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1.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 69(8): 11-12, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472804

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a significant complication of severe chronic liver insufficiency characterized by altered sensorium, motor, and cognitive dysfunction. This was a cross-sectional multicenter, epidemiological study to understand the prescribing pattern for primary prophylaxis of overt HE (OHE) in patients with cirrhosis in India. METHODS: The study was conducted at eight centers across different geographical regions of India. A total of 200 patients (100%) were screened, of which 197 (98.50%) met all the inclusion criteria. The prescribing pattern of the physicians was studied by calculating the percentage (subject to availability of sufficient data) of OHE-naïve patients with cirrhosis who were prescribed with different classes of drugs as primary prophylaxis of HE (such as lactulose, rifaximin, neomycin, sodium benzoate, and L-ornithine L- aspartate). The risk factors responsible for initiation of primary prophylaxis of HE was also determined. RESULTS: All the 197 patients (100%) were prescribed with prophylactic treatment. The factors that were considered by treating physicians to pose a risk for precipitating OHE for which prophylaxis was initiated were constipation in 111 (56.35%), infections in 51 (25.89%) and gastrointestinal bleeding in 35 (17.77%). Of the total 197 patients, 122 (61.93%) patients were prescribed a monotherapy, and 75 (38.07%) were prescribed a combination therapy. Of the patients on combination therapy, 68 (34.52%) patients were prescribed with two primary prophylaxis agents (dual therapy), and seven (3.55%) patients were prescribed with three primary prophylaxis agents (triple therapy). Lactulose was the most commonly prescribed agent for primary prophylaxis, followed by rifaximin. CONCLUSION: These findings may guide recommendations on primary prophylaxis for OHE in patients with liver cirrhosis that may help reduce the occurrence of first episode of overt HE, and thereby prevent subsequent cognitive impairment in these patients.


Assuntos
Encefalopatia Hepática , Estudos Transversais , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Encefalopatia Hepática/epidemiologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/etiologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactulose/uso terapêutico , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico
2.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 69(4): 11-12, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470190

RESUMO

AIMS: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by impaired gut-brain interaction. Considering the paucity of evidence in the Indian setting, the current study was conducted to determine the sociodemographics, clinical profiles, management practices, and patients' perception among newly diagnosed patients with IBS. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, single-visit, observational, non-interventional, epidemiological study conducted across 12 centres. The primary objective was evaluation of sociodemographic and clinical profiles. The key secondary objective was assessment of gastrointestinal symptom severity including evaluation of anxiety and depression using the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) scores. Knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) were evaluated as an exploratory objective. RESULTS: Out of 300 enrolled patients, 120 (40%) were aged 31-45 years (mean age: 38.55±12.45 years), and 204 were men (68%). Overall, 40% of patients belonged to the upper-middle-class, with a Kuppuswamy score of 16-25. Most patients (91%) did not work in night shifts. Only 13% of patients performed more than recommended physical activity. Stress and food were the leading triggers for IBS (29%). Abdominal pain and diarrhoea as cardinal symptoms were reported by 43.3% and 33.0% patients, respectively. Borderline abnormal anxiety and depression were reported by 21.3% and 26.7% of patients, respectively. KAP assessment revealed that 56.0% of patients had poor knowledge, 26.3% had moderate knowledge, and 17.7% had good knowledge about IBS; nevertheless, 43% of patients maintained high levels of precaution towards managing symptoms. CONCLUSION: Given the limited knowledge about IBS in India among newly diagnosed patients, strategies to enhance awareness about the condition are warranted.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Indian Pediatr ; 58(7): 683-684, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315834

RESUMO

We did cross-sectional study for normal values of amino-transferases in school children aged 2- 18 years. Median (IQR) AST and ALT values in study subjects were 30 (27- 34) U/L and 23 (19-29) U/L. We also provided age-and sex-related percentiles of aminotransferases of children. We observed a peak of median AST serum values in the age group 6-8 years followed by continuous decline with increasing age. While in ALT, we observed maximum values in age group 2-5 years followed by continuous decline. There was a statistically significant difference in values of amino-transferases between sexes.


