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1.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600786

RESUMO

We previously identified five SNPs at four susceptibility loci for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in individuals of European ancestry through a large genome-wide association study (GWAS). To further elucidate genetic susceptibility to DLBCL, we sought to validate 2 loci at 3q13.33 and 3p24.1 that were suggestive in the original GWAS with additional genotyping. In the meta-analysis (5,662 cases and 9,237 controls) of the four original GWAS discovery scans and three replication studies, the 3q13.33 locus (rs9831894; minor allele frequency [MAF]=0.40) was associated with DLBCL risk (OR=0.83, P=3.62x10-13). rs9831894 is in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with additional variants that are part of a super-enhancer that physically interacts with promoters of CD86 and ILDR1. In the meta-analysis (5,510 cases and 12,817 controls) of the four GWAS discovery scans and four replication studies, the 3p24.1 locus (rs6773363; MAF=0.45) was also associated with DLBCL risk (OR=1.20, P=2.31x10-12). This SNP is 29,426 bp upstream of the nearest gene EOMES and in LD with additional SNPs that are part of a highly lineage-specific and tumor-acquired super-enhancer that shows long-range interaction with AZI2 promoter. These loci provide additional evidence for the role of immune function in the etiology of DLBCL, the most common lymphoma subtype.

2.
Gesundheitswesen ; 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614384

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the article was to describe the development of a training program to enhance the health literacy of patients with immunodeficiency. In addition, patient satisfaction and acceptance of the training will be evaluated. METHODS: Patients' needs were identified with a questionnaire (N=238). Additionally, interviews with clinical immunologists (N=5) and patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) (N=9) were conducted. On this basis, the authors developed a manual for the intervention. It focuses on active communication with physicians as well as health-related communication at the workplace. The evaluation of patient satisfaction with the intervention was based on a questionnaire (N=49). RESULTS: The results show that the ratings of the patients were in the good to very good range (M=1.77; SD=0.38). From the analysis of the free text, hints for training improvement could be derived. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of the intervention showed that the new training was accepted and patients considered it comprehensible and relevant.

3.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(7): 844-863, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407831

RESUMO

Epidemiologic studies show an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in patients with autoimmune disease (AD), due to a combination of shared environmental factors and/or genetic factors, or a causative cascade: chronic inflammation/antigen-stimulation in one disease leads to another. Here we assess shared genetic risk in genome-wide-association-studies (GWAS). Secondary analysis of GWAS of NHL subtypes (chronic lymphocytic leukemia, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and marginal zone lymphoma) and ADs (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis). Shared genetic risk was assessed by (a) description of regional genetic of overlap, (b) polygenic risk score (PRS), (c)"diseasome", (d)meta-analysis. Descriptive analysis revealed few shared genetic factors between each AD and each NHL subtype. The PRS of ADs were not increased in NHL patients (nor vice versa). In the diseasome, NHLs shared more genetic etiology with ADs than solid cancers (p = .0041). A meta-analysis (combing AD with NHL) implicated genes of apoptosis and telomere length. This GWAS-based analysis four NHL subtypes and three ADs revealed few weakly-associated shared loci, explaining little total risk. This suggests common genetic variation, as assessed by GWAS in these sample sizes, may not be the primary explanation for the link between these ADs and NHLs.

