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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34866201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a highly prevalent condition that requires a comprehensive and coordinated response across sectors and disciplines. AIMS: In the absence of a multisectoral framework to tackle this condition, we developed one using the sustainable development goals (SDGs) as the basis for converging thinking about the design and delivery of public health responses. METHODS: A multidisciplinary group identified the SDG targets and indicators for inclusion in the new framework through a two-stage process. Firstly, a core team of three researchers independently reviewed the 169 targets and 231 indicators of the SDGs to select a shortlist. Over two Delphi rounds, a multidisciplinary group of 12 experts selected which of the shortlisted targets and indicators to include. Respondents also provided written feedback on their selection. Targets and indicators with 75% or greater agreement were included in the final framework. RESULTS: The final framework comprises 16 targets-representing 9% of all targets and 62% (16/26) of the shortlisted targets-and seven indicators, accounting for 50% (7/14) of the shortlisted indicators and 3% of all indicators. The selected targets and indicators cover a broad range of factors, from health, food and nutrition to education, the economy, and the built environment. CONCLUSIONS: Addressing the challenge of NAFLD will require a re-envisioning of the liver health landscape, with greater focus on joined-up systems thinking and action. This new framework can help guide this process, including by outlining the stakeholders with whom the liver health community needs to engage.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34886242

RESUMO

Motivated by a growing recognition of the climate emergency, reflected in the 26th Conference of the Parties (COP26), we outline untapped opportunities to improve health through ambitious climate actions in cities. Health is a primary reason for climate action yet is rarely integrated in urban climate plans as a policy goal. This is a missed opportunity to create sustainable alliances across sectors and groups, to engage a broad set of stakeholders, and to develop structural health promotion. In this statement, we first briefly review the literature on health co-benefits of urban climate change strategies and make the case for health-promoting climate action; we then describe barriers to integrating health in climate action. We found that the evidence-base is often insufficiently policy-relevant to be impactful. Research rarely integrates the complexity of real-world systems, including multiple and dynamic impacts of strategies, and consideration of how decision-making processes contend with competing interests and short-term electoral cycles. Due to siloed-thinking and restrictive funding opportunities, research often falls short of the type of evidence that would be most useful for decision-making, and research outputs can be cryptic to decision makers. As a way forward, we urge researchers and stakeholders to engage in co-production and systems thinking approaches. Partnering across sectors and disciplines is urgently needed so pathways to climate change mitigation and adaptation fully embrace their health-promoting potential and engage society towards the huge transformations needed. This commentary is endorsed by the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE) and the International Society for Urban Health (ISUH) and accompanies a sister statement oriented towards stakeholders (published on the societies' websites).

4.
Environ Int ; 157: 106850, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531034

RESUMO

Cities are centres of innovation and wealth creation, but also hotspots of air pollution and noise, heat island effects and lack of green space, which are all detrimental to human health. They are also hotspots of COVID19. COVID19 has led to a rethink of urban public space. Therefore, is it time to re-think our urban models and reduce the health burden? We provide a narrative meta-review around a number of cutting edge and visionary urban models that that may affect health and that have been reported over the past few years. New urban concepts such as the Superblocks, the low traffic neighbourhood, 15 Minute city, Car free city or a mixture of these that may go some way in reducing the health burden related to current urban and transport practices. They will reduce air pollution and noise, heat island effects and increase green space and physical activity levels. What is still lacking though is a thorough evaluation of the effectiveness and acceptability of the schemes and the impacts on not only health, but also liveability and sustainability, although they are expected to be positive. Finally, the COVID19 pandemic may accelerate these developments and stimulus funding like the EU Next Generation funding should be used to make these changes.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Cidades , Planejamento de Cidades , Exercício Físico , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Ruído , Parques Recreativos , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Data Brief ; 37: 107269, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409138

