and combined in- and outpatient costs per non-MDR-TB patient from the perspective of the German statutory health insurance (SHI) system, together with costs arising from productivity losses and costs due to public health screening for TB in close contacts. Results: From the insurance perspective, the mean outpatient costs (rounded) per case were €1628 for adults and €1179 for children for standard therapy; the mean cost of inpatient treatment amounted to €8626. The mean combined inpatient/outpatient cost was €8756 for adults and €8512 for children. As 95% of all TB patients were adults, the weighted treatment cost per patient in Germany in 2018 was €8746. These are in addition to the mean cost arising from productivity losses (€1839) and, weighted by pulmonary infectivity, cost of contact investigations (€368), coming to a total of €10 953. Conclusion: Given the clear increase in the number of non-MDR-TB cases since 2015, TB is still a disease of significant economic impact in Germany.

5.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241564, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dental professionals are subjected to higher risks for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) than other professional groups, especially the hand region. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of hand complaints among dentists (Ds) and dental assistants (DAs) and examines applied therapies. METHODS: For this purpose, an online questionnaire analysed 389 Ds (240female/149male) and 406 DAs (401female/5male) working in Germany. The self-reported data of the two occupational groups were compared with regard to the topics examined. The questionnaire was based on the Nordic Questionnaire (self-reported lifetime, 12-month and 7-day MSDs prevalence of the hand, the conducted therapy and its success), additional occupational and sociodemographic questions as well as questions about specific medical conditions. RESULTS: 30.8% of Ds affirmed MSDs in the hand at any time in their lives, 20.3% in the last twelve months and 9.5% in the last seven days. Among DAs, 42.6% reported a prevalence of MSDs in the hand at any time in their lives, 31.8% in the last 12 months and 15.3% in the last seven days. 37.5% of the Ds and 28.3% of the DAs stated that they had certain treatments. For both, Ds and DAs, physiotherapy was the most frequently chosen form of therapy. 89.7% of Ds and 63.3% of DAs who received therapy reported an improvement of MSDs. CONCLUSION: Although the prevalence of MSDs on the hand is higher among DAs than among Ds, the use of therapeutic options and the success of therapy is lower for DAs compared to Ds.


Assuntos
Assistentes de Odontologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Odontólogos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Mãos/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/etiologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/fisiopatologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/terapia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/fisiopatologia , Doenças Profissionais/terapia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872306

RESUMO

A number of epidemiological studies report an association between occupational noise exposure and arterial hypertension. Existing systematic reviews report conflicting results, so we conducted an updated systematic review with meta-analysis. We registered the review protocol with PROSPERO (registration no.: CRD 42019147923) and searched for observational epidemiological studies in literature databases (Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science). Two independent reviewers screened the titles/abstracts and full texts of the studies. Two reviewers also did the quality assessment and data extraction. Studies without adequate information on recruitment, response, or without a comparison group that was exposed to occupational noise under 80 dB(A) were excluded. The literature search yielded 4583 studies, and 58 studies were found through hand searching. Twenty-four studies were included in the review. The meta-analysis found a pooled effect size (ES) for hypertension (systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg) due to noise exposures ≥80 dB(A) of 1.81 (95% CI 1.51-2.18). There is no substantial risk difference between men and women, but data concerning this question are limited. We found a positive dose-response-relationship: ES = 1.21 (95% CI 0.78-1.87) ≤ 80 dB(A), ES = 1.77 (95% CI 1.36-2.29) >80-≤85 dB(A), and ES = 3.50 (95% CI 1.56-7.86) >85-≤90 dB(A). We found high quality of evidence that occupational noise exposure increases the risk of hypertension.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Ruído Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia
7.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 117(21): 365-372, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adequate immunity to so-called childhood diseases can lower the occupational risk of vaccine-preventable infectious diseases in persons who work in day-care centers for children. METHODS: A systematic literature survey was carried out in PubMed and Embase for the period January 2000 to February 2019. Studies on immune status and vaccination status were included. In addition, data from the first wave of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (Studie zur Gesundheit Erwachsener in Deutschland, DEGS1) and surveillance data on notifiable infections in Germany were evaluated. RESULTS: Six studies and the DEGS1 analysis of vaccination or immune status for varicella zoster, rubella, hepatitis A (HAV), pertussis, measles, and mumps in persons caring for children in day-care centers, most of whom are women, were included in this review. According to DEGS1, childcare workers are more commonly vaccinated against HAV and pertussis than the general female population (prevalence ratios [PR]: 1.46 [1.12; 1.90] and 1.57 [1.05; 2.36]), yet 57% had not been vaccinated against HAV and 77% had not been vaccinated against pertussis. Childcare workers were found to be less commonly vaccinated against rubella than the general female population, although the difference was not statistically significant (PR: 0.87 [0.71; 1.07]). In a Canadian study, positive HAV serology was found to be correlated with the duration of activity as a childcare worker. In the DEGS1 study, large proportions of the younger childcare workers in particular were seronegative against measles (16%), mumps (19%), and HAV (37%). Notifiable disease statistics show that those working in community facilities had a markedly higher risk of mumps, pertussis, and varicella (relative risk [RR]: 1.8-2.6) and a somewhat higher risk of rubella and HAV (RR: 1.47 and 1.21, respectively). CONCLUSION: Childcare workers have a higher occupational risk of infection but do not always receive the appropriate vaccinations. In particular, women of child-bearing age working in day-care centers should be made more aware of the need for vaccination.


