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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7523, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371932

RESUMO

A growing body of evidence suggests that the human gut microbiota plays a role in the development of obesity and related metabolic diseases. However, there is little consensus between studies, which could be due to biological as well as technical variation. In addition, little human data are available to investigate whether tissue-specific insulin sensitivity is related to specific microbial patterns. We examined this relation in two independent cohorts of overweight and obese pre-diabetic men, using phylogenetic microarray data and hepatic, peripheral and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity that were determined by a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with [6,6-2H2]-glucose tracer infusion. Despite a prominent subject-specific microbiota, we found significant associations of microbial taxa with tissue-specific insulin sensitivity using regression analysis. Using random forests we found moderate associations with other measures of glucose homeostasis in only one of the cohorts (fasting glucose concentrations AUC = 0.66 and HbA1c AUC = 0.65). However, all findings were cohort-specific due to pronounced variation in microbiota between cohorts, suggesting the existence of alternative states for dysbiosis in metabolic syndrome patients. Our findings suggest individual or group related dynamics, instead of universal microbiota signals, related to the host when the overweight or obese state has already developed and argue that care should be taken with extrapolating significant correlations from single cohorts, into generalized biological relevance.

2.
Expert Opin Ther Targets ; : 1-15, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441559

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The role of the intestinal microbiota in host cardiometabolic health and disease has gained significant attention over recent decades. Previous studies have shown effects on metabolic health through gut microbiota modulation; this suggests diverse interaction pathways that constitute the communication between gut microbiota and host central nervous system, the so-called gut-brain axis. AREAS COVERED: This article provides an overview of the various mechanisms that may mediate the gut-brain axis. It places an emphasis on cardiometabolic health, including effects of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), alterations in neurotransmitters and gut peptides and microbial effects on chronic inflammation and immune function. Moreover, this paper sheds light on whether these mechanisms afford therapeutic targets to promote metabolic health. To this end, a PubMed search with the terms 'gut microbiota,' 'obesity' and 'insulin sensitivity' was performed. EXPERT OPINION: Many properties of the human gut microbiome are associated with the central regulation of appetite and metabolic status. Some of these relationships are causal and there are positive effects from certain intervention methods. Microbial manipulation may offer a means to prevent or treat obesity and associated co-morbidities. However, to establish direct causal relations between altered gut microbiota and metabolic disease, clinical intervention studies are necessary.

3.
Biochem Soc Trans ; 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412045

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) are the two most common autoimmune endocrine diseases that have rising global incidence. These diseases are caused by the immune-mediated destruction of hormone-producing endocrine cells, pancreatic beta cells and thyroid follicular cells, respectively. Both genetic predisposition and environmental factors govern the onset of T1D and HT. Recent evidence strongly suggests that the intestinal microbiota plays a role in accelerating or preventing disease progression depending on the compositional and functional profile of the gut bacterial communities. Accumulating evidence points towards the interplay between the disruption of gut microbial homeostasis (dysbiosis) and the breakdown of host immune tolerance at the onset of both diseases. In this review, we will summarize the major recent findings about the microbiome alterations associated with T1D and HT, and the connection of these changes to disease states. Furthermore, we will discuss the potential mechanisms by which gut microbial dysbiosis modulates the course of the disease, including disruption of intestinal barrier integrity and microbial production of immunomodulatory metabolites. The aim of this review is to provide broad insight into the role of gut microbiome in the pathophysiology of these diseases.

4.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185503

RESUMO

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is a prime example of a systems disease. In the initial phase, apolipoprotein B-containing cholesterol-rich lipoproteins deposit excess cholesterol in macrophage-like cells that subsequently develop into foam cells. A multitude of systemic as well as environmental factors are involved in further progression of atherosclerotic plaque formation. In recent years, both oral and gut microbiota have been proposed to play an important role in the process at different stages. Particularly bacteria from the oral cavity may easily reach the circulation and cause low-grade inflammation, a recognized risk factor for ASCVD. Gut-derived microbiota on the other hand can influence host metabolism on various levels. Next to translocation across the intestinal wall, these prokaryotes produce a great number of specific metabolites such as trimethylamine and short-chain fatty acids but can also metabolize endogenously formed bile acids and convert these into metabolites that may influence signal transduction pathways. In this overview, we critically discuss the novel developments in this rapidly emerging research field.