Assuntos
Estudos Transversais , Alanina Transaminase , Aspartato Aminotransferases , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Valores de Referência
4.
Lancet ; 397(10292): 2372-2384, 2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global prevalence of ulcerative colitis is increasing, and induction and maintenance of remission is a crucial therapeutic goal. We assessed the efficacy and safety of filgotinib, a once-daily, oral Janus kinase 1 preferential inhibitor, for treatment of ulcerative colitis. METHODS: This phase 2b/3, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial including two induction studies and one maintenance study was done in 341 study centres in 40 countries. Eligible patients were aged 18-75 years with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis for at least 6 months before enrolment (induction study A: inadequate clinical response, loss of response to or intolerance to corticosteroids or immunosuppressants, naive to tumour necrosis factor [TNF] antagonists and vedolizumab [biologic-naive]; induction study B: inadequate clinical response, loss of response to or intolerance to any TNF antagonist or vedolizumab, no TNF antagonist or vedolizumab use within 8 weeks before screening [biologic-experienced]). Patients were randomly assigned 2:2:1 to receive oral filgotinib 200 mg, filgotinib 100 mg, or placebo once per day for 11 weeks. Patients who had either clinical remission or a Mayo Clinic Score response at week 10 in either induction study entered the maintenance study. Patients who received induction filgotinib were rerandomised 2:1 to continue their induction filgotinib regimen or to placebo. Patients who received induction placebo continued receiving placebo. The primary endpoint was clinical remission by Mayo endoscopic, rectal bleeding, and stool frequency subscores at weeks 10 and 58. For the induction studies, efficacy was assessed in all randomised patients who received at least one dose of study drug or placebo within that study. For the maintenance study, efficacy was assessed in all patients randomised to any filgotinib treatment group in the induction studies who received at least one dose of study drug or placebo in the maintenance study. Patients who received placebo throughout the induction and maintenance study were not included in the full analysis set for the maintenance study. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of the study drug or placebo within each study. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02914522. FINDINGS: Between Nov 14, 2016, and March 31, 2020, we screened 2040 patients for eligibility. 659 patients enrolled in induction study A were randomly assigned to receive filgotinib 100 mg (n=277), filgotinib 200 mg (n=245), or placebo (n=137). 689 patients enrolled into induction study B were randomly assigned to receive filgotinib 100 mg (n=285), filgotinib 200 mg (n=262), or placebo (n=142). 34 patients in induction study A and 54 patients in induction study B discontinued the study drug before week 10. After efficacy assessment at week 10, 664 patients entered the maintenance study (391 from induction study A, 273 from induction study B). 93 patients continued to receive placebo. 270 patients who had received filgotinib 100 mg in the induction study were randomly assigned to receive filgotinib 100 mg (n=179) or placebo (n=91). 301 patients who had received filgotinib 200 mg in the induction study were randomly assigned to receive filgotinib 200 mg (n=202) or placebo (n=99). 263 patients discontinued treatment in the maintenance study. At week 10, a greater proportion of patients given filgotinib 200 mg had clinical remission than those given placebo (induction study A 26·1% vs 15·3%, difference 10·8%; 95% CI 2·1-19·5, p=0·0157; induction study B 11·5% vs 4·2%, 7·2%; 1·6-12·8, p=0·0103). At week 58, 37·2% of patients given filgotinib 200 mg had clinical remission versus 11·2% in the respective placebo group (difference 26·0%, 95% CI 16·0-35·9; p<0·0001). Clinical remission was not significantly different between filgotinib 100 mg and placebo at week 10, but was significant by week 58 (23·8% vs 13·5%, 10·4%; 0·0-20·7, p=0·0420). The incidence of serious adverse events and adverse events of interest was similar between treatment groups. In the induction studies, serious adverse events occurred in 28 (5·0%) of 562 patients given filgotinib 100 mg, 22 (4·3%) of 507 patients given filgotinib 200 mg, and 13 (4·7%) of 279 patients given placebo. In the maintenance study, serious adverse events were reported in eight (4·5%) of 179 patients given filgotinib 100 mg, seven (7·7%) of 91 patients in the respective placebo group, nine (4·5%) of 202 patients in the filgotinib 200 mg group, and no patients in the respective placebo group. No deaths were reported during either induction study. Two patients died during the maintenance study; neither was related to treatment. INTERPRETATION: Filgotinib 200 mg was well tolerated, and efficacious in inducing and maintaining clinical remission compared with placebo in patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis. FUNDING: Gilead Sciences.

