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Elife ; 82019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763980


The human face represents a combined set of highly heritable phenotypes, but knowledge on its genetic architecture remains limited, despite the relevance for various fields. A series of genome-wide association studies on 78 facial shape phenotypes quantified from 3-dimensional facial images of 10,115 Europeans identified 24 genetic loci reaching study-wide suggestive association (p < 5 × 10-8), among which 17 were previously unreported. A follow-up multi-ethnic study in additional 7917 individuals confirmed 10 loci including six unreported ones (padjusted < 2.1 × 10-3). A global map of derived polygenic face scores assembled facial features in major continental groups consistent with anthropological knowledge. Analyses of epigenomic datasets from cranial neural crest cells revealed abundant cis-regulatory activities at the face-associated genetic loci. Luciferase reporter assays in neural crest progenitor cells highlighted enhancer activities of several face-associated DNA variants. These results substantially advance our understanding of the genetic basis underlying human facial variation and provide candidates for future in-vivo functional studies.

Face/anatomia & histologia , Loci Gênicos/genética , Desenvolvimento Maxilofacial/genética , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Padronização Corporal/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Ontologia Genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(6): 895-902, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26508577


The global demand for products that effectively prevent the development of male-pattern baldness (MPB) has drastically increased. However, there is currently no established genetic model for the estimation of MPB risk. We conducted a prediction analysis using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified from previous GWASs of MPB in a total of 2725 German and Dutch males. A logistic regression model considering the genotypes of 25 SNPs from 12 genomic loci demonstrates that early-onset MPB risk is predictable at an accuracy level of 0.74 when 14 SNPs were included in the model, and measured using the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUC). Considering age as an additional predictor, the model can predict normal MPB status in middle-aged and elderly individuals at a slightly lower accuracy (AUC 0.69-0.71) when 6-11 SNPs were used. A variance partitioning analysis suggests that 55.8% of early-onset MPB genetic liability can be explained by common autosomal SNPs and 23.3% by X-chromosome SNPs. For normal MPB status in elderly individuals, the proportion of explainable variance is lower (42.4% for autosomal and 9.8% for X-chromosome SNPs). The gap between GWAS findings and the variance partitioning results could be explained by a large body of common DNA variants with small effects that will likely be identified in GWAS of increased sample sizes. Although the accuracy obtained here has not reached a clinically desired level, our model was highly informative for up to 19% of Europeans, thus may assist decision making on early MPB intervention actions and in forensic investigations.

Alopecia/genética , Genótipo , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único