5.
NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes ; 6(1): 16, 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221294

RESUMO

Dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota has been implicated in insulin resistance, although evidence regarding causality in humans is scarce. We performed a phase I/II dose-finding and safety study on the effect of oral intake of the anaerobic butyrogenic strain Anaerobutyricum soehngenii on glucose metabolism in 24 subjects with metabolic syndrome. We found that treatment with A. soehngenii was safe and observed a significant correlation between the measured fecal abundance of administered A. soehngenii and improvement in peripheral insulin sensitivity after 4 weeks of treatment. This was accompanied by an altered microbiota composition and a change in bile acid metabolism. Finally, we show that metabolic response upon administration of A. soehngenii (defined as improved insulin sensitivity 4 weeks after A. soehngenii intake) is dependent on microbiota composition at baseline. These data in humans are promising, but additional studies are needed to reproduce our findings and to investigate long-term effects, as well as other modes of delivery.

6.
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 17(5): 279-297, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152478

RESUMO

Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been repeatedly observed in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, two metabolic diseases strongly intertwined with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Animal studies have demonstrated a potential causal role of gut microbiota in NAFLD. Human studies have started to describe microbiota alterations in NAFLD and have found a few consistent microbiome signatures discriminating healthy individuals from those with NAFLD, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis or cirrhosis. However, patients with NAFLD often present with obesity and/or insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and these metabolic confounding factors for dysbiosis have not always been considered. Patients with different NAFLD severity stages often present with heterogeneous lesions and variable demographic characteristics (including age, sex and ethnicity), which are known to affect the gut microbiome and have been overlooked in most studies. Finally, multiple gut microbiome sequencing tools and NAFLD diagnostic methods have been used across studies that could account for discrepant microbiome signatures. This Review provides a broad insight into microbiome signatures for human NAFLD and explores issues with disentangling these signatures from underlying metabolic disorders. More advanced metagenomics and multi-omics studies using system biology approaches are needed to improve microbiome biomarkers.

7.
Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab ; 15(1): 13-27, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066294

RESUMO

Introduction: Cardiometabolic diseases (CMD) are a group of interrelated disorders such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). As the prevalence of these diseases increases globally, efficient new strategies are necessary to target CMD and modifiable risk factors. In the past decade, evidence has accumulated regarding the influence of gut microbiota (GM) on CMD, providing new targets for therapeutic interventions.Areas covered: This narrative review discusses the pathophysiologic link between CMD, GM, and potential microbiota-based targets against atherosclerosis and modifiable risk factors for atherosclerosis. Low-grade inflammation can be induced through GM and its derived metabolites. CMD are influenced by GM and microbiota-derived metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), secondary bile acids, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), and the composition of GM can modulate host metabolism. All of the above can lead to promising therapeutic targets.Expert opinion: Most data are derived from animal models or human association studies; therefore, more translational and interventional research in humans is necessary to validate these promising findings. Reproduced findings such as aberrant microbiota patterns or circulating biomarkers could be targeted depending on individual metabolic profiles, moving toward personalized medicine in CMD.

8.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 22(6): 988-996, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026592

RESUMO

AIM: To dissect the effects of the sodium-glucose linked transporter 2 inhibitor dapagliflozin on lipid metabolism and assess whether these effects could potentially offset cardiovascular benefit with this drug-class. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed the effect of dapagliflozin on lipid metabolism in 11 adults with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes. After 4 weeks of statin wash-out and 4 weeks of rosuvastatin 10 mg treatment, participants were treated with dapagliflozin 10 mg once-daily for 5 weeks. Before and after dapagliflozin, plasma lipids were measured and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-1 and VLDL-2 apolipoprotein (Apo)B fluxes were assessed using (5.5.5-2 H3 )-leucine tracer infusion. In addition, hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity as well as insulin-mediated inhibition of peripheral lipolysis were measured during a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycaemic clamp using (6,6-2 H2 )-glucose and (1,1,2,3,3-2 H5 )-glycerol tracers. RESULTS: Rosuvastatin decreased all plasma lipids significantly: total cholesterol from 4.5 (3.2-6.2) to 3.1 (2.5-3.8) mmol/L, LDL cholesterol from 2.6 (1.7-3.4) to 1.5 (1.1-2.2) mmol/L, HDL cholesterol from 1.34 (0.80-2.02) to 1.19 (0.74-1.89) mmol/L and triglycerides from 0.92 (0.31-3.91) to 0.79 (0.32-2.10) mmol/L. The addition of dapaglifozin to rosuvastatin did not raise either LDL cholesterol or total cholesterol, and only increased HDL cholesterol by 0.08 (-0.03-0.13) mmol/L (P = 0.03). In line with this, dapagliflozin did not affect VLDL-1 or VLDL-2 ApoB fluxes. Fasting endogenous glucose production tended to increase by 0.9 (-3.4-3.1) µmol kg-1 min-1 (P = 0.06), but no effect on hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity or on peripheral lipolysis was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Dapagliflozin has no effect on plasma LDL-cholesterol levels or VLDL-apoB fluxes in the context of optimal lipid-lowering treatment, which will thus not limit cardiovascular benefit when lipids are adequately controlled.

