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1.
Environ Int ; : 105237, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677802

RESUMO

Exposure to natural outdoor environments (NOE) has been shown in population-level studies to reduce anxiety and psychological distress. This study investigated how exposure to one's everyday natural outdoor environments over one week influenced mood among residents of four European cities including Barcelona (Spain), Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom), Doetinchem (The Netherlands) and Kaunas (Lithuania). Participants (n = 368) wore a smartphone equipped with software applications to track location and mood (using mobile ecological momentary assessment (EMA) software), for seven consecutive days. We estimated random-effects ordered logistic regression models to examine the association between mood (positive and negative affect), and exposure to green space, represented by two binary variables indicating exposure versus no exposure to NOE using GPS tracking and satellite and aerial imagery, 10 and 30 min prior to participants' completing the EMA. Models were adjusted for home city, day of the week, hour of the day, EMA survey type, residential NOE exposure, and sex, age, education level, mental health status and neighbourhood socioeconomic status. In addition, we tested for heterogeneity of effect by city, sex, age, residential NOE exposure and mental health status. Within 10 min of NOE exposure, compared to non-exposure, we found that overall there was a positive relationship with positive affect (OR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.81) of EMA surveys, and non-significant negative association with negative affect (OR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.58, 1.10). When stratifying, associations were consistently found for Stoke-on-Trent inhabitants and men, while findings by age group were inconsistent. Weaker and less consistent associations were found for exposure 30 min prior to EMA. Our findings support increasing evidence of psychological and mental health benefits of exposure to natural outdoor environments, especially among urban populations such as those included in our study.

2.
Environ Int ; : 105173, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the large number of studies on beneficial effects of the natural outdoor environment (NOE) on health, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: This study explored the relations between amount, quality, use and experience of the NOE; and physical activity, social contacts and mental well-being. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, data on GIS-derived measures of residential surrounding greenness (NDVI), NOE within 300 m, and audit data on quality of the streetscape were combined with questionnaire data from 3947 adults in four European cities. These included time spent in NOE (use); and perceived greenness, and satisfaction with and importance given to the NOE (experience). Physical activity, social contacts and mental health were selected as key outcome indicators. Descriptive and multilevel analyses were conducted both on pooled data and for individual cities. RESULTS: More minutes spent in the NOE were associated with more minutes of physical activity, a higher frequency of social contacts with neighbors, and better mental well-being. Perceived greenness, satisfaction with and importance of the NOE, were other strong predictors of the outcomes, while GIS measures of NOE and streetscape quality were not. We found clear differences between the four cities. CONCLUSIONS: Use and experience of the natural outdoor environment are important predictors for beneficial effects of the natural outdoor environment and health. Future research should focus more on these aspects to further increase our understanding of these mechanisms, and needs to take the local context into account.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The epidemiological evidence on green spaces and obesity is inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: To study the association of access to green spaces and surrounding greenness with obesity in Spain. METHODS: We enrolled 2354 individuals 20-85 years from urban areas of seven provinces of Spain between 2008-13. Subjects were randomly selected population controls of the MCC-Spain case-control study. We geocoded current residences and defined exposures in a buffer of 300 m around them: i) access to green space, identified using Urban Atlas, and ii) levels of surrounding greenness, measured by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. We examined excess weight/obesity as binary outcomes based on body mass index and waist-hip ratio. We examined effect modification by genetic factors, sex and individual socio-economic status and mediation by physical activity and concentrations of PM2.5 and NO2. To assess potential effect modification by genetic factors, we used a polygenic risk score based on obesity polymorphisms detected in genome-wide association studies. We used logistic mixed-effects models with a random effect for catchment area adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Access to green space was associated with a reduced risk of excess weight/obesity after adjusting for confounders [excess weight: OR (95%CI) = 0.82 (0.63, 1.07), p-value = 0.143; abdominal obesity: OR (95%CI) = 0.68 (0.45, 1.01), p-value = 0.057]. In the stratified analysis, this association was only observed in women. Associations between surrounding greenness and excess weight/obesity were null or modest based on a 1 IQR increase in NDVI [excess weight: OR (95%CI) = 0.99 (0.88, 1.11), p-value = 0.875; abdominal obesity: OR (95%CI) = 0.91 (0.79, 1.05), p-value = 0.186]. The observed associations were not mediated by physical activity or air pollution. DISCUSSION: Access to green space may be associated with decreased risk of excess weight/obesity among women in Spain. Mechanisms explaining this association remain unclear.

