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1.
Transpl Infect Dis ; : e13591, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655691

RESUMO

Solid organ transplant recipients have a higher risk of active Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (TB) compared to the general population. Recognized risk factors are immunosuppressant use, graft dysfunction, diabetes mellitus, liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus, and co-infections by other opportunists. Most of the active TB cases reported in solid organ transplant recipients occur in kidney transplant patients, especially if they come from M tuberculosis-endemic areas. Extrapulmonary and disseminated TB are among the wide spectrum of clinical presentations found, but the lungs are the most common organ affected. Disseminated disease occurs in up to a third of the affected population, however, multifocal osteoarticular TB with mycobacteremia is unusual. We report the case of a kidney transplant patient with disseminated M tuberculosis infection, who presented with multifocal skeletal TB.

2.
J Bras Nefrol ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527977

RESUMO

BK virus nephropathy in kidney transplantation is widely recognized as an important cause of graft dysfunction and loss. In the case of transplants of organs other than kidney, BK virus nephropathy in native kidneys has been recognized as a cause of chronic kidney disease, which is related with immunosuppression; however, the diagnosis is usually late because the renal dysfunction is attributed to other causes, such as toxicity by anticalcineurinic drugs, interstitial nephritis due to medications, hemodynamic changes, diabetes, hypertension, etc. We report a case of BK virus nephropathy in a patient who underwent heart transplantation due to peripartum cardiomyopathy. The kidney biopsy reported active chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with late stage polyomavirus nephritis and the blood viral load for BK virus was positive (logarithm 4.5). The immunosuppressive treatment was reduced, and after two years of follow-up, the patient had stable renal function with a serum creatinine of 2.5 mg/dL (GFR of 23.4 mL/min/1.73m2). We recommend that the BK virus be considered as a cause of renal dysfunction in heart transplant recipients, with the aim of detecting its replication in time to reduce immunosuppressive therapy before irreversible compromise of renal function may manifest.

3.
Iatreia ; 33(4): 360-369, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143088

RESUMO

RESUMEN La tuberculosis es una enfermedad infecciosa y frecuente en países en vía de desarrollo. Esta puede causar una amplia variedad de complicaciones y presentaciones atípicas con alta morbimortalidad. De la forma genitourinaria se sospechada muy poco, razón por la cual su diagnóstico se hace, usualmente, de forma tardía o no se realiza. Esto conlleva a consecuencias muy graves en los pacientes, por ejemplo, la enfermedad renal crónica terminal. A continuación, se presenta un reporte de caso de una paciente con la anterior enfermedad, secundaria a una tuberculosis renal bilateral diagnosticada tardíamente y se realiza una revisión de la literatura sobre este tema.


SUMMARY Tuberculosis is a common infectious disease in developing countries, which can cause a variety of complications and atypical manifestations with high morbidity and mortality. The urogenital form is rarely suspected, resulting in delayed diagnosis or even no diagnosis, which can have serious consequences for the patients, such as chronic end-stage renal disease. We report on a patient with chronic end-stage renal failure caused by a delayed diagnosis of bilateral renal tuberculosis and a literature review on this topic.


Assuntos
Humanos , Tuberculose Urogenital , Falência Renal Crônica
5.
J Bras Nefrol ; 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179720

RESUMO

Thrombotic microangiopathies are disorders characterized by nonimmune microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and multi-systemic failure. They are classified as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome, and typical hemolytic uremic syndrome. The latter is associated with intestinal infections by Shiga toxin-producing bacteria. Typical hemolytic uremic syndrome in adults is an extremely rare condition, characterized by high morbidity and mortality. It has been seldom described in solid organ transplant recipients. Here is presented the case of a kidney transplant recipient who had typical hemolytic uremic syndrome with multisystem commitment, refractory to management and with a fatal outcome.

6.
J Bras Nefrol ; 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779691

RESUMO

Primary atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome is a rare disease characterized by non-immune microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal dysfunction; it is related to alterations in the regulation of the alternative pathway of complement due to genetic mutations. The association with nephrotic syndrome is unusual. We present here a pediatric patient diagnosed with primary atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome associated with nephrotic syndrome who responded to eculizumab treatment.

7.
Acta méd. colomb ; 45(1): 37-39, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124068

RESUMO

Abstract Renal crisis is a complication with significant morbidity and mortality in scleroderma patients and a rare entity in kidney transplantation. It may present with highly variable clinical manifestations, mainly arterial hypertension, acute kidney failure and multisystemic involvement. Following is the report of a patient with late reoccurrence of scleroderma crisis in kidney transplantation, who was given successful treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.(Acta Med Colomb 2020; 45. DOI:https://doi.org/10.36104/amc.2020.1215).