9.
Gastroenterology ; 158(7): 1881-1898, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044317

RESUMO

Gut microbiota plays a role in the pathophysiology of metabolic diseases, which include nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases, through the gut-liver axis. To date, clinical guidelines recommend a weight loss goal of 7%-10% to improve features of nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases. Because this target is not easily achieved by all patients, alternative therapeutic options are currently being evaluated. This review focuses on therapeutics that aim to modulate the gut microbiota and the gut-liver axis. We discuss how probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotic, fecal microbiota transfer, polyphenols, specific diets, and exercise interventions have been found to modify gut microbiota signatures; improve nonalcoholic fatty liver disease outcomes; and detail, when available, the different mechanisms by which these beneficial outcomes might occur. Apart from probiotics that have already been tested in human randomized controlled trials, most of these potential therapeutics have been studied in animals. Their efficacy still warrants confirmation in humans using appropriate design.

10.
Diabetologia ; 63(3): 597-610, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915895

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes has been linked to altered gut microbiota and more specifically to a shortage of intestinal production of the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate, which may play key roles in maintaining intestinal epithelial integrity and in human and gut microbial metabolism. Butyrate supplementation can protect against autoimmune diabetes in mouse models. We thus set out to study the effect of oral butyrate vs placebo on glucose regulation and immune variables in human participants with longstanding type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We administered a daily oral dose of 4 g sodium butyrate or placebo for 1 month to 30 individuals with longstanding type 1 diabetes, without comorbidity or medication use, in a randomised (1:1), controlled, double-blind crossover trial, with a washout period of 1 month in between. Participants were randomly allocated to the 'oral sodium butyrate capsules first' or 'oral placebo capsules first' study arm in blocks of five. The clinical investigator received blinded medication from the clinical trial pharmacy. All participants, people doing measurements or examinations, or people assessing the outcomes were blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome was a change in the innate immune phenotype (monocyte subsets and in vitro cytokine production). Secondary outcomes were changes in blood markers of islet autoimmunity (cell counts, lymphocyte stimulation indices and CD8 quantum dot assays), glucose and lipid metabolism, beta cell function (by mixed-meal test), gut microbiota and faecal SCFA. The data was collected at the Amsterdam University Medical Centers. RESULTS: All 30 participants were analysed. Faecal butyrate and propionate levels were significantly affected by oral butyrate supplementation and butyrate treatment was safe. However, this modulation of intestinal SCFAs did not result in any significant changes in adaptive or innate immunity, or in any of the other outcome variables. In our discussion, we elaborate on this important discrepancy with previous animal work. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Oral butyrate supplementation does not significantly affect innate or adaptive immunity in humans with longstanding type 1 diabetes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register: NL4832 (www.trialregister.nl). DATA AVAILABILITY: Raw sequencing data are available in the European Nucleotide Archive repository (https://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/browse) under study PRJEB30292. FUNDING: The study was funded by a Le Ducq consortium grant, a CVON grant, a personal ZONMW-VIDI grant and a Dutch Heart Foundation grant.

11.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227434, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945086