4.
BMC Med Genet ; 20(1): 128, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasingly, molecular measurements from multiple studies are pooled to identify risk scores, with only partial overlap of measurements available from different studies. Univariate analyses of such markers have routinely been performed in such settings using meta-analysis techniques in genome-wide association studies for identifying genetic risk scores. In contrast, multivariable techniques such as regularized regression, which might potentially be more powerful, are hampered by only partial overlap of available markers even when the pooling of individual level data is feasible for analysis. This cannot easily be addressed at a preprocessing level, as quality criteria in the different studies may result in differential availability of markers - even after imputation. METHODS: Motivated by data from the InterLymph Consortium on risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which exhibits these challenges, we adapted a regularized regression approach, componentwise boosting, for dealing with partial overlap in SNPs. This synthesis regression approach is combined with resampling to determine stable sets of single nucleotide polymorphisms, which could feed into a genetic risk score. The proposed approach is contrasted with univariate analyses, an application of the lasso, and with an analysis that discards studies causing the partial overlap. The question of statistical significance is faced with an approach called stability selection. RESULTS: Using an excerpt of the data from the InterLymph Consortium on two specific subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, it is shown that componentwise boosting can take into account all applicable information from different SNPs, irrespective of whether they are covered by all investigated studies and for all individuals in the single studies. The results indicate increased power, even when studies that would be discarded in a complete case analysis only comprise a small proportion of individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Given the observed gains in power, the proposed approach can be recommended more generally whenever there is only partial overlap of molecular measurements obtained from pooled studies and/or missing data in single studies. A corresponding software implementation is available upon request. TRIAL REGISTRATION: All involved studies have provided signed GWAS data submission certifications to the U.S. National Institute of Health and have been retrospectively registered.

5.
Sleep ; 42(8)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099836

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: The immune theory of sleep suggests an important role of sleep for a functioning immune system. Insomnia has been associated with heightened risk for infections. The aim of the study was to test whether psychophysiological insomnia (PI) is associated with subsequent respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in the context of an infection-diary-based cohort study. METHODS: We recruited 674 adults from a cross-sectional survey on airway infections into the airway infection susceptibility (AWIS) cohort and invited them to self-report in diaries incident RTIs experienced during 7097 months (mean of 11.9 months of completed infection diaries per individual). The Regensburg Insomnia Scale (RIS) was assessed at baseline to measure PI. As outcome, we considered an infection diary score summing up prospectively reported RTIs. RESULTS: The RIS score correlated significantly with the infection diary score summarizing reported RTIs (correlation coefficient = 0.265, p < 0.001). Adjustments by putative confounders did only marginally affect this relationship. No significant differences in the relationship between RIS score and diary score were found for subgroups including those by gender, body mass index, perceived stress, and comorbidity. People affected by a combination of high PI and obesity were eight times more likely to belong to the group reporting the highest 10% of RTIs compared to the nonobese group with low RIS score (p < 0.001). A high RIS score in men was associated with a higher neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, an indicator of inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the relevance of adequate sleep for an immune system ready to fight pathogens and prevent airway infections.

6.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903361

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic inflammation plays a critical role in lymphomagenesis and several dietary factors seem to be involved its regulation. The aim of the current study was to assess the association between the inflammatory potential of the diet and the risk of lymphoma and its subtypes in the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. METHODS: The analysis included 476,160 subjects with an average follow-up of 13.9 years, during which 3,136 lymphomas (135 Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), 2606 non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and 395 NOS) were identified. The dietary inflammatory potential was assessed by means of an inflammatory score of the diet (ISD), calculated using 28 dietary components and their corresponding inflammatory weights. The association between the ISD and lymphoma risk was estimated by hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) calculated by multivariable Cox regression models adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: The ISD was not associated with overall lymphoma risk. Among lymphoma subtypes, a positive association between the ISD and mature B-cell NHL (HR for a 1-SD increase: 1.07 (95% CI 1.01; 1.14), p trend = 0.03) was observed. No statistically significant association was found among other subtypes. However, albeit with smaller number of cases, a suggestive association was observed for HL (HR for a 1-SD increase = 1.22 (95% CI 0.94; 1.57), p trend 0.13). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that a high ISD score, reflecting a pro-inflammatory diet, was modestly positively associated with the risk of B-cell lymphoma subtypes. Further large prospective studies on low-grade inflammation induced by diet are warranted to confirm these findings.