4.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 2): 113231, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is an important risk factor for non-communicable diseases, particularly type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Long-term exposure to greenspace could be protective of metabolic syndrome, but evidence for such an association is lacking. Accordingly, we investigated the association between long-term exposure to greenspace and risk of metabolic syndrome. METHODS: The present longitudinal study was based on data from four clinical examinations between 1997 and 2013 in 6076 participants of the Whitehall II study, UK (aged 45-69 years at baseline). Long-term exposure to greenspace was assessed by satellite-based indices of greenspace including Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Vegetation Continuous Field (VCF) averaged across buffers of 500 and 1000 m surrounding the participants' residential location at each follow-up. The ascertainment of metabolic syndrome was based on the World Health Organization (WHO) definition. Hazard ratios for metabolic syndrome were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models, controlling for age, sex, ethnicity, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: Higher residential surrounding greenspace was associated with lower risk of metabolic syndrome. An interquartile range increase in NDVI and VCF in the 500 m buffer was associated with 13% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1%, 23%) and 14% (95% CI: 5%, 22%) lower risk of metabolic syndrome, respectively. Greater exposure to greenspace was also associated with each individual component of metabolic syndrome, including a lower risk of high levels of fasting glucose, large waist circumference, high triglyceride levels, low HDL cholesterol, and hypertension. The association between residential surrounding greenspace and metabolic syndrome may have been mediated by physical activity and exposure to air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study suggest that middle-aged and older adults living in greener neighbourhoods are at lower risk of metabolic syndrome than those living in neighbourhoods with less greenspace.

5.
Environ Int ; : 105132, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Car-dependent city planning has resulted in high levels of environmental pollution, sedentary lifestyles and increased vulnerability to the effects of climate change. The Barcelona Superblock model is an innovative urban and transport planning strategy that aims to reclaim public space for people, reduce motorized transport, promote sustainable mobility and active lifestyles, provide urban greening and mitigate effects of climate change. We estimated the health impacts of implementing this urban model across Barcelona. METHODS: We carried out a quantitative health impact assessment (HIA) study for Barcelona residents ≥20 years (N = 1,301,827) on the projected Superblock area level (N = 503), following the comparative risk assessment methodology. We 1) estimated expected changes in (a) transport-related physical activity (PA), (b) air pollution (NO2), (c) road traffic noise, (d) green space, and (e) reduction of the urban heat island (UHI) effect through heat reductions; 2) scaled available risk estimates; and 3) calculated attributable health impact fractions. Estimated endpoints were preventable premature mortality, changes in life expectancy and economic impacts. RESULTS: We estimated that 667 premature deaths (95% CI: 235-1,098) could be prevented annually through implementing the 503 Superblocks. The greatest number of preventable deaths could be attributed to reductions in NO2 (291, 95% PI: 0-838), followed by noise (163, 95% CI: 83-246), heat (117, 95% CI: 101-137), and green space development (60, 95% CI: 0-119). Increased PA for an estimated 65,000 persons shifting car/motorcycle trips to public and active transport resulted in 36 preventable deaths (95% CI: 26-50). The Superblocks were estimated to result in an average increase in life expectancy for the Barcelona adult population of almost 200 days (95% CI: 99-297), and result in an annual economic impact of 1.7 billion EUR (95% CI: 0.6-2.8). DISCUSSION: The Barcelona Superblocks were estimated to help reduce harmful environmental exposures (i.e. air pollution, noise, and heat) while simultaneously increase PA levels and access to green space, and thereby provide substantial health benefits. For an equitable distribution of health benefits, the Superblocks should be implemented consistently across the entire city. Similar health benefits are expected for other cities that face similar challenges of environmental pollution, climate change vulnerability and low PA levels, by adopting the Barcelona Superblock model.

