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1.
NPJ Schizophr ; 4(1): 16, 2018 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30131491

RESUMO

Epigenetic changes may account for the doubled risk to develop schizophrenia in individuals exposed to famine in utero. We therefore investigated DNA methylation in a unique sample of patients and healthy individuals conceived during the great famine in China. Subsequently, we examined two case-control samples without famine exposure in whole blood and brain tissue. To shed light on the causality of the relation between famine exposure and DNA methylation, we exposed human fibroblasts to nutritional deprivation. In the famine-exposed schizophrenia patients, we found significant hypermethylation of the dual specificity phosphatase 22 (DUSP22) gene promoter (Chr6:291687-293285) (N = 153, p = 0.01). In this sample, DUSP22 methylation was also significantly higher in patients independent of famine exposure (p = 0.025), suggesting that hypermethylation of DUSP22 is also more generally involved in schizophrenia risk. Similarly, DUSP22 methylation was also higher in two separate case-control samples not exposed to famine using DNA from whole blood (N = 64, p = 0.03) and postmortem brains (N = 214, p = 0.007). DUSP22 methylation showed strong genetic regulation across chromosomes by a region on chromosome 16 which was consistent with new 3D genome interaction data. The presence of a direct link between famine and DUSP22 transcription was supported by data from cultured human fibroblasts that showed increased methylation (p = 0.048) and expression (p = 0.019) in response to nutritional deprivation (N = 10). These results highlight an epigenetic locus that is genetically regulated across chromosomes and that is involved in the response to early-life exposure to famine and that is relevant for a major psychiatric disorder.

2.
Mol Psychiatry ; 23(5): 1145-1156, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28630453

RESUMO

In order to determine the impact of the epigenetic response to traumatic stress on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), this study examined longitudinal changes of genome-wide blood DNA methylation profiles in relation to the development of PTSD symptoms in two prospective military cohorts (one discovery and one replication data set). In the first cohort consisting of male Dutch military servicemen (n=93), the emergence of PTSD symptoms over a deployment period to a combat zone was significantly associated with alterations in DNA methylation levels at 17 genomic positions and 12 genomic regions. Evidence for mediation of the relation between combat trauma and PTSD symptoms by longitudinal changes in DNA methylation was observed at several positions and regions. Bioinformatic analyses of the reported associations identified significant enrichment in several pathways relevant for symptoms of PTSD. Targeted analyses of the significant findings from the discovery sample in an independent prospective cohort of male US marines (n=98) replicated the observed relation between decreases in DNA methylation levels and PTSD symptoms at genomic regions in ZFP57, RNF39 and HIST1H2APS2. Together, our study pinpoints three novel genomic regions where longitudinal decreases in DNA methylation across the period of exposure to combat trauma marks susceptibility for PTSD.

3.
Mol Psychiatry ; 23(3): 666-673, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28439101

RESUMO

The Psychiatric Genomics Consortium-Posttraumatic Stress Disorder group (PGC-PTSD) combined genome-wide case-control molecular genetic data across 11 multiethnic studies to quantify PTSD heritability, to examine potential shared genetic risk with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder and to identify risk loci for PTSD. Examining 20 730 individuals, we report a molecular genetics-based heritability estimate (h2SNP) for European-American females of 29% that is similar to h2SNP for schizophrenia and is substantially higher than h2SNP in European-American males (estimate not distinguishable from zero). We found strong evidence of overlapping genetic risk between PTSD and schizophrenia along with more modest evidence of overlap with bipolar and major depressive disorder. No single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) exceeded genome-wide significance in the transethnic (overall) meta-analysis and we do not replicate previously reported associations. Still, SNP-level summary statistics made available here afford the best-available molecular genetic index of PTSD-for both European- and African-American individuals-and can be used in polygenic risk prediction and genetic correlation studies of diverse phenotypes. Publication of summary statistics for ∼10 000 African Americans contributes to the broader goal of increased ancestral diversity in genomic data resources. In sum, the results demonstrate genetic influences on the development of PTSD, identify shared genetic risk between PTSD and other psychiatric disorders and highlight the importance of multiethnic/racial samples. As has been the case with schizophrenia and other complex genetic disorders, larger sample sizes are needed to identify specific risk loci.