RESUMO

Dataset from a large-scale air quality citizen science campaign is presented (xAire, 725 measurements, see Ref. [1]). A broad partnership with 1650 citizens from communities around 18 primary schools across Barcelona (Spain) provided the capacity to obtain unprecedented high-resolution NO2 levels which had in turn the capacity to provide an updated asthma Health Impact Assessment. Nitrogen dioxide levels being obtained in a 4-week period during February and March 2018 with Palmes' diffusion samplers are herein provided. Dataset includes NO2 levels from outdoor locations n=671, playgrounds n=31, and inside school buildings (mostly classrooms) n=23. Data was calibrated and annualized with concentration levels from automatic reference stations. It is shown that NO2 levels vary considerably with at some cases very high levels. Strong differences might also however be explained by the fact that ambient air pollution is reduced exponentially with distance from an emission source like traffic meaning that two samplers located about 100 m away can measure a tenfold difference concentration level.

7.
Alzheimers Dement (Amst) ; 13(1): e12205, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258378

RESUMO

Introduction: Urban environmental exposures might contribute to the incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our aim was to identify structural brain imaging correlates of urban environmental exposures in cognitively unimpaired individuals at increased risk of AD. Methods: Two hundred twelve participants with brain scans and residing in Barcelona, Spain, were included. Land use regression models were used to estimate residential exposure to air pollutants. The daily average noise level was obtained from noise maps. Residential green exposure indicators were also generated. A cerebral 3D-T1 was acquired to obtain information on brain morphology. Voxel-based morphometry statistical analyses were conducted to determine the areas of the brain in which regional gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes were associated with environmental exposures. Results: Exposure to nitrogen dioxide was associated with lower GM volume in the precuneus and greater WM volume in the splenium of the corpus callosum and inferior longitudinal fasciculus. In contrast, exposure to fine particulate matter was associated with greater GM in cerebellum and WM in the splenium of corpus callosum, the superior longitudinal fasciculus, and cingulum cingulate gyrus. Noise was positively associated with WM volume in the body of the corpus callosum. Exposure to greenness was associated with greater GM volume in the middle frontal, precentral, and the temporal pole. Discussion: In cognitively unimpaired adults with increased risk of AD, exposure to air pollution, noise, and green areas are associated with GM and WM volumes of specific brain areas known to be affected in AD, thus potentially conferring a higher vulnerability to the disease.

8.
Environ Int ; 155: 106683, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144479

RESUMO

The early-life exposome influences future health and accelerated biological aging has been proposed as one of the underlying biological mechanisms. We investigated the association between more than 100 exposures assessed during pregnancy and in childhood (including indoor and outdoor air pollutants, built environment, green environments, tobacco smoking, lifestyle exposures, and biomarkers of chemical pollutants), and epigenetic age acceleration in 1,173 children aged 7 years old from the Human Early-Life Exposome project. Age acceleration was calculated based on Horvath's Skin and Blood clock using child blood DNA methylation measured by Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. We performed an exposure-wide association study between prenatal and childhood exposome and age acceleration. Maternal tobacco smoking during pregnancy was nominally associated with increased age acceleration. For childhood exposures, indoor particulate matter absorbance (PMabs) and parental smoking were nominally associated with an increase in age acceleration. Exposure to the organic pesticide dimethyl dithiophosphate and the persistent pollutant polychlorinated biphenyl-138 (inversely associated with child body mass index) were protective for age acceleration. None of the associations remained significant after multiple-testing correction. Pregnancy and childhood exposure to tobacco smoke and childhood exposure to indoor PMabs may accelerate epigenetic aging from an early age.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Expossoma , Aceleração , Criança , Metilação de DNA , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 789: 147750, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082196