RESUMO

Microbial amplicon sequencing studies are an important tool in biological and biomedical research. Widespread 16S rRNA gene microbial surveys have shed light on the structure of many ecosystems inhabited by bacteria, including the human body. However, specialized software and algorithms are needed to convert raw sequencing data into biologically meaningful information (i.e. tables of bacterial counts). While different bioinformatic pipelines are available in a rapidly changing and improving field, users are often unaware of limitations and biases associated with individual pipelines and there is a lack of agreement regarding best practices. Here, we compared six bioinformatic pipelines for the analysis of amplicon sequence data: three OTU-level flows (QIIME-uclust, MOTHUR, and USEARCH-UPARSE) and three ASV-level (DADA2, Qiime2-Deblur, and USEARCH-UNOISE3). We tested workflows with different quality control options, clustering algorithms, and cutoff parameters on a mock community as well as on a large (N = 2170) recently published fecal sample dataset from the multi-ethnic HELIUS study. We assessed the sensitivity, specificity, and degree of consensus of the different outputs. DADA2 offered the best sensitivity, at the expense of decreased specificity compared to USEARCH-UNOISE3 and Qiime2-Deblur. USEARCH-UNOISE3 showed the best balance between resolution and specificity. OTU-level USEARCH-UPARSE and MOTHUR performed well, but with lower specificity than ASV-level pipelines. QIIME-uclust produced large number of spurious OTUs as well as inflated alpha-diversity measures and should be avoided in future studies. This study provides guidance for researchers using amplicon sequencing to gain biological insights.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Fezes/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Software , Algoritmos , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Humanos
12.
Gut ; 69(2): 295-303, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The duodenum has become a metabolic treatment target through bariatric surgery learnings and the specific observation that bypassing, excluding or altering duodenal nutrient exposure elicits favourable metabolic changes. Duodenal mucosal resurfacing (DMR) is a novel endoscopic procedure that has been shown to improve glycaemic control in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) irrespective of body mass index (BMI) changes. DMR involves catheter-based circumferential mucosal lifting followed by hydrothermal ablation of duodenal mucosa. This multicentre study evaluates safety and feasibility of DMR and its effect on glycaemia at 24 weeks and 12 months. METHODS: International multicentre, open-label study. Patients (BMI 24-40) with T2D (HbA1c 59-86 mmol/mol (7.5%-10.0%)) on stable oral glucose-lowering medication underwent DMR. Glucose-lowering medication was kept stable for at least 24 weeks post DMR. During follow-up, HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), weight, hepatic transaminases, Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), adverse events (AEs) and treatment satisfaction were determined and analysed using repeated measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: Forty-six patients were included of whom 37 (80%) underwent complete DMR and 36 were finally analysed; in remaining patients, mainly technical issues were observed. Twenty-four patients had at least one AE (52%) related to DMR. Of these, 81% were mild. One SAE and no unanticipated AEs were reported. Twenty-four weeks post DMR (n=36), HbA1c (-10±2 mmol/mol (-0.9%±0.2%), p<0.001), FPG (-1.7±0.5 mmol/L, p<0.001) and HOMA-IR improved (-2.9±1.1, p<0.001), weight was modestly reduced (-2.5±0.6 kg, p<0.001) and hepatic transaminase levels decreased. Effects were sustained at 12 months. Change in HbA1c did not correlate with modest weight loss. Diabetes treatment satisfaction scores improved significantly. CONCLUSIONS: In this multicentre study, DMR was found to be a feasible and safe endoscopic procedure that elicited durable glycaemic improvement in suboptimally controlled T2D patients using oral glucose-lowering medication irrespective of weight loss. Effects on the liver are examined further. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02413567.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/cirurgia , Duodenoscopia/métodos , Duodeno/cirurgia , Ressecção Endoscópica de Mucosa/métodos , Mucosa Intestinal/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Ressecção Endoscópica de Mucosa/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Gut ; 69(3): 502-512, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147381

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Bariatric surgery improves glucose metabolism. Recent data suggest that faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) using faeces from postbariatric surgery diet-induced obese mice in germ-free mice improves glucose metabolism and intestinal homeostasis. We here investigated whether allogenic FMT using faeces from post-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass donors (RYGB-D) compared with using faeces from metabolic syndrome donors (METS-D) has short-term effects on glucose metabolism, intestinal transit time and adipose tissue inflammation in treatment-naïve, obese, insulin-resistant male subjects. DESIGN: Subjects with metabolic syndrome (n=22) received allogenic FMT either from RYGB-D or METS-D. Hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity as well as lipolysis were measured at baseline and 2 weeks after FMT by hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic stable isotope (2H2-glucose and 2H5-glycerol) clamp. Secondary outcome parameters were changes in resting energy expenditure, intestinal transit time, faecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and bile acids, and inflammatory markers in subcutaneous adipose tissue related to intestinal microbiota composition. Faecal SCFA, bile acids, glycaemic control and inflammatory parameters were also evaluated at 8 weeks. RESULTS: We observed a significant decrease in insulin sensitivity 2 weeks after allogenic METS-D FMT (median rate of glucose disappearance: from 40.6 to 34.0 µmol/kg/min; p<0.01). Moreover, a trend (p=0.052) towards faster intestinal transit time following RYGB-D FMT was seen. Finally, we observed changes in faecal bile acids (increased lithocholic, deoxycholic and (iso)lithocholic acid after METS-D FMT), inflammatory markers (decreased adipose tissue chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) gene expression and plasma CCL2 after RYGB-D FMT) and changes in several intestinal microbiota taxa. CONCLUSION: Allogenic FMT using METS-D decreases insulin sensitivity in metabolic syndrome recipients when compared with using post-RYGB-D. Further research is needed to delineate the role of donor characteristics in FMT efficacy in human insulin-resistant subjects. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NTR4327.