Resumen La crisis renal es una complicación con importante morbilidad y mortalidad en pacientes con esclerodermia y una rara entidad en trasplante renal, que se puede presentar con manifestaciones clínicas muy variables, principalmente hipertensión arterial, falla renal aguda y compromiso multisistémico. A continuación se reporta el caso de una paciente con recurrencia tardía de la crisis esclerodérmica en el trasplante renal, que recibió tratamiento exitoso con inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina.(Acta Med Colomb 2020; 45. DOI:https://doi.org/10.36104/amc.2020.1215).

8.
Iatreia ; 33(2): 155-166, 20200000. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1114787

RESUMO

RESUMEN La nefritis tubulointersticial aguda hace referencia a un tipo de daño renal que afecta principalmente el intersticio y ocasiona la lesión renal aguda, potencialmente reversible. Su curso puede ser subclínico, con deterioro progresivo hasta evolucionar hacia la insuficiencia renal crónica. La nefritis tubulointersticial aguda tiene múltiples etiologías, las más frecuentes son los medicamentos, productos herbales, las infecciones y las enfermedades autoinmunes. Las principales manifestaciones clínicas son la poliuria, polaquiuria, nocturia, dolor lumbar, microhematuria y leucocituria, aunque puede ser totalmente asintomática. El tratamiento depende de la causa de base y los esteroides juegan un papel importante cuando la condición es de origen medicamentoso o autoinmune. El pronóstico generalmente es bueno, si el problema se identifica de forma oportuna y se trata adecuadamente.


SUMMARY Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis is a kidney lesion that mainly affects the interstitium and can lead to a reversible acute kidney injury. It can progress subclinically, with progressive development towards chronic renal failure. Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis has several causes, being the most common medications, herbal products, infections and autoimmune diseases. The main clinical manifestations are polyuria, polaquiuria, nycturia, lumbar pain, microhematuria, leukocyturia, although the patients also can be completely asymptomatic. Treatment is determined by the underlying cause. Steroids play an important role when tubulointerstitial nephritis is caused by medication or autoimmune diseases. The prognosis is usually good if the problem is detected early and treated properly.


Assuntos
Humanos , Nefrite Intersticial , Insuficiência Renal , Lesão Renal Aguda
9.
Iatreia ; 32(4): 311-320, oct.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056311

RESUMO

RESUMEN La linfohistiocitosis hemofagocítica (LHH) posterior al trasplante renal hace referencia a un estado hiperinflamatorio grave, asociado a la activación no controlada de los linfocitos T citotóxicos y macrófagos por causa infecciosas y/o secundaria al tratamiento inmunosupresor. Las causas más prevalentes dentro de las infecciones son la histoplasmosis, la tuberculosis y las infecciones por virus herpes. Se caracteriza por fiebre, organomegalias, citopenias, hiperferritinemia, hipertrigliceridemia y/o hipofibrinogenemia; puede acompañarse con hemofagocitosis documentada en la médula ósea, el hígado u otros órganos. Su curso puede ser fulminante con progresión a falla multisistémica y la muerte. El tratamiento va enfocado a controlar tempranamente la causa desencadenante, reducir la inmunosupresión y controlar la inflamación. En pocos casos es necesario el uso de otros inmunosupresores, quimioterapia o, en situaciones muy seleccionadas, se puede requerir el trasplante de médula ósea.


SUMMARY Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in renal transplant recipients is a life-threatening hyper-inflammatory syndrome; associated with uncontrolled activation of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and macrophages due to infections or immunosuppressive therapy. Histoplasmosis, tuberculosis and herpes virus infection are among the leading infectious causes. It is characterized by fever, organomegaly, cytopenia, hyperferritinemia, hypertrigiceridemia and/or hypofibrinogenemia; which may be accompanied by hemophagocytosis in bone marrow, liver or other organs. HLH can follow a rapidly fatal course, with progression to multisystemic failure and death. The treatment is based on early control of the triggering cause, reducing immunosuppression and stop the inflammatory process. In some cases, is necessary to use other immunosuppressant, chemotherapy and in a very few cases, a bone marrow transplant may be required.