7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 10, 2019 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621626

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed at assessing the prevalence and determinants of vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] < 20 ng/mL) in pregnant women in the first trimester living in Switzerland. METHODS: From September 2014 through December 2015, 204 pregnant women were conveniently recruited during their first clinical appointment at the Clinic of Obstetrics of the University Hospital Zurich (between week 6 and 12 of pregnancy). Blood samples were collected and a questionnaire focusing on lifestyle and skin colour was completed face-to-face with the responsible physician. Logistic regression analyses were performed with vitamin D status as dependent variable. RESULTS: 63.2% of the participating women were vitamin D deficient, and the median vitamin D concentration in the overall sample was 17.1 ng/mL [Q1, Q3: 9.78, 22.3]. The highest proportions of vitamin D deficiency were detected in women originating from Africa and Middle East (91.4% deficient, median vitamin D concentration of 10.7 ng/mL [Q1, Q3: 6.55, 14.45]) and from South-East Asia/Pacific (88.5% deficient, median vitamin D concentration of 8.4 ng/mL [Q1, Q3: 6.10, 14.88]). Multivariable logistic regression showed that significant risk factors of vitamin D deficiency were country of origin (women born in Switzerland and Germany had a lower risk than women born in other countries), smoking status (lower risk for former smokers) and intake of vitamin D supplements. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in this Swiss cohort, in particular in women coming from Asian and African countries, and underline the importance of appropriate counseling and vitamin D supplementation in early pregnancy.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adulto , África/etnologia , Ásia Sudeste/etnologia , Feminino , Alemanha/etnologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Oriente Médio/etnologia , Análise Multivariada , Estado Nutricional , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etnologia , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/etnologia , Gestantes , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Suíça/epidemiologia , Suíça/etnologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/etnologia
8.
Int J Cancer ; 145(1): 122-131, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30588620

RESUMO

There is a growing evidence of the protective role of the Mediterranean diet (MD) on cancer. However, no prospective study has yet investigated its influence on lymphoma. We evaluated the association between adherence to the MD and risk of lymphoma and its subtypes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The analysis included 476,160 participants, recruited from 10 European countries between 1991 and 2001. Adherence to the MD was estimated through the adapted relative MD (arMED) score excluding alcohol. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used while adjusting for potential confounders. During an average follow-up of 13.9 years, 3,136 lymphomas (135 Hodgkin lymphoma [HL], 2,606 non-HL and 395 lymphoma not otherwise specified) were identified. Overall, a 1-unit increase in the arMED score was associated with a 2% lower risk of lymphoma (95% CI: 0.97; 1.00, p-trend = 0.03) while a statistically nonsignificant inverse association between a high versus low arMED score and risk of lymphoma was observed (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.91 [95% CI 0.80; 1.03], p-trend = 0.12). Analyses by lymphoma subtype did not reveal any statistically significant associations. Albeit with small numbers of cases (N = 135), a suggestive inverse association was found for HL (HR 1-unit increase = 0.93 [95% CI: 0.86; 1.01], p-trend = 0.07). However, the study may have lacked statistical power to detect small effect sizes for lymphoma subtype. Our findings suggest that an increasing arMED score was inversely related to the risk of overall lymphoma in EPIC but not by subtypes. Further large prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Linfoma/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco
9.
Environ Res ; 169: 417-433, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30529143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of biomarkers of environmental exposure to explore new risk factors for pancreatic cancer presents clinical, logistic, and methodological challenges that are also relevant in research on other complex diseases. OBJECTIVES: First, to summarize the main design features of a prospective case-control study -nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort- on plasma concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and pancreatic cancer risk. And second, to assess the main methodological challenges posed by associations among characteristics and habits of study participants, fasting status, time from blood draw to cancer diagnosis, disease progression bias, basis of cancer diagnosis, and plasma concentrations of lipids and POPs. Results from etiologic analyses on POPs and pancreatic cancer risk, and other analyses, will be reported in future articles. METHODS: Study subjects were 1533 participants (513 cases and 1020 controls matched by study centre, sex, age at blood collection, date and time of blood collection, and fasting status) enrolled between 1992 and 2000. Plasma concentrations of 22 POPs were measured by gas chromatography - triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). To estimate the magnitude of the associations we calculated multivariate-adjusted odds ratios by unconditional logistic regression, and adjusted geometric means by General Linear Regression Models. RESULTS: There were differences among countries in subjects' characteristics (as age, gender, smoking, lipid and POP concentrations), and in study characteristics (as time from blood collection to index date, year of last follow-up, length of follow-up, basis of cancer diagnosis, and fasting status). Adjusting for centre and time of blood collection, no factors were significantly associated with fasting status. Plasma concentrations of lipids were related to age, body mass index, fasting, country, and smoking. We detected and quantified 16 of the 22 POPs in more than 90% of individuals. All 22 POPs were detected in some participants, and the smallest number of POPs detected in one person was 15 (median, 19) with few differences by country. The highest concentrations were found for p,p'-DDE, PCBs 153 and 180 (median concentration: 3371, 1023, and 810 pg/mL, respectively). We assessed the possible occurrence of disease progression bias (DPB) in eight situations defined by lipid and POP measurements, on one hand, and by four factors: interval from blood draw to index date, tumour subsite, tumour stage, and grade of differentiation, on the other. In seven of the eight situations results supported the absence of DPB. CONCLUSIONS: The coexistence of differences across study centres in some design features and participant characteristics is of relevance to other multicentre studies. Relationships among subjects' characteristics and among such characteristics and design features may play important roles in the forthcoming analyses on the association between plasma concentrations of POPs and pancreatic cancer risk.

