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Poult Sci ; 98(12): 6772-6786, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250025


This study investigated the hypothesis that dietary supplementation of leucine (Leu) above actual recommendations activates protein synthesis and inhibits protein degradation pathways on the molecular level and supports higher muscle growth in broilers. Day-old male Cobb-500 broilers (n = 180) were allotted to 3 groups and phase-fed 3 different corn-wheat-soybean meal-based basal diets during periods 1 to 10, 11 to 21, and 22 to 35 D. The control group (L0) received the basal diet which met the broiler's requirements of nutrients and amino acids for maintenance and growth. Groups L1 and L2 received basal diets supplemented with Leu to exceed recommendations by 35 and 60%, respectively, and isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val) were supplemented to keep Leu: Ile and Leu: Val ratios fixed. Samples of liver and breast muscle and pancreas were collected on days 10, 21, and 35. The gene expression and abundance of total and phosphorylated proteins involved in the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway of protein synthesis, in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and autophagy-lysosomal pathway of protein degradation, in the general control nonderepressible 2/eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2A pathway involved in the inhibition of protein synthesis, and in the myostatin-Smad2/3 pathway involved in myogenesis were evaluated in the muscle, as well as expression of genes involved in the growth hormone axis. Growth performance, feed intake, the feed conversion ratio, and carcass weights did not differ between the 3 groups (P > 0.05). Plasma concentrations of Leu, Ile, and Val and of their keto acids, and the activity of the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase in the pancreas increased dose dependently with increasing dietary Leu concentrations. In the breast muscle, relative mRNA abundances of genes and phosphorylation of selected proteins involved in all investigated pathways were largely uninfluenced by dietary Leu supplementation (P > 0.05). In summary, these data indicate that excess dietary Leu concentrations do not influence protein synthesis or degradation pathways, and subsequently do not increase muscle growth in broilers at fixed ratios to Ile and Val.

Arch Anim Nutr ; 73(2): 75-87, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30821190


The present study investigated the hypothesis that dietary concentrations of leucine (Leu) in excess of the breeder´s recommendations activates protein synthesis and decreases protein degradation in muscle of broilers. Day-old male Ross 308 broilers (n = 450) were phase-fed corn-soybean meal-based diets during starter (d 1-10), grower (d 11-22), and finisher (d 23-34) period. The basal diets fed to the control group (L0) met the broilers' requirements for nutrients and amino acids, and contained Leu, Leu:isoleucine (Ile) and Leu:valine (Val) ratios, close to those recommended by the breeder (Leu:Ile: 100:54, 100:52, 100:51; Leu:Val 100:64, 100:61, 100:58; in starter, grower and finisher diet, resp.). Basal diets were supplemented with Leu to exceed the breeder's recommendations by 35% (group L35) and 60% (group L60). Growth performance during 34 d, and carcass weights, and breast and thigh muscle weights on d 34 were similar among groups. Hepatic and muscle mRNA levels of genes involved in the somatotropic axis [growth hormone receptor, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF binding protein 2, IGF receptor] on d 34 were not influenced by Leu. In the breast muscle, relative mRNA abundances of genes involved in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway of protein synthesis (mTOR, ribosomal p70 S6 kinase) and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway of protein degradation (F-box only protein 32, Forkhead box protein O1, Muscle RING-finger protein-1) on d 34 were largely similar among groups. Likewise, relative phosphorylation and thus activation of mTOR and ribosomal protein S6 involved in the mTOR pathway, and of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2A (eIF2a) involved in the general control nonderepressible 2 (GCN2)/eIF2a pathway of protein synthesis inhibition, were not influenced. These data indicate that dietary Leu concentrations exceeding the broiler´s requirements up to 60% neither influence protein synthesis nor degradation pathways nor muscle growth in growing broilers.

Galinhas/fisiologia , Isoleucina/farmacologia , Leucina/farmacologia , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Valina/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Composição Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoleucina/administração & dosagem , Leucina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Proteínas Musculares/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Valina/administração & dosagem , Ganho de Peso