Assuntos
Cuidado da Criança , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Preveníveis por Vacina/epidemiologia , Criança , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos
8.
ERJ Open Res ; 6(3)2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32743006

RESUMO

Background: So far, there is no reliable information on the drugs actually taken by tuberculosis patients. With billing data from a large German health insurance company, valid data from practice will be used for analysis. The objective here is to use the claims data of a health insurer to gain an insight into the prescriptions issued to patients with tuberculosis in Germany. Methods: The study design encompasses a longitudinal, analytical observational study of selected insurance holders. Descriptive analyses of the outpatient drug supply of pulmonary tuberculosis patients are determined for 6 payroll years. We have studied whether different doses of tuberculosis medication are associated with age, sex, inpatient status and comorbidity. Quantile regression is used as a method to identify subgroups or characteristic dosages. Results: The number of defined daily doses prescribed per patient varies among insurance holders and encompasses widely differing timeframes. Higher doses are observed with increasing age, as well as in patients with tuberculosis-related hospitalisations. The sex of the patient has no identifiable effect on the prescribed doses for any of the first-line tuberculosis drugs. Comorbidity partially has a significant impact on the duration and intensity of tuberculosis drug prescriptions.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645826

RESUMO

We report on the suspected case reports filed for SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19 illnesses among health and social welfare workers in Germany. In addition, we report about COVID-19 in health workers in Malaysia. Claims for occupational diseases caused by SARS-CoV-2 are recorded separately in a database of the Statutory Accident Insurance and Prevention in the Health and Welfare Services (BGW). This database is analyzed according to its content as of May 22, 2020. In addition, the notifiable cases of SARS-CoV-2 infections from personnel in medical institutions (e.g., clinics and doctor's office) and social welfare institutions (e.g., nursing homes, shelters and refugee camps) following the German Infection Protection Act are analyzed. The report from Malaysia is based on personal experience and publications of the government. In Germany at present, 4398 suspected case reports for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infections among health and social workers have been filed. This figure is four times the number of all reported infections normally received per year. The majority of claims, regardless of being a confirmed infection, concerned nurses (n = 6927, 63.9%). The mortality rate for workers infected with SARS-CoV-2 is 0.2% to 0.5%. Doctors are affected by severe illness more frequently than other occupational groups (8.1% vs. 4.1%). In Malaysia, work-related infection of health workers (HW) occurred mainly when COVID-19 was not suspected in patients and no adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) was worn. Although knowledge on the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infections among workers remains limited, the impact appears to be substantial. This is supported by the mortality rate among infected workers. Occupational health check-ups carried out at the present time should be systematically analyzed in order to gain more information on the epidemiology of COVID-19 among HW. Since the supply and use of PPE improved, the infection risk of HW in Malaysia seems to have decreased.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Saúde do Trabalhador , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605191

RESUMO

Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) represents a work-related risk for health workers (HWs). Tuberculosis remains the second most common occupational infectious disease among HWs in Germany. Comparative figures on LTBI prevalence in the general population are missing because testing is only carried out in the context of an outbreak situation. The objective of this study is to investigate whether HWs are at greater risk of LTBI than workers in other sectors. This study is based on two samples. The first sample is a database of HWs who were examined by the German Occupational Physicians Network using an interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA). The second sample consists of general employees (non-health workers, non-HWs) from Hamburg who had no professional contact with the health care system. Propensity score matching (PS matching) was performed to ensure better comparability of the groups. The differences in the prevalence of positive test results from IGRAs were examined using univariate and multivariate analyses. After the PS matching of 1:10, 100 test subjects in the non-HW group and 1000 HWs remained to form the analysis collective. The HWs tended to exhibit higher IGRA values than non-HWs. The univariate analysis showed an odds ratio (OR) of 3.86 for the HWs (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99 to 32.5; p = 0.056) with respect to a positive test result. The multivariate analysis produced an OR of 4.92, (95% CI: 1.3 to 43.7; p = 0.013) for HWs born in Germany. Despite the declining tuberculosis incidence rates in Germany, a comparison with non-exposed professional groups showed that HWs are at greater risk of LTBI. Preventive medical check-ups still seem to be indicated.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Tuberculose Latente , Tuberculose , Adulto , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Latente/epidemiologia , Masculino , Ocupações , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650412