10.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30481275

RESUMO

The role of hormonal factors in lymphoid neoplasms etiology remains unclear. Previous studies have yielded conflicting results, been underpowered to assess many lymphoma subtypes, or lacked detailed information on relevant exposures. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, we analyzed comprehensive data collected at baseline (1992-2000) on reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use among 343,458 women, including 1,427 incident B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) and its major subtypes identified after a mean follow-up of 14 years (through 2015). We estimated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals using multivariable proportional hazards modeling. Overall, we observed no statistically significant associations between parity, age at first birth, breastfeeding, oral contraceptive use or ever use of postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of B-cell NHL or its subtypes. Women who had a surgical menopause had a 51% higher risk of B-cell NHL (based on 67 cases) compared with natural menopause (hazard ratio=1.51, 95% confidence interval=1.17, 1.94). Given that this result may be due to chance, our results provide little support for the hypothesis that sex hormones play a role in lymphomagenesis.

11.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4182, 2018 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30305637

RESUMO

Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM)/lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL) is a rare, chronic B-cell lymphoma with high heritability. We conduct a two-stage genome-wide association study of WM/LPL in 530 unrelated cases and 4362 controls of European ancestry and identify two high-risk loci associated with WM/LPL at 6p25.3 (rs116446171, near EXOC2 and IRF4; OR = 21.14, 95% CI: 14.40-31.03, P = 1.36 × 10-54) and 14q32.13 (rs117410836, near TCL1; OR = 4.90, 95% CI: 3.45-6.96, P = 8.75 × 10-19). Both risk alleles are observed at a low frequency among controls (~2-3%) and occur in excess in affected cases within families. In silico data suggest that rs116446171 may have functional importance, and in functional studies, we demonstrate increased reporter transcription and proliferation in cells transduced with the 6p25.3 risk allele. Although further studies are needed to fully elucidate underlying biological mechanisms, together these loci explain 4% of the familial risk and provide insights into genetic susceptibility to this malignancy.

12.
Cancer Res ; 78(14): 4086-4096, 2018 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29735552

RESUMO

A growing number of loci within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region have been implicated in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) etiology. Here, we test a complementary hypothesis of "heterozygote advantage" regarding the role of HLA and NHL, whereby HLA diversity is beneficial and homozygous HLA loci are associated with increased disease risk. HLA alleles at class I and II loci were imputed from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using SNP2HLA for 3,617 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL), 2,686 follicular lymphomas (FL), 2,878 chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphomas (CLL/SLL), 741 marginal zone lymphomas (MZL), and 8,753 controls of European descent. Both DLBCL and MZL risk were elevated with homozygosity at class I HLA-B and -C loci (OR DLBCL = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.06-1.60; OR MZL = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.12-1.89) and class II HLA-DRB1 locus (OR DLBCL = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.24-3.55; OR MZL = 2.10, 95% CI = 0.99-4.45). Increased FL risk was observed with the overall increase in number of homozygous HLA class II loci (P trend < 0.0001, FDR = 0.0005). These results support a role for HLA zygosity in NHL etiology and suggests that distinct immune pathways may underly the etiology of the different NHL subtypes.Significance: HLA gene diversity reduces risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer Res; 78(14); 4086-96. ©2018 AACR.