Assuntos
Humanos , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos , Transplante de Rim , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica
10.
Biomedica ; 39(Supl. 2): 20-25, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529830

RESUMO

Cerebral feohifomycosis are severe infections caused by dematiaceous fungi. Cladophialophora bantiana is one of the most commonly isolated species; it has central nervous system tropism and it often manifests as a brain abscess in immunocompetent patients. In immunocompromised patients, it can lead to brain abscesses and disseminated infections. Despite the availability of broad-spectrum antifungal drugs, it is a must to perform surgical management, in addition to drug therapy. However, mortality is high. The diagnostic approach must be invasive to establish a timely diagnosis and direct treatment based on culture and susceptibility tests. We report a case of brain abscess caused by C. bantiana in an immunosuppressed patient who was treated with surgical resection and voriconazole with an adequate response to therapy and without neurological sequels.


Assuntos
Abscesso Encefálico/microbiologia , Feoifomicose Cerebral/microbiologia , Transplante de Rim , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/microbiologia , Saccharomycetales/isolamento & purificação , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Abscesso Encefálico/tratamento farmacológico , Abscesso Encefálico/etiologia , Abscesso Encefálico/cirurgia , Feoifomicose Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Feoifomicose Cerebral/etiologia , Feoifomicose Cerebral/cirurgia , Terapia Combinada , Craniotomia , Rejeição de Enxerto/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hiperoxalúria Primária/complicações , Hiperoxalúria Primária/diagnóstico , Hiperoxalúria Primária/genética , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrolitíase/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Recidiva , Diálise Renal
11.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(3): 427-432, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040255

RESUMO

Abstract Methotrexate is an effective medication to control several diseases; however, it can be very toxic, being myelosuppression one of its main adverse effects, which increases in severity and frequency in patients with renal failure. We present the case of a 68-year-old man with chronic, end-stage renal disease associated with ANCA vasculitis, under treatment with peritoneal dialysis, who received the medication at a low dose, indicated by disease activity, which presented as a complication with severe pancytopenia with mucositis that improved with support measures and multiple-exchange peritoneal dialysis. We reviewed 20 cases published to date of pancytopenia associated with methotrexate in patients on dialysis and found high morbidity and mortality, which is why its use in this type of patient is not recommended. However, when this complication occurs, a therapeutic option could be the use of multiple-exchange peritoneal dialysis in addition to supportive therapy for drug-related toxicity, although it is recognized that studies are required to show the role of multiple-exchange peritoneal dialysis in the removal of this medication.


Resumo Apesar de sua toxicidade, o metotrexato é um medicamento eficaz no controle de várias doenças. A mielossupressão, um de seus principais efeitos adversos, aumenta em gravidade e frequência nos pacientes com insuficiência renal. Apresentamos o caso de um homem de 68 anos de idade com doença renal terminal relacionada à vasculite associada ao ANCA em diálise peritoneal, que recebeu a medicação em dose baixa em função da atividade da doença e que teve como complicação pancitopenia grave com mucosite, tratada com medidas de suporte e diálise peritoneal com múltiplas trocas. Revisamos 20 casos publicados até o presente momento sobre pancitopenia associada a metotrexato em pacientes em diálise. Foi identificada alta morbidade e mortalidade, razão pela qual seu uso nesse tipo de paciente não é recomendado. No entanto, quando esta complicação ocorre, uma opção terapêutica pode ser o uso de diálise peritoneal com múltiplas trocas, além da terapia de suporte para toxicidade medicamentosa. Maiores estudos são necessários para demonstrar o papel da diálise peritoneal com múltiplas trocas na remoção desse medicamento.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Vasculite/tratamento farmacológico , Metotrexato/efeitos adversos , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Diálise Peritoneal/métodos , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/uso terapêutico , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Pancitopenia/etiologia , Pancitopenia/terapia , Choque Séptico/etiologia , Choque Séptico/tratamento farmacológico , Metotrexato/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento , Mucosite/etiologia , Mucosite/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/sangue , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
12.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(supl.2): 20-25, ago. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038824

RESUMO

Resumen Las feohifomicosis cerebrales son infecciones graves causadas por mohos dematiáceos, entre los cuales Cladophialophora bantiana es una de las especies más comúnmente aislada. Esta tiene tropismo por el sistema nervioso central y frecuentemente produce abscesos cerebrales en pacientes inmunocompetentes; además, en los inmunocomprometidos también puede ocasionar infección diseminada. Pese a la disponibilidad de medicamentos antifúngicos de amplio espectro, a menudo se requiere también la intervención quirúrgica; de todas maneras, la mortalidad es elevada. El diagnóstico debe hacerse interviniendo para tomar la muestra y hacer el cultivo y las pruebas de sensibilidad. Se presenta aquí el caso de un paciente con trasplante renal que presentó un absceso cerebral por C. bantiana, el cual se extrajo mediante resección quirúrgica. El paciente recibió tratamiento con voriconazol, con adecuada respuesta, mejoría y sin secuelas neurológicas.