6.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(10): 1317-1328, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growing evidence exists about the fetal and environmental origins of hypertension, but mainly limited to single-exposure studies. The exposome has been proposed as a more holistic approach by studying many exposures simultaneously. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate the association between a wide range of prenatal and postnatal exposures and blood pressure (BP) in children. METHODS: Systolic and diastolic BP were measured among 1,277 children from the European HELIX (Human Early-Life Exposome) cohort aged 6 to 11 years. Prenatal (n = 89) and postnatal (n = 128) exposures include air pollution, built environment, meteorology, natural spaces, traffic, noise, chemicals, and lifestyles. Two methods adjusted for confounders were applied: an exposome-wide association study considering the exposures independently, and the deletion-substitution-addition algorithm considering all the exposures simultaneously. RESULTS: Decreases in systolic BP were observed with facility density (ß change for an interquartile-range increase in exposure: -1.7 mm Hg [95% confidence interval (CI): -2.5 to -0.8 mm Hg]), maternal concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl 118 (-1.4 mm Hg [95% CI: -2.6 to -0.2 mm Hg]) and child concentrations of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE: -1.6 mm Hg [95% CI: -2.4 to -0.7 mm Hg]), hexachlorobenzene (-1.5 mm Hg [95% CI: -2.4 to -0.6 mm Hg]), and mono-benzyl phthalate (-0.7 mm Hg [95% CI: -1.3 to -0.1 mm Hg]), whereas increases in systolic BP were observed with outdoor temperature during pregnancy (1.6 mm Hg [95% CI: 0.2 to 2.9 mm Hg]), high fish intake during pregnancy (2.0 mm Hg [95% CI: 0.4 to 3.5 mm Hg]), maternal cotinine concentrations (1.2 mm Hg [95% CI: -0.3 to 2.8 mm Hg]), and child perfluorooctanoate concentrations (0.9 mm Hg [95% CI: 0.1 to 1.6 mm Hg]). Decreases in diastolic BP were observed with outdoor temperature at examination (-1.4 mm Hg [95% CI: -2.3 to -0.5 mm Hg]) and child DDE concentrations (-1.1 mm Hg [95% CI: -1.9 to -0.3 mm Hg]), whereas increases in diastolic BP were observed with maternal bisphenol-A concentrations (0.7 mm Hg [95% CI: 0.1 to 1.4 mm Hg]), high fish intake during pregnancy (1.2 mm Hg [95% CI: -0.2 to 2.7 mm Hg]), and child copper concentrations (0.9 mm Hg [95% CI: 0.3 to 1.6 mm Hg]). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that early-life exposure to several chemicals, as well as built environment and meteorological factors, may affect BP in children.

7.
Environ Res ; 178: 108734, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539824

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Air pollution (AP) may affect neurodevelopment, but studies about the effects of AP on the growing human brain are still scarce. We aimed to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to AP on lateral ventricles (LV) and corpus callosum (CC) volumes in children and to determine whether the induced brain changes are associated with behavioral problems. METHODS: Among the children recruited through a set of representative schools of the city of Barcelona, (Spain) in the Brain Development and Air Pollution Ultrafine Particles in School Children (BREATHE) study, 186 typically developing participants aged 8-12 years underwent brain MRI on the same 1.5 T MR unit over a 1.5-year period (October 2012-April 2014). Brain volumes were derived from structural MRI scans using automated tissue segmentation. Behavioral problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the criteria of the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder DSM-IV list. Prenatal fine particle (PM2.5) levels were retrospectively estimated at the mothers' residential addresses during pregnancy with land use regression (LUR) models. To determine whether brain structures might be affected by prenatal PM2.5 exposure, linear regression models were run and adjusted for age, sex, intracranial volume (ICV), maternal education, home socioeconomic vulnerability index, birthweight and mothers' smoking status during pregnancy. To test for associations between brain changes and behavioral outcomes, negative binomial regressions were performed and adjusted for age, sex, ICV. RESULTS: Prenatal PM2.5 levels ranged from 11.8 to 39.5 µg/m3 during the third trimester of pregnancy. An interquartile range increase in PM2.5 level (7 µg/m3) was significantly linked to a decrease in the body CC volume (mm3) (ß = -53.7, 95%CI [-92.0, -15.5] corresponding to a 5% decrease of the mean body CC volume) independently of ICV, age, sex, maternal education, socioeconomic vulnerability index at home, birthweight and mothers' smoking status during the third trimester of pregnancy. A 50 mm3 decrease in the body CC was associated with a significant higher hyperactivity subscore (Rate Ratio (RR) = 1.09, 95%CI [1.01, 1.17) independently of age, sex and ICV. The statistical significance of these results did not survive to False Discovery Rate correction for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal exposure to PM2.5 may be associated with CC volume decrease in children. The consequences might be an increase in behavioral problems.