13.
Blood ; 131(23): 2541-2551, 2018 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29674426

RESUMO

Inherited loci have been found to be associated with risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). A combined polygenic risk score (PRS) of representative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from these loci may improve risk prediction over individual SNPs. Herein, we evaluated the association of a PRS with CLL risk and its precursor, monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL). We assessed its validity and discriminative ability in an independent sample and evaluated effect modification and confounding by family history (FH) of hematological cancers. For discovery, we pooled genotype data on 41 representative SNPs from 1499 CLL and 2459 controls from the InterLymph Consortium. For validation, we used data from 1267 controls from Mayo Clinic and 201 CLL, 95 MBL, and 144 controls with a FH of CLL from the Genetic Epidemiology of CLL Consortium. We used odds ratios (ORs) to estimate disease associations with PRS and c-statistics to assess discriminatory accuracy. In InterLymph, the continuous PRS was strongly associated with CLL risk (OR, 2.49; P = 4.4 × 10-94). We replicated these findings in the Genetic Epidemiology of CLL Consortium and Mayo controls (OR, 3.02; P = 7.8 × 10-30) and observed high discrimination (c-statistic = 0.78). When jointly modeled with FH, PRS retained its significance, along with FH status. Finally, we found a highly significant association of the continuous PRS with MBL risk (OR, 2.81; P = 9.8 × 10-16). In conclusion, our validated PRS was strongly associated with CLL risk, adding information beyond FH. The PRS provides a means of identifying those individuals at greater risk for CLL as well as those at increased risk of MBL, a condition that has potential clinical impact beyond CLL.

14.
Front Immunol ; 9: 543, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29599784

RESUMO

Activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) δ Syndrome (APDS), caused by autosomal dominant mutations in PIK3CD (APDS1) or PIK3R1 (APDS2), is a heterogeneous primary immunodeficiency. While initial cohort-descriptions summarized the spectrum of clinical and immunological manifestations, questions about long-term disease evolution and response to therapy remain. The prospective European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID)-APDS registry aims to characterize the disease course, identify outcome predictors, and evaluate treatment responses. So far, 77 patients have been recruited (51 APDS1, 26 APDS2). Analysis of disease evolution in the first 68 patients pinpoints the early occurrence of recurrent respiratory infections followed by chronic lymphoproliferation, gastrointestinal manifestations, and cytopenias. Although most manifestations occur by age 15, adult-onset and asymptomatic courses were documented. Bronchiectasis was observed in 24/40 APDS1 patients who received a CT-scan compared with 4/15 APDS2 patients. By age 20, half of the patients had received at least one immunosuppressant, but 2-3 lines of immunosuppressive therapy were not unusual before age 10. Response to rapamycin was rated by physician visual analog scale as good in 10, moderate in 9, and poor in 7. Lymphoproliferation showed the best response (8 complete, 11 partial, 6 no remission), while bowel inflammation (3 complete, 3 partial, 9 no remission) and cytopenia (3 complete, 2 partial, 9 no remission) responded less well. Hence, non-lymphoproliferative manifestations should be a key target for novel therapies. This report from the ESID-APDS registry provides comprehensive baseline documentation for a growing cohort that will be followed prospectively to establish prognostic factors and identify patients for treatment studies.