4.
Mol Psychiatry ; 20(12): 1538-45, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25754082

RESUMO

The molecular factors involved in the development of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) remain poorly understood. Previous transcriptomic studies investigating the mechanisms of PTSD apply targeted approaches to identify individual genes under a cross-sectional framework lack a holistic view of the behaviours and properties of these genes at the system-level. Here we sought to apply an unsupervised gene-network based approach to a prospective experimental design using whole-transcriptome RNA-Seq gene expression from peripheral blood leukocytes of U.S. Marines (N=188), obtained both pre- and post-deployment to conflict zones. We identified discrete groups of co-regulated genes (i.e., co-expression modules) and tested them for association to PTSD. We identified one module at both pre- and post-deployment containing putative causal signatures for PTSD development displaying an over-expression of genes enriched for functions of innate-immune response and interferon signalling (Type-I and Type-II). Importantly, these results were replicated in a second non-overlapping independent dataset of U.S. Marines (N=96), further outlining the role of innate immune and interferon signalling genes within co-expression modules to explain at least part of the causal pathophysiology for PTSD development. A second module, consequential of trauma exposure, contained PTSD resiliency signatures and an over-expression of genes involved in hemostasis and wound responsiveness suggesting that chronic levels of stress impair proper wound healing during/after exposure to the battlefield while highlighting the role of the hemostatic system as a clinical indicator of chronic-based stress. These findings provide novel insights for early preventative measures and advanced PTSD detection, which may lead to interventions that delay or perhaps abrogate the development of PTSD.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Imunidade Inata/genética , Militares , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/genética , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
5.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 51: 495-505, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25444643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a major public health concern, especially given the recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Nevertheless, despite a sharp increase in the incidence of psychiatric disorders in returning veterans, empirically based prevention strategies are still lacking. To develop effective prevention and treatment strategies, it is necessary to understand the underlying biological mechanisms contributing to PTSD and other trauma related symptoms. METHODS: The "Marine Resiliency Study II" (MRS-II; October 2011-October 2013) Neurocognition project is an investigation of neurocognitive performance in Marines about to be deployed to Afghanistan. As part of this investigation, 1195 Marines and Navy corpsmen underwent a fear conditioning and extinction paradigm and psychiatric symptom assessment prior to deployment. The current study assesses (1) the effectiveness of the fear potentiated startle paradigm in producing fear learning and extinction and (2) the association of performance in the paradigm with baseline psychiatric symptom classes (healthy: n=923, PTSD symptoms: n=42, anxiety symptoms: n=37, and depression symptoms: n=12). RESULTS: Results suggest that the task was effective in producing differential fear learning and fear extinction in this cohort. Further, distinct patterns emerged differentiating the PTSD and anxiety symptom classes from both healthy and depression classes. During fear acquisition, the PTSD symptom group was the only group to show deficient discrimination between the conditioned stimulus (CS+) and safety cue (CS-), exhibiting larger startle responses during the safety cue compared to the healthy group. During extinction learning, the PTSD symptom group showed significantly less reduction in their CS+ responding over time compared to the healthy group, as well as reduced extinction of self-reported anxiety to the CS+ by the end of the extinction session. Conversely, the anxiety symptom group showed normal safety signal discrimination and extinction of conditioned fear, but exhibited increased baseline startle reactivity and potentiated startle to CS+, as well as higher self-reported anxiety to both cues. The depression symptom group showed similar physiological and self-report measures as the healthy group. DISCUSSION: These data are consistent with the idea that safety signal discrimination is a relatively specific marker of PTSD symptoms compared to general anxiety and depression symptoms. Further research is needed to determine if deficits in fear inhibition vs. exaggerated fear responding are separate biological "domains" across anxiety disorders that may predict differential biological mechanisms and possibly treatment needs. Future longitudinal analyses will examine whether poor learning of safety signals provides a marker of vulnerability to develop PTSD or is specific to symptom state.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Extinção Psicológica/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Militares/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Medo/fisiologia , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Masculino , Reflexo de Sobressalto/fisiologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Adulto Jovem
6.
Mol Psychiatry ; 18(3): 340-6, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22212596

RESUMO

We conducted a systematic study of top susceptibility variants from a genome-wide association (GWA) study of bipolar disorder to gain insight into the functional consequences of genetic variation influencing disease risk. We report here the results of experiments to explore the effects of these susceptibility variants on DNA methylation and mRNA expression in human cerebellum samples. Among the top susceptibility variants, we identified an enrichment of cis regulatory loci on mRNA expression (eQTLs), and a significant excess of quantitative trait loci for DNA CpG methylation, hereafter referred to as methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTLs). Bipolar disorder susceptibility variants that cis regulate both cerebellar expression and methylation of the same gene are a very small proportion of bipolar disorder susceptibility variants. This finding suggests that mQTLs and eQTLs provide orthogonal ways of functionally annotating genetic variation within the context of studies of pathophysiology in brain. No lymphocyte mQTL enrichment was found, suggesting that mQTL enrichment was specific to the cerebellum, in contrast to eQTLs. Separately, we found that using mQTL information to restrict the number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms studied enhances our ability to detect a significant association. With this restriction a priori informed by the observed functional enrichment, we identified a significant association (rs12618769, P(bonferroni)<0.05) from two other GWA studies (TGen+GAIN; 2191 cases and 1434 controls) of bipolar disorder, which we replicated in an independent GWA study (WTCCC). Collectively, our findings highlight the importance of integrating functional annotation of genetic variants for gene expression and DNA methylation to advance the biological understanding of bipolar disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Cerebelo/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Metilação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
7.
Genes Brain Behav ; 10(8): 852-61, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21781277