Abstract Cerebral feohifomycosis are severe infections caused by dematiaceous fungi. Cladophialophora bantiana is one of the most commonly isolated species; it has central nervous system tropism and it often manifests as a brain abscess in immunocompetent patients. In immunocompromised patients, it can lead to brain abscesses and disseminated infections. Despite the availability of broad-spectrum antifungal drugs, it is a must to perform surgical management, in addition to drug therapy. However, mortality is high. The diagnostic approach must be invasive to establish a timely diagnosis and direct treatment based on culture and susceptibility tests. We report a case of brain abscess caused by C. bantiana in an immunosuppressed patient who was treated with surgical resection and voriconazole with an adequate response to therapy and without neurological sequels.

13.
J Bras Nefrol ; 41(3): 427-432, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30281061

RESUMO

Methotrexate is an effective medication to control several diseases; however, it can be very toxic, being myelosuppression one of its main adverse effects, which increases in severity and frequency in patients with renal failure. We present the case of a 68-year-old man with chronic, end-stage renal disease associated with ANCA vasculitis, under treatment with peritoneal dialysis, who received the medication at a low dose, indicated by disease activity, which presented as a complication with severe pancytopenia with mucositis that improved with support measures and multiple-exchange peritoneal dialysis. We reviewed 20 cases published to date of pancytopenia associated with methotrexate in patients on dialysis and found high morbidity and mortality, which is why its use in this type of patient is not recommended. However, when this complication occurs, a therapeutic option could be the use of multiple-exchange peritoneal dialysis in addition to supportive therapy for drug-related toxicity, although it is recognized that studies are required to show the role of multiple-exchange peritoneal dialysis in the removal of this medication.


Assuntos
Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/uso terapêutico , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Metotrexato/efeitos adversos , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Diálise Peritoneal/métodos , Vasculite/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Metotrexato/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucosite/tratamento farmacológico , Mucosite/etiologia , Pancitopenia/etiologia , Pancitopenia/terapia , Choque Séptico/tratamento farmacológico , Choque Séptico/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Iatreia ; 31(3): 300-304, jul.-set. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-975481

RESUMO

RESUMEN El compromiso neurológico del sistema nervioso central (SNC) en las vasculitis asociadas a anticuerpos anticitoplasma de neutrófilos (ANCAS, del inglés anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies) es raro y potencialmente catastrófico. El estándar de tratamiento ha sido la ciclofosfamida con pulsos de esteroides, sin embargo, este esquema no tiene evidencia fuerte para el compromiso del sistema nervioso central y no está exento de efectos adversos graves sobre todo en la población anciana. En los últimos años, ha aparecido el rituximab como terapia alternativa a la ciclofosfamida para inducir la remisión en este tipo de vasculitis, no obstante, su uso con compromiso neurológico grave también ha sido anecdótico. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 84 años de edad con poliangeítis microscópica y compromiso neurológico y renal grave, tratada con rituximab evolucionando favorablemente alcanzando la remisión de la enfermedad.


SUMMARY The neurological involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) in vasculitis associated with ANCAS is rare and potentially catastrophic. The standard treatment is cyclophosphamide with pulses of steroids; however, this scheme has no strong evidence for central nervous system involvement and is not free of serious adverse effects especially in the elderly population. In recent year's rituximab has appeared as an alternative therapy to cyclophosphamide to induce remission in this type of vasculitis, however its use with severe neurological involvement has also been anecdotal. We present the case of 84-year-old patient who presented a microscopic polyangiitis with severe neurological and renal involvement, treated with rituximab with a favorable evolution in reaching remission of the disease.