15.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 271, 2018 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29458350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are a major morbidity factor contributing largely to health care costs and individual quality of life. The aim of the study was to test whether obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) is one of the risk factors underlying frequent RTIs in the German adult population. METHODS: We recruited 1455 individuals between 18 to 70 years from a cross-sectional survey on airway infections in Germany and invited them to self-report in diaries incident RTIs experienced during three consecutive winter/spring seasons. RTIs reported in these 18 months and summary measures adding-up individual RTIs were the outcomes of interest. RESULTS: Compared to individuals with normal weight, obese individuals reported a consistently higher frequency of upper and lower RTIs and predominantly fell in the upper 10% group of a diary sumscore adding-up 10 different RTI symptoms over time. Obesity was associated both with lower RTIs (adjustedOR = 2.02, 95%CI = 1.36-3.00) and upper RTIs (adjustedOR = 1.55, 95%CI = 1.22-1.96). Adjusting for demographic and lifestyle variables did only marginally affect ORs. Stratified analyses suggested a stronger association for women and effect modifications by sports activity and dietary habits. CONCLUSIONS: We confirm the association of obesity with infection burden and present evidence for putative interaction with sports activity and dietary patterns.


Assuntos
Obesidade/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
16.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 1855, 2017 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28500287

RESUMO

We examined acceptability, preference and feasibility of collecting nasal and oropharyngeal swabs, followed by microbiome analysis, in a population-based study with 524 participants. Anterior nasal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected by certified personnel. In addition, participants self-collected nasal swabs at home four weeks later. Four swab types were compared regarding (1) participants' satisfaction and acceptance and (2) detection of microbial community structures based on deep sequencing of the 16 S rRNA gene V1-V2 variable regions. All swabbing methods were highly accepted. Microbial community structure analysis revealed 846 phylotypes, 46 of which were unique to oropharynx and 164 unique to nares. The calcium alginate tipped swab was found unsuitable for microbiome determinations. Among the remaining three swab types, there were no differences in oropharyngeal microbiomes detected and only marginal differences in nasal microbiomes. Microbial community structures did not differ between staff-collected and self-collected nasal swabs. These results suggest (1) that nasal and oropharyngeal swabbing are highly feasible methods for human population-based studies that include the characterization of microbial community structures in these important ecological niches, and (2) that self-collection of nasal swabs at home can be used to reduce cost and resources needed, particularly when serial measurements are to be taken.

17.
BMC Pediatr ; 17(1): 65, 2017 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28253869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute lower respiratory tract infection is the commonest disease affecting children under five worldwide. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is among the most common causative pathogens. Epidemiological data suggest an association between severe viral respiratory infections in infancy and increased incidence of childhood wheeze and asthma. DNA methylation is involved in immune cell differentiation and identity. It provides an avenue for environmental influences on the genome and therefore has potential as a marker for sustained effects of infectious insults. In this study we investigated the association between DNA methylation patterns in the perforin gene (PRF1) in childhood and a history of hospitalisation for severe RSV disease in the first two years of life. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we explored patterns of whole blood DNA methylation at a methylation sensitive region of the proximal PRF1 enhancer in a group of children with a record of hospitalisation for severe RSV disease during infancy (n = 43) compared to healthy controls matched for age and sex with no similar hospitalisation history, no allergy and no persistent wheeze (n = 43). Univariate and bivariate conditional logistic regression analyses were conducted to test the association between PRF1 enhancer methylation and record of hospitalisation for RSV disease. RESULTS: Children with a record of hospitalisation for severe RSV bronchiolitis demonstrated markedly lower levels of DNA methylation at two cytosine-phosphate-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) loci of the PRF1 proximal enhancer, corresponding to a signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) responsive element, compared to controls, adjusted odds ratios of 0.82 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71, 0.94) and 0.73 (95% CI 0.58, 0.92) for each 1% increase in DNA methylation. Smoking in the household showed a significant influence on DNA methylation at the assayed positions. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support an association between childhood DNA methylation patterns in PRF1 and a record of severe RSV infection in infancy. Longitudinal studies are required to establish the utility of PRF1 methylation as a marker of severe RSV disease.