5.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 11(3): 288-298, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33994711

RESUMO

Background: Etiology of and outcomes following idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) vary geographically. We conducted a prospective study of DILI in India, from 2013 to 2018 and summarize the causes, clinical features, outcomes and predictors of mortality. Methods: We enrolled patients with DILI using international DILI expert working group criteria and Roussel Uclaf causality assessment method. Follow-up was up to 3 months from onset of DILI or until death. Multivariate logistics regression was carried out to determine predictors of non-survival. Results: Among 1288 patients with idiosyncratic DILI, 51.4% were male, 68% developed jaundice, 68% required hospitalization and 8.2% had co-existing HIV infection. Concomitant features of skin reaction, ascites, and encephalopathy (HE) were seen in 19.5%, 16.4%, and 10% respectively. 32.4% had severe disease. Mean MELD score at presentation was 18.8 ± 8.8. Overall mortality was 12.3%; 65% in those with HE, 17.6% in patients who fulfilled Hy's law, and 16.6% in those that developed jaundice. Combination anti-TB drugs (ATD) 46.4%, complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) 13.9%, anti-epileptic drugs (AED) 8.1%, non-ATD antimicrobials 6.5%, anti-metabolites 3.8%, anti-retroviral drugs (ART)3.5%, NSAID2.6%, hormones 2.5%, and statins 1.4% were the top 9 causes. Univariate analysis identified, ascites, HE, serum albumin, bilirubin, creatinine, INR, MELD score (p < 0.001), transaminases (p < 0.04), and anti-TB drugs (p = 0.02) as predictors of non-survival. Only serum creatinine (p = 0.017), INR (p < 0.001), HE (p < 0.001), and ascites (p = 0.008), were significantly associated with mortality on multivariate analysis. ROC yielded a C-statistic of 0.811 for MELD and 0.892 for combination of serum creatinine, INR, ascites and HE. More than 50 different agents were associated with DILI. Mortality varied by drug class: 15% with ATD, 13.6% with CAM, 15.5% with AED, 5.8% with antibiotics. Conclusion: In India, ATD, CAM, AED, anti-metabolites and ART account for the majority of cases of DILI. The 3-month mortality was approximately 12%. Hy's law, presence of jaundice or MELD were predictors of mortality.

6.
Saudi J Gastroenterol ; 27(3): 136-143, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33642357

RESUMO

Background: Drotaverine and Mebeverine are used for alleviating the pain of IBS, but the evidence for their efficacy is scarce. In this randomised control study, we evaluated and compared their efficacy in improving severity, frequency of pain and its associated symptoms. Methods: Patients fulfilling the ROME III criteria of IBS were evaluated in this randomised control trial during 4 weeks of treatment. Group A (n = 100) received 80 mg Drotaverine and Group B (n = 100) received 135 mg Mebeverine three times a day, 1 hour before meals. Primary outcome measure was, the reduction in severity of pain (>30% reduction) assessed by VAS (0 to 10 scale) & PSS (patient symptoms scores). Results: The pain severity score fell from 6.02 to 4.8 on day 3 in Group A as compared to decrease from 6.72 to 6.62 in Group B (p < 0.01). This significant reduction in pain severity was observed till the end of the study, reducing from 6.02 to 1.78 (74% reduction) in Group A compared to 6.72 to 3.62 (46.1% reduction) in Group B (p < 0.05). There was a significant reduction in pain frequency, straining on stool, a change in one score in Bristol stool chart (BSC), achievement of complete spontaneous smooth bowel movement in Group A, compared to Group B patients. A significant improvement in Patient's evaluation of Global Assessment of Symptoms (p < 0.05) and Patient Assessment of Constipation - Quality Of Life (PAC-QOL) (p < 0.01) was observed in Group A compared to Group B. Conclusion: Drotaverine was significantly superior in efficacy as compared to Mebeverine in alleviating pain severity (starting from day 3), frequency and stools-elated symptoms of IBS.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/tratamento farmacológico , Papaverina/análogos & derivados , Fenetilaminas/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Intest Res ; 19(2): 206-216, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The national registry for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was designed to study epidemiology and prescribing pattern of treatment of IBD in India. METHODS: A multicenter, cross-sectional, prospective registry was established across four geographical zones of India. Adult patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD) were enrolled between January 2014 and December 2015. Information related to demographics; disease features; complications; and treatment history were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 3,863 patients (mean age, 36.7 ± 13.6 years; 3,232 UC [83.7%] and 631 CD [16.3%]) were enrolled. The majority of patients with UC (n = 1,870, 57.9%) were from north, CD was more common in south (n = 348, 55.5%). The UC:CD ratio was 5.1:1. There was a male predominance (male:female = 1.6:1). The commonest presentation of UC was moderately severe (n = 1,939, 60%) and E2 disease (n = 1,895, 58.6%). Patients with CD most commonly presented with ileocolonic (n = 229, 36.3%) inflammatory (n = 504, 79.9%) disease. Extraintestinal manifestations were recorded among 13% and 20% of patients in UC and CD respectively. Less than 1% patients from both cohorts developed colon cancer (n = 26, 0.7%). The commonly used drugs were 5-aminosalicylates (99%) in both UC and CD followed by azathioprine (34.4%). Biologics were used in only 1.5% of patients; more commonly for UC in north and CD in south. CONCLUSIONS: The national IBD registry brings out diversities in the 4 geographical zones of India. This will help in aiding research on IBD and improving quality of patient care.