8.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(9): 97003, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although walking for travel can help in reaching the daily recommended levels of physical activity, we know relatively little about the correlates of walking for travel in the European context. OBJECTIVE: Within the framework of the European Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA) project, we aimed to explore the correlates of walking for travel in European cities. METHODS: The same protocol was applied in seven European cities. Using a web-based questionnaire, we collected information on total minutes of walking per week, individual characteristics, mobility behavior, and attitude (N=7,875). Characteristics of the built environment (the home and the work/study addresses) were determined with geographic information system (GIS)-based techniques. We conducted negative binomial regression analyses, including city as a random effect. Factor and principal component analyses were also conducted to define profiles of the different variables of interest. RESULTS: Living in high-density residential areas with richness of facilities and density of public transport stations was associated with increased walking for travel, whereas the same characteristics at the work/study area were less strongly associated with the outcome when the residential and work/study environments were entered in the model jointly. A walk-friendly social environment was associated with walking for travel. All three factors describing different opinions about walking (ranging from good to bad) were associated with increased minutes of walking per week, although the importance given to certain criteria to choose a mode of transport provided different results according to the criteria. DISCUSSION: The present study supports findings from previous research regarding the role of the built environment in the promotion of walking for travel and provides new findings to help in achieving sustainable, healthy, livable, and walkable cities. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4603.

9.
Eur Respir J ; 54(4)2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that air pollution may contribute to childhood asthma development. We estimated the burden of incident childhood asthma that may be attributable to outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter ≤2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC) in Europe. METHODS: We combined country-level childhood incidence rates and pooled exposure-response functions with childhood (age 1-14 years) population counts, and exposure estimates at 1 540 386 1 km×1 km cells, across 18 European countries and 63 442 419 children. Annual average pollutant concentrations were obtained from a validated and harmonised European land-use regression model. We investigated two exposure reduction scenarios. For the first, we used recommended annual World Health Organization (WHO) air quality guideline values. For the second, we used the minimum air pollution levels recorded across 41 studies in the underlying meta-analysis. RESULTS: NO2 ranged from 1.4 to 70.0 µg·m-3, with a mean of 11.8 µg·m-3. PM2.5 ranged from 2.0 to 41.1 µg·m-3, with a mean of 11.6 µg·m-3. BC ranged from 0.003 to 3.7×10-5 m-1, with a mean of 1.0×10-5 m-1. Compliance with the NO2 and PM2.5 WHO guidelines was estimated to prevent 2434 (0.4%) and 66 567 (11%) incident cases, respectively. Meeting the minimum air pollution levels for NO2 (1.5 µg·m-3), PM2.5 (0.4 µg·m-3) and BC (0.4×10-5 m-1) was estimated to prevent 135 257 (23%), 191 883 (33%) and 89 191 (15%) incident cases, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of childhood asthma cases may be attributable to outdoor air pollution and these cases could be prevented. Our estimates underline an urgent need to reduce children's exposure to air pollution.

10.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(8): 87001, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telomere length is a molecular marker of biological aging. OBJECTIVE: Here we investigated whether early-life exposure to residential air pollution was associated with leukocyte telomere length (LTL) at 8 y of age. METHODS: In a multicenter European birth cohort study, HELIX (Human Early Life Exposome) ([Formula: see text]), we estimated prenatal and 1-y childhood exposure to nitrogen dioxide ([Formula: see text]), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]), and proximity to major roads. Average relative LTL was measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Effect estimates of the association between LTL and prenatal, 1-y childhood air pollution, and proximity to major roads were calculated using multiple linear mixed models with a random cohort effect and adjusted for relevant covariates. RESULTS: LTL was inversely associated with prenatal and 1-y childhood [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] exposures levels. Each standard deviation (SD) increase in prenatal [Formula: see text] was associated with a [Formula: see text] (95% CI: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) change in LTL. Prenatal [Formula: see text] was nonsignificantly associated with LTL ([Formula: see text] per SD increase; 95% CI: [Formula: see text], 0.6). For each SD increment in 1-y childhood [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] exposure, LTL shortened by [Formula: see text] (95% CI: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] (95% CI: [Formula: see text], 0.1), respectively. Each doubling in residential distance to nearest major road during childhood was associated with a 1.6% (95% CI: 0.02, 3.1) lengthening in LTL. CONCLUSION: Lower exposures to air pollution during pregnancy and childhood were associated with longer telomeres in European children at 8 y of age. These results suggest that reductions in traffic-related air pollution may promote molecular longevity, as exemplified by telomere length, from early life onward. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4148.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263182

