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PLoS Genet ; 15(9): e1008385, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550250


Iran, despite its size, geographic location and past cultural influence, has largely been a blind spot for human population genetic studies. With only sparse genetic information on the Iranian population available, we pursued its genome-wide and geographic characterization based on 1021 samples from eleven ethnic groups. We show that Iranians, while close to neighboring populations, present distinct genetic variation consistent with long-standing genetic continuity, harbor high heterogeneity and different levels of consanguinity, fall apart into a cluster of similar groups and several admixed ones and have experienced numerous language adoption events in the past. Our findings render Iran an important source for human genetic variation in Western and Central Asia, will guide adequate study sampling and assist the interpretation of putative disease-implicated genetic variation. Given Iran's internal genetic heterogeneity, future studies will have to consider ethnic affiliations and possible admixture.

Epilepsia ; 60(8): 1733-1742, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313283


OBJECTIVE: The cyclin-dependent kinase like 5 (CDKL5) gene is a known cause of early onset developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, also known as CDKL5 deficiency disorder (CDD). We sought to (1) provide a description of seizure types in patients with CDD, (2) provide an assessment of the frequency of seizure-free periods and cortical visual impairment (CVI), (3) correlate these features with genotype and gender, and (4) correlate these features with developmental milestones. METHODS: This is a cohort study of patients with CDD. Phenotypic features were explored and correlated with gene variant grouping and gender. A developmental score was created based on achieving seven primary milestones. Phenotypic variables were correlated with the developmental score to explore markers of better developmental outcomes. Multivariate linear regression was used to account for age at last visit. RESULTS: Ninety-two patients with CDD were seen during the enrollment period. Eighteen were male (19%); median age at last visit was 5 years (interquartile range = 2.0-11.0). Eighty-one percent of patients developed epileptic spasms, but only 47% of those also had hypsarrhythmia. Previously described hypermotor-tonic-spasms sequence was seen in only 24% of patients, but 56% of patients had seizures with multiple phases (often tonic and spasms). Forty-three percent of patients experienced a seizure-free period ranging from 1 to >12 months, but only 6% were still seizure-free at the last visit. CVI was present in 75% of all CDD patients. None of these features was associated with genotype group or gender. CVI was correlated with reduced milestone achievement after adjusting for age at last visit and a history of hypsarrhythmia. SIGNIFICANCE: The most common seizure types in CDD are epileptic spasms (often without hypsarrhythmia) and tonic seizures that may cluster together. CVI is a common feature in CDD and is correlated with achieving fewer milestones.

Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(11): 1738-1744, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358956


It is challenging to estimate genetic variant burden across different subtypes of epilepsy. Herein, we used a comparative approach to assess the genetic variant burden and genotype-phenotype correlations in four most common brain lesions in patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Targeted sequencing analysis was performed for a panel of 161 genes with a mean coverage of >400×. Lesional tissue was histopathologically reviewed and dissected from hippocampal sclerosis (n = 15), ganglioglioma (n = 16), dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (n = 8), and focal cortical dysplasia type II (n = 15). Peripheral blood (n = 12) or surgical tissue samples histopathologically classified as lesion-free (n = 42) were available for comparison. Variants were classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines. Overall, we identified pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants in 25.9% of patients with a mean coverage of 383×. The highest number of pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants was observed in patients with ganglioglioma (43.75%; all somatic) and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (37.5%; all somatic), and in 20% of cases with focal cortical dysplasia type II (13.33% somatic, 6.67% germline). Pathogenic/likely pathogenic positive genes were disorder specific and BRAF V600E the only recurrent pathogenic variant. This study represents a reference for the genetic variant burden across the four most common lesion entities in patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. The observed large variability in variant burden by epileptic lesion type calls for whole exome sequencing of histopathologically well-characterized tissue in a diagnostic setting and in research to discover novel disease-associated genes.