9.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 10(4): 290-295, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655231

RESUMO

Introduction: Celiac disease (CD) has been linked to portal hypertension (PHT) of varied etiology, but the causality association has never been proved. We aim to study the prevalence of CD in patients of PHT of different etiology. Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted from June 2017 to December 2018 involving all the cases of PHT of varied etiology. Consecutive patients of PHT with chronic liver disease (CLD) of defined etiology like ethanol, viral hepatitis (B or C), Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS), autoimmune-related cirrhosis, and cryptogenic CLD (cCLD) (group A) and those with noncirrhotic PHT (NCPHT), which included noncirrhotic portal fibrosis (NCPF) and extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO) (group B), were screened for CD by IgA anti-tTG antibody followed by duodenal biopsy in serology-positive patients. Results: Out of a total of 464 patients, group A constituted 382 patients, CLD related to ethanol (155), cCLD (147), hepatitis B (42), hepatitis C (21), autoimmune (10), and BCS (7), whereas 82 patients were in group B with NCPF (64) and EHPVO (18). Total 29 patients were diagnosed with CD in both groups, 17 in group A (4.5%) and 12 in group B (14.6%). In group A, 13 patients with cCLD, two with HBV-related CLD, one with BCS, and one with autoimmune-related CLD were concomitantly diagnosed as CD. In group B, CD was diagnosed in 12 patients of NCPF (11) and EHPVO (1). Liver histology showed chronic hepatitis in two patients and was normal in three patients. Conclusion: CD is common in PHT of different etiology, especially in cCLD, NCPH and autoimmune hepatitis; however, the etiological basis for this association is still to be defined. The likelihood of CD is higher in liver disease than the general population, and these patients should be screened for CD.

12.
Endosc Int Open ; 8(3): E407-E412, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118114

RESUMO

Background and study aims Pseudoaneurysms are usually associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. There are limited data in the literature on endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided thrombin injection for pseudoaneurysms. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of EUS-guided thrombin injection for pseudoaneurysms. Patients and methods This prospective study was conducted in our department between January and December 2018. All patients with symptomatic visceral artery pseudoaneurysms, who were unable to undergo angioembolization, were enrolled consecutively. Data related to demography, laboratory parameters, radiological imaging, pseudoaneurysms, and endotherapy were analyzed. Results Eight patients with median age 34 years (27-58 years), all men, were studied. The vessel involved was the splenic artery in 5 patients (62.5 %), the left hepatic artery in 2 (25 %), and the gastroduodenal artery in 1 patient (12.5%). The median size of the pseudoaneurysms was 2.9 cm × 2.6 cm (range, 1.8 × 1.9-4 × 5 cm). The median thrombin requirement was 400 IU (range, 200-500 IU) for loss of Doppler flow signals. EUS after 3 months showed obliterated pseudoaneurysms in 7 patients (87.5 %), while recurrence was observed in 1 patient (12.5 %) after 6 weeks. Conclusions EUS-guided thrombin injection may be a new option for the management of pseudoaneurysms.

13.
Indian J Radiol Imaging ; 29(2): 111-132, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367083

RESUMO

The Indian Society of Gastroenterology (ISG) Task Force on Inflammatory Bowel Disease and the Indian Radiological and Imaging Association (IRIA) developed combined ISG-IRIA evidence-based best-practice guidelines for imaging of the small intestine in patients suspected to have or having Crohn's disease. The 29 consensus statements, developed through a modified Delphi process, are intended to serve as reference for teaching, clinical practice, and research.