RESUMO

Scalable exposure assessment approaches that capture personal exposure to particles for purposes of epidemiology are currently limited, but valuable, particularly in low-/middle-income countries where sources of personal exposure are often distinct from those of ambient concentrations. We measured 2 × 24-h integrated personal exposure to PM2.5 and black carbon in two seasons in 402 participants living in peri-urban South India. Means (sd) of PM2.5 personal exposure were 55.1(82.8) µg/m3 for men and 58.5(58.8) µg/m3 for women; corresponding figures for black carbon were 4.6(7.0) µg/m3 and 6.1(9.6) µg/m3. Most variability in personal exposure was within participant (intra-class correlation ~20%). Personal exposure measurements were not correlated (Rspearman < 0.2) with annual ambient concentration at residence modeled by land-use regression; no subgroup with moderate or good agreement could be identified (weighted kappa ≤ 0.3 in all subgroups). We developed models to predict personal exposure in men and women separately, based on time-invariant characteristics collected at baseline (individual, household, and general time-activity) using forward stepwise model building with mixed models. Models for women included cooking activities and household socio-economic position, while models for men included smoking and occupation. Models performed moderately in terms of between-participant variance explained (38-53%) and correlations between predictions and measurements (Rspearman: 0.30-0.50). More detailed, time-varying time-activity data did not substantially improve the performance of the models. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of predicting personal exposure in support of epidemiological studies investigating long-term particulate matter exposure in settings characterized by solid fuel use and high occupational exposure to particles.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174273

RESUMO

Health Impact Assessments (HIAs) motivate effective measures for safeguarding public health. There is consensus that HIAs in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) are lacking, but no study systematically focuses on those that have been successfully conducted across all regions of the world, nor do they highlight factors that may enable or hinder their implementation. Our objectives are to (1) systematically review, geographically map, and characterize HIA activity in LMICs; and (2) apply a process evaluation method to identify factors which are important to improve HIA implementation in LMICs. A systematic review of peer-reviewed HIAs in 156 LMICs was performed in Scopus, Medline, Web of Science, Sociological abstracts, and LILACs (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences) databases. The search used PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines and covered HIAs across all type of interventions, topics, and health outcomes. HIAs were included if they reported a clear intervention and health outcome to be assessed. No time restriction was applied, and grey literature was not included. The eligible studies were subjected to six process evaluation criteria. The search yielded 3178 hits and 57 studies were retained. HIAs were conducted in 26 out of 156 countries. There was an unequal distribution of HIAs across regions and within LMICs countries. The leading topics of HIA in LMICs were air pollution, development projects, and urban transport planning. Most of the HIAs reported quantitative approaches (72%), focused on air pollution (46%), appraised policies (60%), and were conducted at the city level (36%). The process evaluation showed important variations in the way HIAs have been conducted and low uniformity in the reporting of six criteria. No study reported the time, money, and staff used to perform HIAs. Only 12% of HIAs were based on participatory approaches; 92% of HIAs considered multiple outcomes; and 61% of HIAs provided recommendations and fostered cross-national collaboration. The limited transparency in process, weak participation, and inconsistent delivery of recommendations were potential limitations to HIA implementation in low and middle-income countries. Scaling and improving HIA implementation in low and middle-income countries in the upcoming years will depend on expanding geographically by increasing HIA governance, adapting models and tools in quantitative methods, and adopting better reporting practices.