14.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(3): 642-650, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiome plays a versatile role in the etiology of arterial thrombosis. In venous thrombosis, driven chiefly by plasma coagulation, no such role has yet been established. We hypothesized that the intestinal microbiome composition affects coagulation in humans. METHODS: We used healthy donor fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) to experimentally change the microbiome composition in metabolic syndrome patients. Thirty-five subjects were randomized in a blinded fashion to healthy donor FMT or autologous FMT as a control in a 2:1 ratio. We measured thrombin generation at baseline and after 6 weeks using automated calibrated thrombinography, and we determined plasma abundance of 32 coagulation related proteins using a targeted mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics assay with heavy labeled internal standards. RESULTS: Healthy donor FMT prolonged the thrombinography lag time (median delta 0.0 versus 0.25 minutes, P = .039). The other thrombinography parameters showed no significant difference. Unsupervised cluster analysis suggested overall downregulation of coagulation related plasma proteins in subject clusters containing predominantly subjects that had a metabolic response to healthy donor FMT. FMT treatment status itself showed no clear clustering pattern with up- or downregulation, however, and proteins did not cluster according to an apparent biological grouping. DISCUSSION: A single healthy donor FMT tends to modestly suppress the onset thrombin generation in metabolic syndrome patients, representing initial proof-of-principle that the intestinal microbiota composition might affect the coagulation system in humans. The findings merit external validation as a role for intestinal microbiota in coagulation can have clinically important implications.

15.
Diabetes Care ; 43(1): 228-234, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662305

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Impaired insulin sensitivity is associated with hyperfiltration (i.e., elevated glomerular filtration rate [GFR]) in adolescents with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and adults with prediabetes. Yet, these relationships are based on studies that relied on estimated GFR (eGFR), estimates of insulin sensitivity, or both. We aimed to verify the relationship between insulin sensitivity and renal hemodynamic function by gold standard methods in adults with T2D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Insulin sensitivity was assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (M value) (glucose infusion rate in mg/kglean/min) and renal hemodynamic function by urinary inulin (GFR) and para-aminohippuric acid (effective renal plasma flow [ERPF]) clearances in participants with T2D without overt kidney disease. Filtration fraction (FF) (GFR/ERPF) was calculated. Relationships between insulin sensitivity and renal hemodynamic parameters were examined by multivariable linear regression. Renal hemodynamic parameters were examined across tertiles of M values. RESULTS: We tested 44 adults with T2D, of whom 77% were male, with mean ± SD age 63 ± 7 years, BMI 31.2 ± 4.0 kg/m2, and HbA1c 7.4 ± 0.6%. Average GFR was 110 ± 26 mL/min, with an FF of 22.1 ± 2.8% and median 24-h urinary albumin excretion of 11.3 mg (interquartile range 5.8-17.0). Average M value was 5.6 ± 2.9 mg/kglean/min. Insulin sensitivity inversely correlated with GFR (r = -0.44, P < 0.01) and FF (r = -0.40, P < 0.01), and these associations remained significant after multivariable adjustments for age, sex, renin-angiotensin system inhibitor use, and HbA1c. In addition, GFR, FF, and urinary albumin excretion were highest in the participants in the lowest M value tertile. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we demonstrate that impaired insulin sensitivity is associated with intrarenal hemodynamic dysfunction by gold standard techniques in adults with T2D treated with metformin monotherapy.