Assuntos
Bronquiolite Viral/genética , Metilação de DNA , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Perforina/genética , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
Nat Commun ; 8: 14175, 2017 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28165464

RESUMO

Several chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) susceptibility loci have been reported; however, much of the heritable risk remains unidentified. Here we perform a meta-analysis of six genome-wide association studies, imputed using a merged reference panel of 1,000 Genomes and UK10K data, totalling 6,200 cases and 17,598 controls after replication. We identify nine risk loci at 1p36.11 (rs34676223, P=5.04 × 10-13), 1q42.13 (rs41271473, P=1.06 × 10-10), 4q24 (rs71597109, P=1.37 × 10-10), 4q35.1 (rs57214277, P=3.69 × 10-8), 6p21.31 (rs3800461, P=1.97 × 10-8), 11q23.2 (rs61904987, P=2.64 × 10-11), 18q21.1 (rs1036935, P=3.27 × 10-8), 19p13.3 (rs7254272, P=4.67 × 10-8) and 22q13.33 (rs140522, P=2.70 × 10-9). These new and established risk loci map to areas of active chromatin and show an over-representation of transcription factor binding for the key determinants of B-cell development and immune response.


Assuntos
Formação de Anticorpos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Adulto , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(6): 876-885, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28223430

RESUMO

Background: Multiple myeloma risk increases with higher adult body mass index (BMI). Emerging evidence also supports an association of young adult BMI with multiple myeloma. We undertook a pooled analysis of eight case-control studies to further evaluate anthropometric multiple myeloma risk factors, including young adult BMI.Methods: We conducted multivariable logistic regression analysis of usual adult anthropometric measures of 2,318 multiple myeloma cases and 9,609 controls, and of young adult BMI (age 25 or 30 years) for 1,164 cases and 3,629 controls.Results: In the pooled sample, multiple myeloma risk was positively associated with usual adult BMI; risk increased 9% per 5-kg/m2 increase in BMI [OR, 1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-1.14; P = 0.007]. We observed significant heterogeneity by study design (P = 0.04), noting the BMI-multiple myeloma association only for population-based studies (Ptrend = 0.0003). Young adult BMI was also positively associated with multiple myeloma (per 5-kg/m2; OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.3; P = 0.0002). Furthermore, we observed strong evidence of interaction between younger and usual adult BMI (Pinteraction <0.0001); we noted statistically significant associations with multiple myeloma for persons overweight (25-<30 kg/m2) or obese (30+ kg/m2) in both younger and usual adulthood (vs. individuals consistently <25 kg/m2), but not for those overweight or obese at only one time period.Conclusions: BMI-associated increases in multiple myeloma risk were highest for individuals who were overweight or obese throughout adulthood.Impact: These findings provide the strongest evidence to date that earlier and later adult BMI may increase multiple myeloma risk and suggest that healthy BMI maintenance throughout life may confer an added benefit of multiple myeloma prevention. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(6); 876-85. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Mieloma Múltiplo/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Fatores de Risco
20.
Int J Cancer ; 140(5): 1111-1118, 2017 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27870006

RESUMO

Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I has cancer promoting activities. However, the hypothesis that circulating IGF-I concentration is related to risk of lymphoma overall or its subtypes has not been examined prospectively. IGF-I concentration was measured in pre-diagnostic plasma samples from a nested case-control study of 1,072 cases of lymphoid malignancies and 1,072 individually matched controls from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) for lymphoma were calculated using conditional logistic regression. IGF-I concentration was not associated with overall lymphoma risk (multivariable-adjusted OR for highest versus lowest third = 0.77 [95% CI = 0.57-1.03], ptrend = 0.06). There was no statistical evidence of heterogeneity in this association with IGF-I by sex, age at blood collection, time between blood collection and diagnosis, age at diagnosis, or body mass index (pheterogeneity for all ≥ 0.05). There were no associations between IGF-I concentration and risk for specific BCL subtypes, T-cell lymphoma or Hodgkin lymphoma, although number of cases were small. In this European population, IGF-I concentration was not associated with risk of overall lymphoma. This study provides the first prospective evidence on circulating IGF-I concentrations and risk of lymphoma. Further prospective data are required to examine associations of IGF-I concentrations with lymphoma subtypes.


Assuntos
Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Linfoma/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Linfoma/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Razão de Chances , Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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