13.
Epidemiology ; 30 Suppl 1: S82-S89, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term air pollution exposure has been associated with increased risk of mortality and stroke. Less is known about the risk at lower concentrations. The association of long-term exposure to PM2.5, PM2.5 absorbance, NO2, and NOx with all-cause mortality and stroke was investigated in a cohort of men aged ≥ 65 years who lived in metropolitan Perth, Western Australia. METHODS: Land use regression models were used to estimate long-term exposure to air pollutants at participant's home address (n = 11,627) over 16 years. Different metrics of exposure were assigned: baseline; year before the outcome event; and average exposure across follow-up period. The Mortality Register and Hospital Morbidity Data from the Western Australia Data Linkage System were used to ascertain mortality and stroke cases. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for age, smoking, education, and body mass index for all-cause mortality. For fatal and hospitalized stroke, the models included variables controlled for all-cause mortality plus hypertension. RESULTS: Fifty-four percent of all-participants died, 3% suffered a fatal stroke, and 14% were hospitalized stroke cases. PM2.5 absorbance increased the risk of all-cause mortality with adjusted HR of 1.12 (1.02-1.23) for baseline and average exposures, and 1.14 (1.02-1.24) for past-year exposure. There were no associations between PM2.5 absorbance, NO2, and NOx and stroke outcomes. However, PM2.5 was associated with reduced risks of fatal stroke. CONCLUSION: Long-term exposure to PM2.5 absorbance was associated with all-cause mortality among older men exposed to low concentrations; and exposure to PM2.5 was associated with reduced risk of fatal stroke.

14.
Environ Int ; 128: 193-200, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059914

RESUMO

Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) is a complex mixture of compounds that contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases including several types of cancer, pulmonary, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and more recently also diabetes mellitus. In search of an early diagnostic biomarker for improved environmental health risk assessment, recent human studies have shown that certain extracellular miRNAs are altered upon exposure to TRAP. Here, we present a global circulating miRNA analysis in a human population exposed to different levels of TRAP. The cross-over study, with sampling taking place during resting and physical activity in two different exposure scenarios, included for each subject personal exposure measurements of PM10,PM2.5, NO, NO2, CO, CO2, BC and UFP. Next-generation sequencing technology was used to identify global circulating miRNA levels across all subjects. We identified 8 miRNAs to be associated with the mixture of TRAP and 27 miRNAs that were associated with the individual pollutants NO, NO2, CO, CO2, BC and UFP. We did not find significant associations between miRNA levels and PM10 or PM2.5. Integrated network analysis revealed that these circulating miRNAs are potentially involved in processes that are implicated in the development of air pollution-induced diseases. Altogether, this study demonstrates that signatures consisting of circulating miRNAs present a potential novel biomarker to be used in health risk assessment.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , MicroRNAs/sangue , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/análise , Biomarcadores/análise , Estudos Cross-Over , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121806

RESUMO

Exposure to natural outdoor environments (NOE) is associated with health benefits; however, evidence on the impact of NOE exposure during childhood on mental health (MH) and vitality in adulthood is scarce. This study was based on questionnaire data collected from 3585 participants, aged 18-75, in the PHENOTYPE project (2013) in four European cities. Mixed models were used to investigate associations between childhood NOE exposure and (i) MH; (ii) vitality (perceived level of energy and fatigue); and (iii) potential mediation by perceived amount, use, satisfaction, importance of NOE, and residential surrounding greenness, using pooled and city-level data. Adults with low levels of childhood NOE exposure had, when compared to adults with high levels of childhood NOE exposure, significantly worse mental health (coef. -4.13; 95% CI -5.52, -2.74). Childhood NOE exposure was not associated with vitality. Low levels of childhood NOE exposure were associated with lower importance of NOE (OR 0.81; 95% CI 0.66, 0.98) in adulthood. The association with perceived amount of NOE differed between cities. We found no evidence for mediation. Childhood NOE exposure might be associated with mental well-being in adulthood. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and to identify mechanisms underlying long-term benefits of childhood NOE exposure.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Lituânia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Países Baixos , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMJ Open ; 9(5): e023000, 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138578

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Dog owners walking their dog in natural outdoor environments (NOE) may benefit from the physical activity facilitated by dog walking and from time spent in nature. However, it is unclear whether dog owners receive additional health benefits associated with having access to NOE above the physical activity benefit of walking with their dog. We investigated associations between dog ownership, walking, time spent in NOE and health and whether these associations differed among those with good and poor access to NOE and those living in green and less green areas. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: The Positive Health Effects of the Natural Outdoor Environment in Typical Populations in Different Regions in Europe project. PARTICIPANTS: n=3586 adults from Barcelona (Spain), Doetinchem (the Netherlands), Kaunas (Lithuania) and Stoke-on-Trent (UK). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We calculated access to NOE with land maps and residential surrounding greenness with satellite data. Leisure time walking, time spent in NOE and general and mental health status were measured using validated questionnaires. Associations were estimated using multilevel analysis with a random intercept defined at the neighbourhood level. RESULTS: Dog ownership was associated with higher rates of leisure time walking and time spending in NOE (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.86 to 2.54 and 2.37, 95% CI 2.02 to 2.79, respectively). These associations were stronger in those living within 300 m of a NOE and in greener areas. No consistent associations were found between dog ownership and perceived general or mental health status. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with non-dog owners, dog owners walked more and spent more time in NOE, especially those living within 300 m of a NOE and in greener areas. The health implications of these relationships should be further investigated. In a largely physically inactive society, dog walking in NOE may be a simple way of promoting physical activity and health.