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BD) is characterized by disruptions in circadian rhythms such as sleep and daily activity that often normalize after lithium treatment in responsive patients. As lithium is known to interact with the circadian clock, we hypothesized that variation in circadian 'clock genes' would be associated with lithium response in BD. We determined genotype for 16 variants in seven circadian clock genes and conducted a candidate gene association study of these in 282 Caucasian patients with BD who were previously treated with lithium. We found that a variant in the promoter of NR1D1 encoding Rev-Erbα (rs2071427) and a second variant in CRY1 (rs8192440) were nominally associated with good treatment response. Previous studies have shown that lithium regulates Rev-Erbα protein stability by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK3ß). We found that GSK3ß genotype was also suggestive of a lithium response association, but not statistically significant. However, when GSK3ß and NR1D1 genotypes were considered together, they predicted lithium response robustly and additively in proportion to the number of response-associated alleles. Using lymphoblastoid cell lines from patients with BD, we found that both the NR1D1 and GSK3ß variants are associated with functional differences in gene expression. Our findings support a role for Rev-Erbα in the therapeutic mechanism of lithium and suggest that the interaction between Rev-Erbα and GSK3ß may warrant further study.


Assuntos
Antimaníacos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Carbonato de Lítio/uso terapêutico , Membro 1 do Grupo D da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Relógios Circadianos/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização do Ritmo Circadiano/genética , DNA Complementar/biossíntese , DNA Complementar/isolamento & purificação , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Estudos de Associação Genética , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA/biossíntese , RNA/isolamento & purificação
8.
Am J Primatol ; 50(1): 9-24, 2000 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10588432

RESUMO

Knowledge of the social organization of lemurs is still limited for most species. Where there is sufficient information, it has been shown that lemur social organization differs in essential points from that of other primates. In the field study reported here, demographic structure and life-history processes were investigated in order to characterize the social organization of the Alaotran gentle lemur (Hapalemur griseus alaotrensis). Data were obtained through captures and observations. Alaotran gentle lemurs were found in small groups of up to nine individuals. Although most groups contained just one breeding female, a substantial proportion of groups (35%) had two breeding females. Therefore, Alaotran gentle lemurs cannot be classed as being organized in monogamous family groups. An extended birth season was found, and groups with two breeding females had significantly higher breeding output per adult than groups with a single adult female. Limited data suggest that females emigrate from their natal group while still subadult, whereas males can stay in the natal group until they are fully grown and disperse as adults. Variability in group composition, significantly higher reproductive output per adult in groups with two breeding females, and delayed dispersal of males suggest that Alaotran gentle lemurs pursue a resource-defense mating strategy, rather than a female-defense mating strategy. The suggestion that extant social lemurs may have evolved from a monogamous system, could explain the differences between lemur social systems and those of other primates.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Lemur/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual , Comportamento Social , Animais , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Lemur/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Madagáscar , Masculino , Dinâmica Populacional , Estações do Ano
9.
Physiol Behav ; 65(4-5): 849-54, 1999 Jan 1-15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10073491

RESUMO

Among haplorhine primates, the highly specialized Callitrichidae (marmosets and tamarins) are expected to have comparatively high reproductive costs, a feature that might be related to the evolution of a cooperative breeding system. Costs of reproduction in captivity were investigated on the basis of changes in energy intake and body weight during pregnancy and lactation in pair-living female and male common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). The experimental design had little effect on carrying behavior, food intake, and body weight of adults, but a negative transitory effect of offspring body weight. Increased energetic requirements during pregnancy did not result in a higher energy intake in females. During lactation, females increased their energy intake up to 100% and gradually lost weight, suggesting even higher costs. Extensive carrying behavior by males, on the other hand, did not result in an increased energy intake in males, or in changes in male body weight. It is suggested that, at least in captivity, increased energetic demands during reproduction are reduced by behavior allocations towards energetically less expensive behaviors.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Callithrix , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Estro/fisiologia , Feminino , Lactação/fisiologia , Masculino , Gravidez
10.
Am J Primatol ; 46(3): 251-8, 1998.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9802514

RESUMO

During a 3 month field study, 18 group encounters between four groups of Alaotran gentle lemurs (Hapalemur griseus alaotrensis) were observed in the Lake Alaotra marshland in Madagascar. Behaviors observed during group encounters are described, and quantitative data on intergroup interactions and ranging patterns are discussed in the context of territoriality. Intergroup interactions varied in their intensity, ranging from visual monitoring, scent marking, and display locomotion to penetrating the neighboring range. A quarter (27%) of the encounters were aggressive, involving chases and confrontation displays, and no affiliative interactions were observed. Both adult males and females were involved in intergroup encounters, with males playing more active roles. All encounters took place in the small overlapping areas of neighboring home ranges. The outcome of an aggressive encounter was determined by its location, with the resident group always driving out the intruding one. The Alaotran gentle lemur actively advertised and consistently defended a large area of its home range against intrusion of neighboring groups and can therefore be considered territorial.


Assuntos
Lemuridae/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Territorialidade , Animais , Feminino , Madagáscar , Masculino
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