RESUMO

Occupational therapists (OTs) are exposed to physical factors at work, which can lead to an increased risk of musculoskeletal disorders. Most studies examining musculoskeletal complaints in OT report that the neck, shoulders, and lower back are most often afflicted. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of work as an OT (focusing on specific work tasks) on specific musculoskeletal complaints compared to the general working population. A cross-sectional study involving a self-administered standardized questionnaire was conducted from January until October 2015 in Germany. In OT and the comparison group, the highest 12-month prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders were observed for the lower back, the neck, and the shoulders. In contrast, elevated prevalence ratios (PR) were found for OT in the thumbs (PR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.9-3.8), the wrists (PR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.1-1.8), and the elbows (PR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.0-2.2). OTs were particularly exposed to high exertion hand activity and several stressful postures at work. In conclusion, OTs seem to be at risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal complaints in the thumbs, wrists, and elbows. Preventive measures should help to reduce the exposures caused by highly repetitive and forceful hand activities.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Doenças Profissionais , Terapeutas Ocupacionais , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
J Occup Med Toxicol ; 15: 22, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641973

RESUMO

Background: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are common among dental professionals. The most common areas affected are the trunk, neck, shoulders and wrists. Current evidence suggests that the causes of MSD can be found in the physical demands of the profession. Posture and movement during treatment is influenced by the arrangement of the treatment concept (patient chair, equipment and cabinets). It has not been investigated whether the ergonomic risk differs between the treatment concepts. Methods: To evaluate the prevalence of MSD in dental professionals, 1000 responses will be collected from a nationwide (Germany) online questionnaire (mod. Nordic Questionnaire and mod. Meyer questionnaire). In order to assess the ergonomic risk of the treatment techniques used in the four treatment concepts, 3D movement analyses are carried out with inertial sensors. For this purpose, 20 teams of dentists and dental assistants from four dental fields of specializations (generalists, orthodontists, endodontists and oral surgeons) and a student control group will be recruited. Each team will execute field specific standardized treatments at a dummy head. Measurements are carried out in each of the four treatment concepts. The data will be analyzed using the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) which will be modified for the evaluation of objective data. Conclusions: On the basis of these investigations, a substantial gain of knowledge regarding work-related MSD in the field of dentistry and its potential biomechanical causes is possible. For the first time, objective and differentiated comparisons between the four treatment concepts are possible for different fields of dental specialization. Up to now, statically held positions of the trunk and proximal upper extremities, but also the repetitive movements of the hands have been considered a risk for MSD. Since both are included in the RULA, dental activities can be assessed in a detailed but also global manner with regard to ergonomic risks.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635557

RESUMO

Lifting or carrying loads or working while the trunk is in a bent position are well established risk factors for the development of disc disease of the lumbar spine (LDD). Patient handling is associated with certain hazardous activities, which can result in exposure to heavy loads and high pressure for the discs of the lumbar spine of the nurses performing these tasks. The purpose of this review was to examine the occurrence of work-related LDD among health personnel (HP) with occupational exposure to patient handling activities in comparison to un-exposed workers. A systematic literature search was conducted using the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and Web of Science. A meta-analysis of odds ratios (OR) was conducted by stratifying for various factors. Five studies reported a higher prevalence for LDD among nurses and geriatric nurses (11.3-96.3%) compared to all controls (3.78-76.47%). Results of the meta-analysis showed a significantly increased OR for LDD among HP compared to all controls (OR 2.45; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.41, 4.26). In particular, the results of this review suggest that nurses have a higher probability of developing disc herniation than office workers.