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sistema Nervoso Central , Poliangiite Microscópica
15.
Nefrología (Madrid) ; 38(4): 433-437, jul.-ago. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-177523

RESUMO

El síndrome hemolítico urémico atípico es una enfermedad relacionada con alteración en la regulación del complemento que generalmente evoluciona a enfermedad renal crónica terminal, con alta tasa de recaída en el trasplante renal y elevado riesgo de pérdida del injerto. La terapia anticomplemento ha mejorado el pronóstico de estos pacientes, logrando tener remisión de la enfermedad en la mayoría de los casos, aumentando la posibilidad de un trasplante renal exitoso e incrementando la supervivencia del paciente y del injerto; igualmente el uso de medicamentos con bajo riesgo de inducción de microangiopatías trombóticas como el belatacept y micofenolato se han utilizado con resultados satisfactorios. Presentamos el caso de una paciente joven de alto riesgo inmunológico, con síndrome hemolítico urémico atípico por mutación del factor H, a quien se realizó trasplante renal exitoso con eculizumab, timoglobulina, belatacept, micofenolato y esteroides conservando excelente función del injerto y sin recaídas de su enfermedad


Atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome is a disease caused by complement regulation abnormalities that generally progresses to chronic end-stage renal disease with a high rate of recurrence in kidney transplantation and a high risk of graft loss. Anti-complement therapy has improved the prognosis of these patients, achieving disease remission in most cases, increasing the likelihood of a successful kidney transplant and increasing patient and graft survival. Drugs with low risk of induction of thrombotic microangiopathies such as belatacept and mycophenolate have also been used with satisfactory results. We present the case of a young patient at high immunological risk, with atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome due to factor H mutation, who underwent a successful kidney transplantation with eculizumab, thymoglobulin, belatacept, mycophenolate and steroids, to date preserving excellent graft function without disease recurrence


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Abatacepte/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Soro Antilinfocitário/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica Atípica/cirurgia , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica Atípica/genética , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica Atípica/imunologia , Fator H do Complemento/genética , Quimioterapia Combinada , Transplante de Rim , Mutação , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Gac Med Mex ; 154(3): 275-282, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30047932

RESUMO

Introducción: Estudios recientes sugieren que la lipocalina asociada con la gelatinasa del neutrófilo urinaria (NGALu) es superior a la creatinina para la detección temprana de la disfunción del injerto renal, pero son pocos los estudios que evalúan su utilidad como predictor a largo plazo de dicha función. Objetivo: Explorar si los valores de NGALu en las primeras 48 horas después del trasplante renal predicen la función del injerto a largo plazo. Método: Cohorte prospectiva en la que se evaluaron los valores de NGALu a las 2, 12, 24 y 48 horas postrasplante renal. Resultados: Se valoraron 79 pacientes trasplantados renales. Al año de seguimiento, 30.4 de los pacientes presentó disfunción del injerto. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los valores de NGALu y la función a un año del injerto renal (p = 0.65); el análisis multivariado mostró que ningún valor de NGALu fue un marcador predictor de disfunción del injerto a un año del trasplante renal. Conclusión: Los valores de NGALu obtenidos en las primeras 48 horas postrasplante no se asociaron con disfunción del injerto a un año del trasplante renal. Introduction: Recent studies suggest that urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) is superior to creatinine for renal graft dysfunction early detection, but there are only few studies assessing its usefulness as long-term predictor of said function. Objective: To explore if uNGAL values within the first 48 hours after kidney transplantation predict graft function on the long term. Method: Prospective cohort, where uNGAL values were assessed at 2, 12, 24 and 48 hours post-kidney transplantation. Results: Seventy-nine kidney transplant recipients were evaluated. At one year of follow-up, 30.4% of patients had graft dysfunction. No statistically significant differences were found between the uNGAL values and the renal graft function at one year (p = 0.65); the multivariate analysis showed that no uNGAL value was a predictor marker of graft dysfunction at one year of kidney transplantation. Conclusion: The uNGAL values obtained within the first 48 hours post-transplant were not associated with graft dysfunction at one year of kidney transplantation.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim , Lipocalina-2/urina , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/urina , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Função Renal , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Iatreia ; 31(2): 191-196, ene.-jun. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-953918

RESUMO

RESUMEN La metformina es uno de los medicamentos más utilizados como primera línea para control de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2; tiene un papel benéfico en la mortalidad cardiovascular y bajo riesgo de producir hipoglucemia; sin embargo, no está exenta de efectos adversos, de los cuales, el más temido es la acidosis láctica, cuya incidencia es de 7,4 casos por 100.000 usuarios del medicamento por año. Los principales factores de riesgo para desarrollar dicha complicación son la insuficiencia renal aguda o crónica, la falla cardíaca, la enfermedad hepática y el uso concomitante de medicamentos que bloquean la cadena respiratoria de la mitocondria. El tratamiento incluye la reanimación hídrica, el soporte y, en algunos casos, el bicarbonato. La terapia de reemplazo renal ha sido exitosa en estos pacientes, pero las indicaciones para hacerla aún no son claras porque la metformina es una molécula parcialmente dializable y se requiere hemodiálisis prolongada para reducir suficientemente sus niveles. A pesar del tratamiento intensivo, la mortalidad asociada a esta complicación continúa siendo muy alta. El diagnóstico temprano y el tratamiento oportuno son fundamentales para mejorar el pronóstico.