RESUMO

We present outcomes from a large-scale air quality citizen science campaign (xAire, 725 measurements) to demonstrate its positive contribution in the interplay between advances in exposure assessment and developments in policy or collective action. A broad partnership with 1,650 people from communities around 18 primary schools across Barcelona provided the capacity to obtain unprecedented high-resolution NO2 levels and an updated asthma Health Impact Assessment. It is shown that NO2 levels vary considerably with at some cases very high levels. More than a 1,000 new cases of childhood asthma could be prevented each year by lowering NO2 levels. Representativity of site selection and the minimal number of samplers for land use regression modelling are considered. Enhancement of community knowledge and attitudes towards collective response were observed and identified as key drivers for successful large-scale monitoring campaigns. The results encourage strengthening collaboration with local communities when exploring environmental health issues.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ciência do Cidadão , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise
10.
Environ Res ; 197: 110992, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity can be affected by both meteorological conditions and surrounding greenness, but few studies have evaluated the effects of these environmental factors on physical activity simultaneously. This multi-city comparative study aimed to assess the synergetic effects of apparent temperature and surrounding greenness on physical activity in four European cities. Specifically, we aimed to identify an interaction between surrounding greenness and apparent temperature in the effects on physical activity. METHODS: Data were collected from 352 adult residents of Barcelona (Spain), Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom), Doetinchem (The Netherlands), and Kaunas (Lithuania) as part of the PHENOTYPE study. Participants wore a smartphone for seven consecutive days between May-December 2013 and provided additional sociodemographic survey data. Hourly average physical activity (Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET)) and surrounding greenness (NDVI) were derived from the Calfit mobile application collecting accelerometer and location data. Hourly apparent temperature was calculated from temperature and relative humidity, which were obtained from local meteorological stations along with other meteorological covariates (rainfall, windspeed, and sky darkness). We assessed the interaction effects of apparent temperature and surrounding greenness on hourly physical activity for each city using linear mixed models, while adjusting for meteorological, demographic, and time-related variables. RESULTS: We found significant interactions between apparent temperature and surrounding greenness on hourly physical activity in three of four cities, aside from the coastal city of Barcelona. Significant quadratic effects of apparent temperature were found in the highest level of surrounding greenness for Stoke-on-Trent and Doetinchem, with 4% decrease in median MET observed for a 10°C departure from optimal temperature (15.2°C and 14.6°C, respectively). Significant linear effects were found for higher levels of surrounding greenness in Kaunas, whereby an increase of 10°C was associated with ∼4% increase in median MET. CONCLUSION: Apparent temperature and surrounding greenness interacted in the effect on hourly physical activity across three of four European cities, with varying effect between cities. While quadratic effects of temperature suggest diminishing levels of physical activity in the highest greenness levels in cities of temperate climates, the variation in surrounding greenness between cities could be further explored, particularly by looking at indoor-outdoor locations. The study findings support the need for evidence-based physical activity promotion and urban design.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Cidades , Lituânia , Países Baixos , Fenótipo , Espanha , Temperatura , Reino Unido
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578909

RESUMO

The perception of the quality of green and blue spaces can be key in the relationship between a community and its local landscape (i.e., place identification). The lack of transdisciplinary training and social-specific education of landscape architects regarding the complexity of landscape as a participative cultural artefact limits reaching the general population. Bridging this gap of landscape and place identification and evaluation by a local community was the main objective of the present case study conducted at an abandoned spring and seasonal stream area in Rubí (Spain). The "Steinitz method" of landscape evaluation was used as a participatory method to activate community members to learn about and express their visual preferences regarding this neglected landscape. Bottom-up interventions applying an "urban acupuncture" approach in the area identified as the least attractive by the residents were co-designed and combined with a top-down restoration of a nearby, existing but derelict and hidden, spring. In addition, before and after planning and implementing the intervention, we conducted surveys about the community perception, sense of belonging and use of the space. We observed that the lack of awareness of the inhabitants about this spring was an obstacle preventing the community from embracing the potential for health and wellbeing presented by the spring and adjacent landscape. Following the work, the landscape saw increasing use, and the historic spring was brought back to life as a resource to help people to improve their health and wellbeing.