Assuntos
Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/etiologia , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/etiologia , Vértebras Lombares/fisiopatologia , Movimentação e Reposicionamento de Pacientes/efeitos adversos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Profissionais
14.
J Occup Med Toxicol ; 15: 19, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607123

RESUMO

Background: Social workers provide support for various groups of clients, such as refugees and homeless people. Refugees and homeless individuals represent particularly vulnerable groups in precarious living conditions. Therefore, social workers serving these clients are likely to be confronted with extensive job demands. The aim of this study was to investigate the coping strategies of social workers serving refugees and homeless individuals and to explore their support sources and health promotion offers at work as well as their respective needs. Methods: 26 semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out with social workers in Berlin and Hamburg and analysed according to Mayring's qualitative content analysis. Results: The respondents reported various coping strategies to deal with their job demands which involved both problem-oriented (e.g. time management, setting boundaries, seeking support in conflict situations) and emotion-focused approaches (e.g. self-care, distance from work, leisure activities). In addition, they emphasised various sources of workplace (social) support, e.g. provided by team members, supervisors, and other institutions. However, unmet needs for support were also formulated by the workers, e.g. in terms of individual supervision and regular exchange. Furthermore, several employees did not know about any health promotion offers at their workplace and expressed a desire for structural and behavioural health promotion measures. Conclusions: In view of the diverse needs of the workers, the results can provide a basis to design needs-based health promotion interventions for staff in social work.

15.
BMC Palliat Care ; 19(1): 83, 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyse the buffering effect of individual, social and organisational resources on health and intention to leave the profession in the context of burden due to quantitative job demands. METHODS: In 2017, a cross-sectional survey was carried out anonymously among nurses in palliative care in Germany. One thousand three hundred sixteen nurses responded to the questionnaire (response rate 38.7%), which contained, amongst others, questions from the German version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). Moderator analyses were conducted to investigate the buffering effect of different resources on health ('self-rated health' and 'burnout') and 'intention to leave' in the context of quantitative demands. RESULTS: 'Self-rated health' was significantly buffered by the resources 'recognition through salary' (p = 0.001) and 'good working team' (p = 0.004). Additionally, buffering effects of the resources 'workplace commitment' and 'good working team' on 'burnout' (p = 0.001 and p = 0.006, respectively) as well as of the resources 'degree of freedom', 'meeting relatives after death of patients', 'recognition from supervisor' and 'possibilities for development' on 'intention to leave' (p = 0.014, p = 0.012, p = 0.007 and p = 0.036, respectively) were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study can be used to develop and implement job (re) design interventions with the goal of reducing the risk of burnout and enhancing job satisfaction among nurses in palliative care. This includes for example adequate payment, communication training and team activities or team events to strengthen the team as well as the implementation of some rituals (such as meeting relatives after the death of patients). As our study was exploratory, the results should be confirmed in further studies.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369903

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to obtain a better understanding of the association between the frequency of nurses' exposure to workplace aggression from patients and their levels of burnout. In particular, we seek to shed light on the role of the availability of follow-up counseling in organizations after critical incidents in mitigating the adverse relationships between physical and verbal aggression and nurses' burnout. A total of 582 nurses reported how frequently they had experienced physical and verbal aggression from patients in the last 12 months and whether they had the opportunity to receive follow-up counseling in their organization. In addition, nurses rated the extent to which they experienced each of the three dimensions of burnout (i.e., emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment). The results showed that both physical and verbal aggression were substantially related to the burnout dimensions. Furthermore, we found that the availability of follow-up counseling in organizations attenuated the relationships between physical aggression and all three burnout dimensions. While we found that the availability of follow-up counseling moderated the relationship between verbal aggression depersonalization, the moderating effects were not significant for emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment. The findings indicate that the availability of follow-up counseling might help minimize the adverse impact of exposure to aggression from patients on nurses' mental health.


Assuntos
Agressão , Esgotamento Profissional , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Local de Trabalho , Aconselhamento , Seguimentos , Humanos , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 93(8): 995-1006, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Needlestick injuries have caused a deleterious effect on the physical and mental health of millions of health-care workers over the past decades, being responsible for occupational infections with viruses such as HIV or hepatis C. Despite this heavy burden of disease, no concise studies have been published on the global research landscape so far. METHODS: We used the New Quality and Quantity Indices in Science platform to analyze global NSI research (n = 2987 articles) over the past 115 years using the Web of Science and parameters such as global versus country-specific research activities, semi-qualitative issues, and socioeconomic figures. RESULTS: Density-equalizing mapping showed that although a total of n = 106 countries participated in NSI research, large parts of Africa and South America were almost invisible regarding global participation in NSI research. Average citation rate (cr) analysis indicated a high rate for Switzerland (cr = 25.1), Italy (cr = 23.5), and Japan (cr = 19.2). Socioeconomic analysis revealed that the UK had the highest quotient QGDP of 0.13 NSI-specific publications per bill. US-$ gross domestic product (GDP), followed by South Africa (QGDP = 0.12). Temporal analysis of HIV versus hepatitis research indicated that NSI-HIV research culminated in the early 1990s, whereas NSI-hepatitis research increased over the observed period from the 1980s until the last decade. CONCLUSION: Albeit NSI research activity is generally increasing, the growth is asymmetrical from a global viewpoint. International strategies should be followed that put a focus on NSI in non-industrialized areas of the world.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429439