14.
Indian J Gastroenterol ; 38(3): 220-246, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352652

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: These Asian Working Group guidelines on diet in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) present a multidisciplinary focus on clinical nutrition in IBD in Asian countries. METHODOLOGY: The guidelines are based on evidence from existing published literature; however, if objective data were lacking or inconclusive, expert opinion was considered. The conclusions and 38 recommendations have been subject to full peer review and a Delphi process in which uniformly positive responses (agree or strongly agree) were required. RESULTS: Diet has an important role in IBD pathogenesis, and an increase in the incidence of IBD in Asian countries has paralleled changes in the dietary patterns. The present consensus endeavors to address the following topics in relation to IBD: (i) role of diet in the pathogenesis; (ii) diet as a therapy; (iii) malnutrition and nutritional assessment of the patients; (iv) dietary recommendations; (v) nutritional rehabilitation; and (vi) nutrition in special situations like surgery, pregnancy, and lactation. CONCLUSIONS: Available objective data to guide nutritional support and primary nutritional therapy in IBD are presented as 38 recommendations.


Assuntos
Dieta , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/dietoterapia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/etiologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Ásia , Consenso , Gorduras na Dieta , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/cirurgia , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Desnutrição/etiologia , Período Pós-Operatório
15.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 9(2): 215-220, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31024204

RESUMO

Background/aims: Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute hepatic inflammation associated with high morbidity and mortality. Treatment with steroids is known to decrease short-term mortality in severe AH patients. Hence, we hypothesize that adrenal insufficiency can be associated with severe AH and affects prognosis. The aim of this study was (1) to evaluate relative adrenal insufficiency (RAI) in patients with AH and (2) to Compare RAI with the severity of AH. Methods: Newly diagnosed cases of AH hospitalized in SMS Medical College and Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology were, enrolled. All patients of AH were classified as mild and severe AH on the basis of Maddrey discriminant function (DF). After baseline serum cortisol, 25 IU ACTH (Adreno Corticotrophic Hormone) was injected intramuscularly and blood sample was collected after 1 h and assessed for serum cortisol. RAI was defined as <7 µg increase in the cortisol level from baseline. RAI was compared with severity of AH. Results: Of 120 patients of AH, 58 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, in which 48 patients were diagnosed as severe AH and 10 patients were diagnosed as mild AH. In patients with severe AH, the baseline mean serum cortisol level was significantly high as compared with mild AH; 26 patients (54.16 %) of 48 patients with severe AH showed RAI (P ≤ 0.001).Whereas in patients with mild AH, none of patients showed RAI. RAI also showed negative correlation with DF. There was no difference in RAI with respect to acute kidney injury (AKI). Conclusion: RAI is a common entity in patients with severe AH, and it is related with the severity of disease.

17.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 9(6): 699-703, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31889750

RESUMO

Background: The present study is planned to assess etiologies, course, and outcome in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). Methods: Two hundred and eight (182 males and 26 females) patients of ACLF fulfilling modified Asia Pacific Association For Study Of Liver Consensus criteria 2009 admitted to the gastroenterology department of SMS Medical College and hospital, Jaipur, between October 2015 and December 2017 were included. We evaluated etiology of underlying chronic disease and the acute event precipitating decompensation in ACLF. Results: Most common etiology of chronic liver disease (CLD) was alcohol with 133 (63.94 %) patients. Viral hepatitis, cryptogenic cirrhosis, autoimmunity, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and Wilson disease as causes of CLD were present in 32 (15.4%), 29 (13.94%), 9 (4.3%), 3 (1.4%), and 2 (1%) cases, respectively. Alcohol, sepsis, bleeding, reactivation of hepatitis B, hepatitis E, antitubercular drugs, and autoimmune hepatitis as the causes of acute event were present in 100 (48.08%), 34 (16.35%), 19 (9.1%), 17 (8.2 %), 15 (7.2%), 13 (6.25%), and 2 (0.96%) patients, respectively. In 8 (3.85%) patients, the precipitating event could not be known. Mortality (in-hospital) in this study was 37.5%. Higher model for end-stage liver disease score and high Child-Turcotte-Pugh score score were significantly associated with mortality (P <0.001). Patients with higher ACLF grade were associated with higher mortality. Alcohol as a cause of CLD was significantly associated with mortality (p=0.0146, 95% confidence interval between 3.802 and 30.979). There was no significant difference regarding acute precipitating events between survivors and nonsurvivors. Conclusions: Alcohol was the most common cause for chronic etiology as well as acute precipitating event. Alcohol as a cause of CLD was significantly associated with mortality.