Assuntos
Rios , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499420

RESUMO

The importance of setting a policy focus on promoting cycling and walking as sustainable and healthy modes of transport is increasingly recognized. However, to date a science-driven scoring system to assess the policy environment for cycling and walking is lacking. In this study, spreadsheet-based scoring systems for cycling and walking were developed, including six dimensions (cycling/walking culture, social acceptance, perception of traffic safety, advocacy, politics and urban planning). Feasibility was tested using qualitative data from pre-specified sections of semi-standardized interview and workshop reports from a European research project in seven cities, assessed independently by two experts. Disagreements were resolved by discussions of no more than 75 minutes per city. On the dimension "perception of traffic safety", quantitative panel data were used. While the interrater agreement was fair, feasibility was confirmed in general. Validity testing against social norms towards active travel, modal split and network length was encouraging for the policy area of cycling. Rating the policy friendliness for cycling and walking separately was found to be appropriate, as different cities received the highest scores for each. Replicating this approach in a more standardized way would pave the way towards a transparent, evidence-based system for benchmarking policy approaches of cities towards cycling and walking.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Caminhada , Cidades , Planejamento Ambiental , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Políticas , Transportes
13.
Environ Int ; 147: 105954, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollution and physical inactivity are both significant risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs). These risk factors are also linked so that the change in exposure in one will impact risks and benefits of the other. These links are well captured in the active transport (walking, cycling) health impact models, in which the increases in active transport leading to increased inhaled dose of air pollution. However, these links are more complex and go beyond the active transport research field. Hence, in this study, we aimed to summarize the empirical evidence on the links between air pollution and physical activity, and their combined effect on individual and population health. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: We conducted a non-systematic mapping review of empirical and modelling evidence of the possible links between exposure to air pollution and physical activity published until Autumn 2019. We reviewed empirical evidence for the (i) impact of exposure to air pollution on physical activity behaviour, (ii) exposure to air pollution while engaged in physical activity and (iii) the short-term and (iv) long-term health effects of air pollution exposure on people engaged in physical activity. In addition, we reviewed (v) public health modelling studies that have quantified the combined effect of air pollution and physical activity. These broad research areas were identified through expert discussions, including two public events performed in health-related conferences. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The current literature suggests that air pollution may decrease physical activity levels during high air pollution episodes or may prevent people from engaging in physical activity overall in highly polluted environments. Several studies have estimated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure in active transport environment in Europe and North-America, but the concentration in other regions, places for physical activity and for other air pollutants are poorly understood. Observational epidemiological studies provide some evidence for a possible interaction between air pollution and physical activity for acute health outcomes, while results for long-term effects are mixed with several studies suggesting small diminishing health gains from physical activity due to exposure to air pollution for long-term outcomes. Public health modelling studies have estimated that in most situations benefits of physical activity outweigh the risks of air pollution, at least in the active transport environment. However, overall evidence on all examined links is weak for low- and middle-income countries, for sensitive subpopulations (children, elderly, pregnant women, people with pre-existing conditions), and for indoor air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity and air pollution are linked through multiple mechanisms, and these relations could have important implications for public health, especially in locations with high air pollution concentrations. Overall, this review calls for international collaboration between air pollution and physical activity research fields to strengthen the evidence base on the links between both and on how policy options could potentially reduce risks and maximise health benefits.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Europa (Continente) , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , América do Norte , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez
14.
Annu Rev Public Health ; 42: 317-328, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317317

RESUMO

The health benefits of green space are well known, but the health effects of green infrastructure less so. Green infrastructure goes well beyond the presence of green space and refers more to a strategically planned network of natural and seminatural areas, with other environmental features designed and managed to deliver a wide range of ecosystem services and possibly to improve human health. In this narrative review, we found that small green infrastructure, such as green roofs and walls, has the potential to mitigate urban flooding, attenuate indoor temperatures and heat islands, improve air quality, and muffle noise, among other benefits, but these effects have not been linked directly to health. Larger green infrastructure has been associated with reduced temperatures, air pollution, and crimes and violence, but less so with health, although some evidence suggests that it may be beneficial for health (e.g., good health, decreased mortality). Finally, parks and street trees show many health benefits, but it is not clear if they can always be considered green infrastructure.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Saúde , Parques Recreativos , Humanos
16.
Environ Pollut ; 297: 118765, 2021 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34973383