SUMMARY Metformin lactic acidosis. Report of two cases Metformin is recommended as a first-line treatment for patients with diabetes mellitus type 2; it has a cardiovascular protective effect, and low risk of hypoglycemia. However, a severe but infrequent complication of its use is lactic acidosis, which has high morbidity and mortality rates. The estimated incidence of metformin lactic acidosis is 7,4 cases per 100.000 patients per year. Main risk factors are acute or chronic renal disease, congestive heart failure, hepatic failure, and concomitant use of drugs that affect metformin clearance or energy metabolism. Treatment includes hydration with crystalloids, support measures, and intravenous bicarbonate. Renal replacement therapy has been successful for treating metformin-associated lactic acidosis, but there are still no clear indications for it, because metformin is a partially dialyzable molecule and prolonged hemodialysis is required to reduce its levels sufficiently. Despite current treatment, mortality remains high. Early diagnosis and prompt multidisciplinary support are essential to improve outcome in these patients.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Idoso , Acidose Láctica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Metformina
18.
Nefrologia ; 38(4): 433-437, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29778558

RESUMO

Atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome is a disease caused by complement regulation abnormalities that generally progresses to chronic end-stage renal disease with a high rate of recurrence in kidney transplantation and a high risk of graft loss. Anti-complement therapy has improved the prognosis of these patients, achieving disease remission in most cases, increasing the likelihood of a successful kidney transplant and increasing patient and graft survival. Drugs with low risk of induction of thrombotic microangiopathies such as belatacept and mycophenolate have also been used with satisfactory results. We present the case of a young patient at high immunological risk, with atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome due to factor H mutation, who underwent a successful kidney transplantation with eculizumab, thymoglobulin, belatacept, mycophenolate and steroids, to date preserving excellent graft function without disease recurrence.


Assuntos
Abatacepte/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Soro Antilinfocitário/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica Atípica/cirurgia , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Rim , Adulto , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica Atípica/genética , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica Atípica/imunologia , Fator H do Complemento/genética , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Mutação , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Biomedica ; 38(1): 32-36, 2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29668131

RESUMO

Pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii is an uncommon infection in kidney transplant patients that can have an acute and rapid progression to respiratory failure and death. The period of greatest risk occurs in the first six months after the transplant, and it relates to the high doses of immunosuppression drugs required by patients. However, it may occur late, associated with the suspension of prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.We present two cases of renal transplant patients who had severe hypoxemic respiratory failure due to P. jirovecii six years after transplantation. In addition to steroids, they received treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. One patient died, while the other had clinical recovery, with preservation of the renal graft function.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Pneumocystis carinii/química , Insuficiência Respiratória/complicações , Humanos , Pneumocystis carinii/isolamento & purificação , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/administração & dosagem , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/efeitos adversos
20.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 38(1): 32-36, ene.-mar. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-888544

RESUMO

Resumen La neumonitis por Pneumocystis jirovecii es una infección infrecuente en pacientes con trasplante de riñón, que se presenta de forma aguda y puede progresar rápidamente hasta la insuficiencia respiratoria y la muerte. El período de mayor riesgo es el de los primeros seis meses después del trasplante, y se asocia con las altas dosis de medicamentos inmunosupresores que reciben los pacientes. La condición también puede presentarse de manera tardía, asociada con la suspensión de la profilaxis con trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol. Se reportan dos casos de pacientes con trasplante renal que presentaron insuficiencia respiratoria hipoxémica grave por P. jirovecii pasados seis años del trasplante, y que fueron tratados con trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol y esteroides. Uno de los pacientes murió y el otro se recuperó sin que hubiera efectos en la función del injerto renal.


Abstract Pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii is an uncommon infection in kidney transplant patients that can have an acute and rapid progression to respiratory failure and death. The period of greatest risk occurs in the first six months after the transplant, and it relates to the high doses of immunosuppression drugs required by patients. However, it may occur late, associated with the suspension of prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. We present two cases of renal transplant patients who had severe hypoxemic respiratory failure due to P. jirovecii six years after transplantation. In addition to steroids, they received treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. One patient died, while the other had clinical recovery, with preservation of the renal graft function.

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