17.
Environ Res ; 174: 95-104, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055170

RESUMO

The human exposome affects child development and health later in life, but its personal external levels, variability, and correlations are largely unknown. We characterized the personal external exposome of pregnant women and children in eight European cities. Panel studies included 167 pregnant women and 183 children (aged 6-11 years). A personal exposure monitoring kit composed of smartphone, accelerometer, ultraviolet (UV) dosimeter, and two air pollution monitors were used to monitor physical activity (PA), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon, traffic-related noise, UV-B radiation, and natural outdoor environments (NOE). 77% of women performed the adult recommendation of ≥150 min/week of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), while only 3% of children achieved the childhood recommendation of ≥60 min/day MVPA. 11% of women and 17% of children were exposed to daily PM2.5 levels higher than recommended (≥25µg/m3). Mean exposure to noise ranged from Lden 51.1 dB in Kaunas to Lden 65.2 dB in Barcelona. 4% of women and 23% of children exceeded the recommended maximum of 2 Standard-Erythemal-Dose of UV-B at least once a week. 33% of women and 43% of children never reached the minimum NOE contact recommendation of ≥30 min/week. The variations in air and noise pollution exposure were dominated by between-city variability, while most of the variation observed for NOE contact and PA was between-participants. The correlations between all personal exposures ranged from very low to low (Rho < 0.30). The levels of personal external exposures in both pregnant women and children are above the health recommendations, and there is little correlation between the different exposures. The assessment of the personal external exposome is feasible but sampling requires from one day to more than one year depending on exposure due to high variability between and within cities and participants.

18.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(5): e11492, 2019 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sufficient sample size and minimal sample bias are core requirements for empirical data analyses. Combining opportunistic recruitment with a Web-based survey and data-collection platform yields new benefits over traditional recruitment approaches. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to report the success of different recruitment methods and obtain data on participants' characteristics, participation behavior, recruitment rates, and representativeness of the sample. METHODS: A longitudinal, Web-based survey was implemented as part of the European PASTA (Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches) project, between November 2014 and December 2016. During this period, participants were recruited from 7 European cities on a rolling basis. A standardized guide on recruitment strategy was developed for all cities, to reach a sufficient number of adult participants. To make use of the strengths and minimize weakness, a combination of different opportunistic recruitment methods was applied. In addition, the random sampling approach was applied in the city of Örebro. To reduce the attrition rate and improve real-time monitoring, the Web-based platform featured a participant's and a researchers' user interface and dashboard. RESULTS: Overall, 10,691 participants were recruited; most people found out about the survey through their workplace or employer (2300/10691, 21.51%), outreach promotion (2219/10691, 20.76%), and social media (1859/10691, 17.39%). The average number of questionnaires filled in per participant varied significantly between the cities (P<.001), with the highest number in Zurich (11.0, SE 0.33) and the lowest in Örebro (4.8, SE 0.17). Collaboration with local organizations, the use of Facebook and mailing lists, and direct street recruitment were the most effective approaches in reaching a high share of participants (P<.001). Considering the invested working hours, Facebook was one of the most time-efficient methods. Compared with the cities' census data, the composition of study participants was broadly representative in terms of gender distribution; however, the study included younger and better-educated participants. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that offering a mixed recruitment approach was highly effective in achieving a high participation rate. The highest attrition rate and the lowest average number of questionnaires filled in per participant were observed in Örebro, which also recruited participants through random sampling. These findings suggest that people who are more interested in the topic are more willing to participate and stay in a survey than those who are selected randomly and may not have a strong connection to the research topic. Although direct face-to-face contacts were very effective with respect to the number of recruited participants, recruiting people through social media was not only effective but also very time efficient. The collected data are based on one of the largest recruited longitudinal samples with a common recruitment strategy in different European cities.