RESUMO

The airway macrophages carbon loading (AMCL) has been suggested to be a biomarker of the long-term exposure to air pollution; however, to date no study has characterized AMCL for the pregnancy period. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the determinants of AMCL during pregnancy in Iran, a middle-income country. This study was based on a sample of 234 pregnant women with term and normal vaginal delivery who were residing in Sabzevar, Iran (2019). We characterized 35 potential determinants of personal exposure to air pollution for each participant, including six personal, nine indoor, and 20 home-outdoor factors. We applied Deletion/Substitution/Addition algorithm to identify the most relevant determinants that could predict AMCL levels. The median (IQR) of AMCL level was 0.12 (0.30) µm2 with a successful sputum induction in 82.9% (194) of participants. Ambient residential PM2.5 levels were positively associated with higher AMCL levels. On the other hand, increased residential distance to the traffic lights, squares and ring-roads, the duration of opening window per day, and opening window during cooking were inversely associated with AMCL levels. Our findings provide novel insights on the different personal, indoor, and outdoor determinants of personal exposure to air pollution during pregnancy in a middle-income country.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conducting health impact assessments (HIAs) is a growing practice in various organizations and countries, yet scholarly interest in HIAs has primarily focused on the synergies between exposure and health outcomes. This limits our understanding of what factors influence HIAs and the uptake of their outcomes. This paper presents a framework for conducting participatory quantitative HIA (PQHIA) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), including integrating the outcomes back into society after an HIA is conducted. The study responds to the question: what are the different components of a participatory quantitative model that can influence HIA implementation in LMICs? METHODS: To build the framework, we used a case study from a PQHIA fieldwork model developed in Port Louis (Mauritius). To explore thinking on the participatory components of the framework, we extract and analyze data from ethnographic material including fieldnotes, interviews, focus group discussions and feedback exercises with 14 stakeholders from the same case study. We confirm the validity of the ethnographic data using five quality criteria: credibility, transferability, dependability, confirmability, and authenticity. We build the PQHIA framework connecting the main HIA steps with factors influencing HIAs. RESULTS: The final framework depicts the five standard HIA stages and summarizes participatory activities and outcomes. It also reflects key factors influencing PQHIA practice and uptake of HIA outcomes: costs for participation, HIA knowledge and interest of stakeholders, social responsibility of policymakers, existing policies, data availability, citizen participation, multi-level stakeholder engagement and multisectoral coordination. The framework suggests that factors necessary to complete a participatory HIA are the same needed to re-integrate HIA results back into the society. There are three different areas that can act as facilitators to PQHIAs: good governance, evidence-based policy making, and access to resources. CONCLUSIONS: The framework has several implications for research and practice. It underlines the importance of applying participatory approaches critically while providing a blueprint for methods to engage local stakeholders. Participatory approaches in quantitative HIAs are complex and demand a nuanced understanding of the context. Therefore, the political and cultural contexts in which HIA is conducted will define how the framework is applied. Finally, the framework underlines that participation in HIA does not need to be expensive or time consuming for the assessor or the participant. Yet, participatory quantitative models need to be contextually developed and integrated if they are to provide health benefits and be beneficial for the participants. This integration can be facilitated by investing in opportunities that fuel good governance and evidence-based policy making.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Países em Desenvolvimento , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Humanos , Maurício , Formulação de Políticas , Participação dos Interessados
18.
Environ Res ; 191: 110032, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Living in green areas has been associated with several health benefits; however, the available evidence on such benefits for hypertension is still limited. This study aimed to investigate and compare the association between residential exposure to greenspace and hypertension in Barcelona, Spain and Brussels, Belgium. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was based on data from the 2016 Barcelona Health Interview Survey (HIS) (n = 3400) and the 2013 Belgian HIS (n = 2335). Both surveys were harmonized in terms of outcomes, confounders and exposure assessment. Residential exposure to greenspace was characterized as 1) surrounding greenspace (normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and modified soil-adjusted vegetation index 2 (MSAVI2)) across buffers of 100 m, 300 m, and 500 m; 2) surrounding green space across 300 m and 500 m buffers; and 3) Euclidean distance to the nearest green space. Our outcome was self-reported hypertension. We developed logistic regression models to evaluate the city-specific association between each greenspace measure and hypertension, adjusting for relevant covariates. RESULTS: One interquartile range (IQR) increase in residential distance to the nearest green space was associated with higher risk of hypertension in Barcelona [odds ratio (OR): 1.15; 95%CI 1.03-1.29 (IQR: 262.2)], but not in Brussels [OR: 0.95; 95%CI 0.77-1.17 (IQR: 215.2)]. Stratified analyses suggested stronger associations in older participants (≥65 years) for both cities. Findings for residential surrounding green space and greenspace were not conclusive. However, in Brussels, we found protective associations in older participants for both residential surrounding greenspace metrics [NDVI 300 m buffer OR: 0.51; 95%CI 0.32-0.81 (IQR: 0.21) and MSAVI2 300 m buffer OR: 0.51; 95%CI 0.32-0.83 (IQR: 0.18)]. We did not find any indication for the modification of our evaluated associations by sex and education level. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that living closer to greenspace could be associated with lower risk of hypertension, particularly in older age. Future research is needed to replicate our findings in other settings and shed light on potential underlying mechanism(s).