RESUMO

Musculoskeletal diseases and pain (MSDs) are prevalent among dental professionals. They cause a growing inability to work and premature leaving of the occupation. Thus, the objective of this review was to summarize the evidence of ergonomic interventions for the prevention of MSDs among dental professionals. This review was conducted using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The literature search was carried out in May 2018, with an update in April 2019. Scientific databases such as MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed and Web of Science as well as reference lists of the included studies were used. Relevant data were extracted from the studies and summarized. The quality assessment was performed using a validated standardized instrument. Eleven studies were included in this review, of which four are of high quality. Eight studies focused on setting prevention strategies. Of those, in five studies, magnification loupes or prismatic spectacles were the subject of ergonomic interventions. Further subjects were the dental chair (n = 2) and dental instruments (n = 1). Three studies evaluated ergonomic training. In all studies, the ergonomic interventions had positive effects on the study outcome. Several ergonomic interventions to prevent MSDs among dental professionals were found to exert a positive effect on the prevalence of MSDs or working posture. This systematic review adds current evidence for the use of prismatic spectacles in order to prevent MSDs among dental professionals. Further intervention studies about the role of ergonomics for the prevention of MSDs among dental professionals are warranted.


Assuntos
Odontólogos , Ergonomia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Humanos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/prevenção & controle , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Dor , Postura
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429484

RESUMO

The occupation of dental assistants (DAs) involves many health risks of the musculoskeletal system due to static and prolonged work, which can lead to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of MSDs in DAs in Germany. METHODS: For this purpose, an online questionnaire analyzed 406 (401 female participants and 5 male participants, 401w/5m) DAs. It was based on the Nordic Questionnaire (lifetime, 12-month, and seven-day MSDs' prevalence separated into neck, shoulder, elbow, wrist, upper back, lower back, hip, knee, and ankle), and occupational and sociodemographic questions as well as questions about specific medical conditions. RESULTS: 98.5% of the participants reported complaints of at least one body region in their lives, 97.5% reported at least one complaint in the last 12 months and 86.9% affirmed at least one complaint in the last seven days. For lifetime, 12-month and seven-day prevalence, the neck was the region that was most affected followed by the shoulder, the upper back and the lower back. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of MSDs among German (female) DAs was very high. The most affected area is the neck, followed by the shoulder, the lower back, and the upper back. It, therefore, seems necessary to devote more attention to ergonomics at the working practice of DAs as well in education and in dental work.


Assuntos
Assistentes de Odontologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Sistema Musculoesquelético , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283641

RESUMO

Although evidence reveals severe effects of sexual harassment on care workers' mental health, there is a scarcity of studies that investigate care workers' experiences of sexually inappropriate behavior from patients or clients. One reason for this lack of research is that validated measures that assess different types of sexual harassment experienced by employees working with patients or clients are lacking. In this study, we seek to establish a conceptual framework for investigating extraorganizational sexual harassment in healthcare work. Based on this theoretical framework, we developed and validated a measure for assessing sexually harassing behaviors from patients or clients. Data were gathered from heterogeneous samples of employees working in a variety of settings in healthcare. To evaluate the factorial structure of the measure, we conducted exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using a calibration sample (N = 179) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using a cross-validation sample (N = 305). The construct validity of the measure was demonstrated by investigating relationships with indicators of care workers' mental health. EFA revealed three factors, namely, nonverbal, verbal, and physical acts of sexual harassment. Examination of the measure comprising 14 items revealed acceptable internal consistencies and substantial correlations with indicators of care workers' mental health. This study provides a useful and sound measure for assessing sexual harassment from patients or clients and paves the way for the development of a comprehensive theoretical framework for the assessment of sexual harassment. Furthermore, it facilitates future investigations of risk factors for sexual harassment and protective factors helping healthcare workers cope with sexual harassment from patients or clients.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Assédio Sexual , Análise Fatorial , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
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