Bioinformatics ; 35(21): 4478-4479, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086968


MOTIVATION: The correct classification of missense variants as benign or pathogenic remains challenging. Pathogenic variants are expected to have higher deleterious prediction scores than benign variants in the same gene. However, most of the existing variant annotation tools do not reference the score range of benign population variants on gene level. RESULTS: We present a web-application, Variant Score Ranker, which enables users to rapidly annotate variants and perform gene-specific variant score ranking on the population level. We also provide an intuitive example of how gene- and population-calibrated variant ranking scores can improve epilepsy variant prioritization. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Epileptic Disord ; 21(1): 65-77, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30782578


We comprehensively studied the clinical presentation, stereo-EEG and MRI findings, histopathological diagnosis, and brain somatic mutations in a retrospective series of drug-resistant patients with difficult-to-localize epilepsy due to focal cortical dysplasia at the bottom of a sulcus (BOS-FCD). We identified 10 patients with BOS-FCD from the Cleveland Clinic epilepsy surgery database submitted for intracranial video-EEG monitoring. Brain MRI, including voxel-based morphometric analysis and surgical tissue submitted for histopathology, was reviewed. Paraffin tissue samples from five patients were made available for targeted next-generation sequencing. Postsurgical follow-up was available in nine patients. BOS-FCD was identified in the superior frontal sulcus in six patients, inferior frontal sulcus in one patient, central sulcus in one patient, and intraparietal sulcus in two patients. All patients had stereotyped seizures. Intracranial EEG recordings identified ictal onset at the BOS-FCD in all 10 patients, whereas ictal scalp EEG had a localizing value in only six patients. Complete resection was achieved by lesionectomy or focal corticectomy in nine patients. Histopathologically, six patients had FCD type IIb and three had FCD type IIa. Next-generation sequencing analysis of DNA extracted from lesion-enriched (micro-dissected) tissue from five patients with FCD type II led to the identification of a germline frameshift insertion in DEPDC5, introducing a premature stop in one patient. Eight out of nine patients with available follow-up were completely seizure-free (Engel Class IA) after a mean follow-up period of six years. Our results confirm previous studies classifying difficult-to-localize BOS-FCD into the emerging spectrum of FCD ILAE type II mTORopathies. Further studies with large patient numbers and ultra-deep genetic testing may help to bridge the current knowledge gap in genetic aetiologies of FCD.

Epilepsias Parciais/diagnóstico , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Eletrocorticografia , Epilepsias Parciais/genética , Epilepsias Parciais/patologia , Epilepsias Parciais/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/genética , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/patologia , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Adulto Jovem
Epilepsia ; 59(11): 2145-2152, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30341947


OBJECTIVE: Increasing availability of surgically resected brain tissue from patients with focal epilepsy and focal cortical dysplasia or low-grade glioneuronal tumors has fostered large-scale genetic examination. However, assessment of pathogenicity of germ line and somatic variants remains difficult. Here, we present a state-of-the-art evaluation of reported genes and variants associated with epileptic brain lesions. METHODS: We critically reevaluated the pathogenicity for all neuropathology-associated variants reported to date in the PubMed and ClinVar databases, including 101 neuropathology-associated missense variants encompassing 11 disease-related genes. We assessed gene variant tolerance and classified all identified missense variants according to guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG). We further extended the bioinformatic variant prediction by introducing a novel gene-specific deleteriousness ranking for prediction scores. RESULTS: Application of ACMG guidelines and in silico gene variant tolerance analysis classified only seven of 11 genes to be likely disease-associated according to the reported disease mechanism, whereas 61 (60.4%) of 101 variants of those genes were classified as of uncertain significance, 37 (36.6%) as being likely pathogenic, and 3 (3%) as being pathogenic. SIGNIFICANCE: We concluded that the majority of neuropathology-associated variants reported to date do not have enough evidence to be classified as pathogenic. Interpretation of lesion-associated variants remains challenging, and application of current ACMG guidelines is recommended for interpretation and prediction.