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Parques Recreativos , Idoso , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
20.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(6): 67009, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemical and nonchemical environmental exposures are increasingly suspected to influence the development of obesity, especially during early life, but studies mostly consider single exposure groups. OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to systematically assess the association between a wide array of early-life environmental exposures and childhood obesity, using an exposome-wide approach. METHODS: The HELIX (Human Early Life Exposome) study measured child body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, skinfold thickness, and body fat mass in 1,301 children from six European birth cohorts age 6-11 y. We estimated 77 prenatal exposures and 96 childhood exposures (cross-sectionally), including indoor and outdoor air pollutants, built environment, green spaces, tobacco smoking, and biomarkers of chemical pollutants (persistent organic pollutants, metals, phthalates, phenols, and pesticides). We used an exposure-wide association study (ExWAS) to screen all exposure-outcome associations independently and used the deletion-substitution-addition (DSA) variable selection algorithm to build a final multiexposure model. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined was 28.8%. Maternal smoking was the only prenatal exposure variable associated with higher child BMI (z-score increase of 0.28, 95% confidence interval: 0.09, 0.48, for active vs. no smoking). For childhood exposures, the multiexposure model identified particulate and nitrogen dioxide air pollution inside the home, urine cotinine levels indicative of secondhand smoke exposure, and residence in more densely populated areas and in areas with fewer facilities to be associated with increased child BMI. Child blood levels of copper and cesium were associated with higher BMI, and levels of organochlorine pollutants, cobalt, and molybdenum were associated with lower BMI. Similar results were found for the other adiposity outcomes. DISCUSSION: This first comprehensive and systematic analysis of many suspected environmental obesogens strengthens evidence for an association of smoking, air pollution exposure, and characteristics of the built environment with childhood obesity risk. Cross-sectional biomarker results may suffer from reverse causality bias, whereby obesity status influenced the biomarker concentration. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5975.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Poluentes Ambientais , Expossoma , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Ácidos Ftálicos , Gravidez , Pregas Cutâneas , Fumar/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura
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