16.
Kidney Int ; 97(1): 202-212, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791665

RESUMO

Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) improve hard renal outcomes in type 2 diabetes. This is possibly explained by the fact that SGLT2i normalize the measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) by increasing renal vascular resistance, as was shown in young people with type 1 diabetes and glomerular hyperfiltration. Therefore, we compared the renal hemodynamic effects of dapagliflozin with gliclazide in type 2 diabetes. The mGFR and effective renal plasma flow were assessed using inulin and para-aminohippurate clearances in the fasted state, during clamped euglycemia (5 mmol/L) and during clamped hyperglycemia (15 mmol/L). Filtration fraction and renal vascular resistance were calculated. Additionally, factors known to modulate renal hemodynamics were measured. In 44 people with type 2 diabetes on metformin monotherapy (Hemoglobin A1c 7.4%, mGFR 113 mL/min), dapagliflozin versus gliclazide reduced mGFR by 5, 10, and 12 mL/min in the consecutive phases while both agents similarly improved Hemoglobin A1c (-0.48% vs -0.65%). Dapagliflozin also reduced filtration fraction without increasing renal vascular resistance, and increased urinary adenosine and prostaglandin concentrations. Gliclazide did not consistently alter renal hemodynamic parameters. Thus, beyond glucose control, SGLT2i reduce mGFR and filtration fraction in type 2 diabetes. The fact that renal vascular resistance was not increased by dapagliflozin suggests that this is due to post-glomerular vasodilation rather than pre-glomerular vasoconstriction.

17.
Annu Rev Med ; 71: 149-161, 2020 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479620

RESUMO

Cardiometabolic disease (CMD), such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality on a global scale. The gut microbiota has emerged as a potential target to beneficially modulate CMD risk, possibly via dietary interventions. Dietary interventions have been shown to considerably alter gut microbiota composition and function. Moreover, several diet-derived microbial metabolites are able to modulate human metabolism and thereby alter CMD risk. Dietary interventions that affect gut microbiota composition and function are therefore a promising, novel, and cost-efficient method to reduce CMD risk. Studies suggest that fermentable carbohydrates can beneficially alter gut microbiota composition and function, whereas high animal protein and high fat intake negatively impact gut microbiota function and composition. This review focuses on the role of macronutrients (i.e., carbohydrate, protein, and fat) and dietary patterns (e.g., vegetarian/vegan and Mediterranean diet) in gut microbiota composition and function in the context of CMD.

18.
Nutrients ; 11(12)2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817857

RESUMO

The importance of the postprandial state has been acknowledged, since hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia are linked with several chronic systemic low-grade inflammation conditions. Humans spend more than 16 h per day in the postprandial state and the postprandial state is acknowledged as a complex interplay between nutrients, hormones and diet-derived metabolites. The purpose of this review is to provide insight into the physiology of the postprandial inflammatory response, the role of different nutrients, the pro-inflammatory effects of metabolic endotoxemia and the anti-inflammatory effects of bile acids. Moreover, we discuss nutritional strategies that may be linked to the described pathways to modulate the inflammatory component of the postprandial response.

19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19871, 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882814

RESUMO

Our aim was to identify whether low-grade inflammation, reflected by C-reactive protein (CRP), explains the higher risk for incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) among ethnic minorities. We included 837 Dutch, 712 South-Asian Surinamese, 797 African Surinamese, 804 Ghanaian, 817 Turkish and 778 Moroccan origin participants of the HELIUS study (Amsterdam, the Netherlands). We used multiple linear regression to assess ethnic differences in CRP levels. We determined the association of CRP with T2D and the modifying effect of ethnicity by cox regression, and compared hazard ratios for the association between ethnicity and T2D before and after adjustment for CRP. CRP levels were higher in ethnic minority groups than in Dutch origin participants. CRP was associated with a higher T2D incidence, similarly across ethnic groups (overall HR per SD 1.38 [95% CI 1.14; 1.68]). However, the association was attenuated and no longer statistically significant after adjustment for adiposity measures (HR 1.11 [95% CI 0.90; 1.37]). CRP accounted for a very small part of the ethnic differences in T2D, but only in models unadjusted for adiposity. Low-grade inflammation does not substantially contribute to the higher risk of T2D among ethnic minority populations compared to the Dutch.

20.
Trends Endocrinol Metab ; 30(12): 891-902, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630897

RESUMO

The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is strongly increasing and may put patients at increased risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (asCVD). Both disease phenotypes often co-occur, in the case of obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus type 2, and the metabolic syndrome. We explore the pathogenesis of NAFLD, the epidemiology of asCVD in NAFLD patients, shared drivers of both phenotypes, and factors caused by NAFLD that contribute to asCVD. Genetic studies support that NAFLD may drive asCVD through mixed hyperlipidemia. Next, we discuss the prospects of lifestyle improvement and pharmacological treatment of NAFLD for asCVD risk reduction. Finally, we point out that earlier identification of patients with NAFLD should be pursued by increasing awareness of the association of these two phenotypes and collaboration between the involved physicians.

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