19.
BMJ Open ; 9(4): e027289, 2019 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005938

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Studies suggest that access and exposure to green-blue spaces (GBS) have beneficial impacts on mental health. However, the evidence base is limited with respect to longitudinal studies. The main aim of this longitudinal, population-wide, record-linked natural experiment, is to model the daily lived experience by linking GBS accessibility indices, residential GBS exposure and health data; to enable quantification of the impact of GBS on well-being and common mental health disorders, for a national population. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This research will estimate the impact of neighbourhood GBS access, GBS exposure and visits to GBS on the risk of common mental health conditions and the opportunity for promoting subjective well-being (SWB); both key priorities for public health. We will use a Geographic Information System (GIS) to create quarterly household GBS accessibility indices and GBS exposure using digital map and satellite data for 1.4 million homes in Wales, UK (2008-2018). We will link the GBS accessibility indices and GBS exposures to individual-level mental health outcomes for 1.7 million people with general practitioner (GP) data and data from the National Survey for Wales (n=~12 000) on well-being in the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) Databank. We will examine if these associations are modified by multiple sociophysical variables, migration and socioeconomic disadvantage. Subgroup analyses will examine associations by different types of GBS. This longitudinal study will be augmented by cross-sectional research using survey data on self-reported visits to GBS and SWB. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: All data will be anonymised and linked within the privacy protecting SAIL Databank. We will be using anonymised data and therefore we are exempt from National Research Ethics Committee (NREC). An Information Governance Review Panel (IGRP) application (Project ID: 0562) to link these data has been approved.The research programme will be undertaken in close collaboration with public/patient involvement groups. A multistrategy programme of dissemination is planned with the academic community, policy-makers, practitioners and the public.

20.
Environ Int ; 127: 858-867, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is one of the leading chronic airway diseases among children in the United States (US). Emerging evidence indicates that Traffic Related Air Pollution (TRAP), as opposed to ambient air pollution, leads to the onset of childhood asthma. We estimated the number of incident asthma cases among children attributable to TRAP in the contiguous US, for the years 2000 and 2010. METHODS: The number of incident childhood asthma cases and percentage due to TRAP were estimated using standard burden of disease assessment methods. We combined children (<18 years) counts and pollutant exposures at populated US census blocks with a national asthma incidence rate and meta-analysis derived concentration response functions (CRF). NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 were used as surrogates of TRAP exposures, with NO2 being most specific. Annual average concentrations were obtained from previously validated land-use regression (LUR) models. Asthma incidence rate and a CRF for each pollutant were obtained from the literature. Estimates were stratified by urban or rural living and by median household income. We also estimated the number of preventable cases among blocks that exceeded the limit for two counterfactual scenarios. The first scenario used the recommended air quality annual averages from the World Health Organization (WHO) as a limit. The second scenario used the minimum modeled concentration for each pollutant, in either year, as a limit. RESULTS: Average concentrations in 2000 and 2010, respectively, were 20.6 and 13.2 µg/m3 for NO2, 12.1 and 9 µg/m3 for PM2.5 and 21.5 and 17.9 µg/m3 for PM10. Attributable number of cases ranged between 209,100-331,200 for the year 2000 and 141,900-286,500 for 2010, depending on the pollutant. Asthma incident cases due to TRAP represented 27%-42% of all cases in 2000 and 18%-36% in 2010. Percentage of cases due to TRAP were higher (1) in urban areas than rural areas, and (2) in block groups with lowest median household income. Online open-access interactive maps and tables summarizing findings at the county level and 498 major US cities, are available at [https://carteehdata.org/l/s/TRAP-burden-of-childhood-asthma]. Assuming that pollutants did not exceed WHO air quality recommendations, the number of incident cases that could have been prevented ranged between 300 and 53,400, depending on the pollutant and year. Assuming that pollutant levels were limited to the minimum modeled concentration, the number of childhood asthma incident cases that could have been prevented ranged between 127,700 and 317,600, depending on the pollutant and year. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to estimate the burden of incident childhood asthma attributable to TRAP at a national scale in the US. The attributable burden of childhood asthma dropped by 33% between 2000 and 2010. However, a significant proportion of cases can be prevented.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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