18.
Indian J Gastroenterol ; 37(4): 321-325, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30196518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human thrombin appears to be a new effective tool in the armamentarium of management of bleeding gastric varices, but there are paucity of data on its use. Thus, we share our experience with human thrombin in the treatment of bleeding gastric varices. METHODS: It was a prospective interventional study conducted between September 2015 and December 2017. Patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding from gastric varices were included, while patients with previous history of cyanoacrylate glue injection or band ligation were excluded. RESULTS: A total of 20 patients including 13 males (mean age 32.65 [18-52] years) presenting with gastric variceal bleeding requiring endoscopic injection of human thrombin were studied. The underlying diagnosis was cirrhosis in 8 patients, and extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis, noncirrhotic portal fibrosis, and chronic pancreatitis in 6, 4, and 2 patients, respectively. Isolated gastric varices were found in 6 patients while 14 patients had gastroesophageal varices (GOV) (GOV1-3, GOV2-11). Patients received 1 to 3 sessions (mean = 1.3) of thrombin with a mean total dose of 700 IU (range = 500-2000 IU). Mean follow up was 16.8 months (range 3-28 months). Hemostasis in the acute setting was successfully managed in all the 20 patients on initial presentation. On serial follow up, 4 out of 20 patients required repeat endoscopic session for gastric varices. No thrombin injection-related complication was recorded. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic therapy with thrombin appears safe and effective in the management of bleeding gastric varices.


Assuntos
Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Hemostase Endoscópica/métodos , Hemostáticos/administração & dosagem , Trombina/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Indian J Gastroenterol ; 37(3): 271-275, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29971689

RESUMO

Visceral artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare and potentially life-threatening vascular entity with a high mortality rate, conventionally managed with digital subtraction angiography with coil embolization or surgery. However, in cases where angiographic coil embolization is not possible due to technical reasons, computerized tomography (CT)/ultrasonography-guided thrombin injection remains a viable option as described in the literature. In this case series, we intend to highlight the role of endoscopic ultrasound-guided thrombin injection in the management of abdominal visceral artery pseudoaneurysm, which is either inaccessible by endovascular route or have high surgical risk of complication.


Assuntos
Falso Aneurisma/diagnóstico por imagem , Falso Aneurisma/terapia , Endossonografia , Trombina/administração & dosagem , Vísceras/irrigação sanguínea , Adulto , Humanos , Injeções Intralesionais/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Indian J Gastroenterol ; 37(3): 196-201, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29948994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metronidazole is a drug of choice for amebic liver abscess (ALA), but has long course and significant side effects. Thus, drugs like tinidazole with a better tolerability record need evaluation. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial at the Department of Gastroenterology, SMS Hospital, Jaipur, India. One hundred and fifty admitted patients were randomized into two treatment groups, metronidazole (group M, n = 75) and tinidazole (group T, n = 75). Patients were observed for clinical response, laboratory parameters, imaging, and side effects. Early clinical response (ECR) was defined as the absence of fever and abdominal pain within 72 h of treatment. Symptomatic clinical response (SCR) was defined as the absence of fever and abdominal pain irrespective of duration of treatment required. Follow up was done at 1, 3, and 6 months. RESULTS: ECR was 62.3% in group T vs. 37.7% in group M (p = 0.02). SCR was shorter in group T than group M (3.29 ± 1.61 days vs. 5.67 ± 2.93, p ≤ 0.001). Mean residual volume at the end of 1 month was lower in group T (130.7 ± 108.1 vs. 184.7 ± 143.3 mL, p = 0.01) and no significant difference was seen at 3 and 6 months. Tinidazole was better tolerated with fewer side effects. Low socioeconomic status, baseline abscess volume > 500 mL, hypoalbuminemia, pleural effusion, and history of ethanol use were associated with a late clinical response on univariate analysis of which low socioeconomic status was the only associated factor. CONCLUSION: Tinidazole, as compared to metronidazole, has early clinical response, shorter treatment course, favorable rate of recovery, and high tolerability; thus, tinidazole can be preferred over metronidazole in ALA.


Assuntos
Amebicidas/administração & dosagem , Abscesso Hepático Amebiano/tratamento farmacológico , Metronidazol/administração & dosagem , Tinidazol/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adulto , Amebicidas/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas , Masculino , Metronidazol/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Tinidazol/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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